PS Chapter 1 Review. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

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1 Name: Class: Date: ID: A PS Chapter 1 Review Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The two main branches of science are a. physics and chemistry. c. natural and physical science. b. natural and social science. d. biological and earth science. 2. Which of the following is not a branch of biology? a. geology c. zoology b. ecology d. medicine 3. The main branches of natural science are a. physics and chemistry. c. medicine and agriculture. b. biology, zoology, and ecology. d. life, physical, and earth science. 4. Technology can best be defined as a. science that uses computers. c. applied science. b. new inventions. d. the use of lenses and microscopes. 5. Pure science is best defined as the a. continuing search for new knowledge. b. use of science to solve human problems. c. study of the makeup of living things. d. application of scientific knowledge. 6. What do scientists who do pure science do? a. They look for ways to use scientific knowledge to solve problems. b. They develop new uses for scientific knowledge. c. They do experiments to find out about the world. d. They build faster and more powerful computers. 7. A scientific theory is an explanation that a. has been published in a journal or book. b. predicts what will happen. c. has been tested by many observations. d. a scientist has tested with an experiment. 8. For a scientific theory to be valid, it must allow you to a. perform experiments. c. find a new, more complex explanation. b. obtain new results each time. d. make predictions. 9. A scientific model is a a. representation of a real event or object. b. small building used to conduct experiments. c. mathematical statement of a theory. d. new theory that takes the place of an incorrect one. 10. Scientific theories can be changed or replaced when a. new technology is invented. b. new discoveries are made. c. scientists decide to work on different problems. d. scientists make models of events or objects. 1

2 Name: ID: A 11. Scientists use computer models to study complicated events and to a. perform experiments. c. change theories and laws. b. state theories. d. make predictions. 12. A series of logical steps that is followed in order to solve a problem is called the a. experimental process. c. scientific method. b. scientific theory. d. model method. 13. The first step in the scientific method is usually a. making an observation. c. collecting data. b. forming a hypothesis. d. testing a hypothesis. 14. Scientists test a hypothesis by a. formulating questions. c. doing experiments. b. designing models. d. drawing conclusions. 15. What does it mean to say that no experiment is a failure? a. All experiments are observations of real events. b. All experiments yield the desired results. c. All experiments give scientists work to do. d. All experiments involve manipulating variables. 16. Which instrument has been used to detect the oldest, most distant objects in the solar system? a. light telescope c. particle accelerator b. spectroscope d. radio telescope 17. Which question cannot be answered by an experiment? a. Does penicillin kill Salmonella bacteria? b. Is rabies caused by a virus? c. Did a comet impact kill the dinosaurs? d. Can radiation cause cancer? 18. The SI unit for measuring temperature is the a. degree. c. mole. b. kelvin. d. ampere. 19. Which SI prefix means one million? a. kilo- c. gigab. mega- d. milli- 20. Which SI prefix means one one-hundredth (1 100)? a. nano- c. millib. micro- d. centi- 21. Maria is 123 centimeters tall. Her height in meters is a m. c m. b m. d m. 22. A loaf of bread weighs 1362 g. The weight in kilograms is a kg. c kg. b kg. d kg. 23. The force with which gravity pulls on a quantity of matter is referred to as a. mass. c. volume. b. length. d. weight. 2

3 Name: ID: A 24. At which time of day was the temperature approximately 5 C? a. 9:00 A.M. c. 11:00 A.M. b. 10:00 A.M. d. 12:00 P.M. 25. At which two times of day was the temperature the same? a. 7:00 A.M. and 7:00 P.M. c. 10:00 A.M. and 7:00 P.M. b. 7:00 A.M. and 10:00 P.M. d. 10:00 A.M. and 10:00 P.M. 26. The sample contained the same number of pennies for which two years? a and 1992 c and 1997 b and 1991 d and

4 Name: ID: A 27. For which year was the smallest number of pennies found? a c b d The decimal equivalent of 10 2 is a c b. 10. d What is 78,900,000,000 expressed in scientific notation? a c b d The speed of light is approximately m/s. How would this be written in conventional notation? a. 300,000 m s c. 30,000,000 m s b. 3,000,000 m s d. 300,000,000 m s 31. You are asked to find the area of a room that is 4.56 m long and m wide. How many significant figures should you show in your answer? a. 3 c. 6 b. 5 d You are asked to find the volume of a cube that is 2.5 cm high, 2.65 cm wide, and cm long. How many significant figures should you show in your answer? a. 1 c. 3 b. 2 d What is the area of a room that is cm long and cm wide? a cm 2 c cm 2 b cm 2 d cm A precise measurement is one that a. contains the correct number of significant figures. b. contains at least three significant figures. c. is close to the true value. d. is as exact as possible. 35. A measurement that is accurate is one that a. is as exact as possible. c. contains at least four significant figures. b. is close to the true value. d. contains five decimal places. Completion Complete each statement. 36. Chemistry and physics are the two branches of science. 37. Wilhelm Roentgen discovered while he was investigating cathode rays. 38. Life science, physical science, and earth science make up science. 39. Pure science is the continuing search for scientific. 40. The application of science for practical purposes is referred to as. 41. Scientists depend on to find practical uses for their discoveries. 42. A theory is a scientific for a phenomenon based on observation, experimentation, and reasoning. 4

5 Name: ID: A 43. A description of a scientific law would use a mathematical equation. 44. Theories are sometimes replaced as a result of new. 45. A mathematical representation of an object or event is a. 46. Scientists use models to represent real situations and to make. 47. The scientific method gives scientists a way to their thinking about a problem or question. 48. A possible answer to a scientific problem is called a. 49. To view objects that are very small, a scientist would use a. 50. Any factor in an experiment that can change is referred to as a. 51. Physicists use to make pieces of atoms move extremely fast and collide with one another. 52. Scientists test a hypothesis by making. 53. Length, mass, time, and temperature, are four of the seven SI. 54. Combinations of the SI base units, which are used to measure quantities such as volume, speed, and pressure, are called. 55. In the SI system, the prefix means one billion. 56. In the SI system, the prefix means one millionth. Composition of the Atmosphere 57. The most abundant gas in the atmosphere is. 58. The proportion of oxygen in the atmosphere is closest to percent. 5

6 Name: ID: A 59. graphs are most effective at displaying data that change continuously. 60. The best kind of graph to make to show the density of a number of different substances would be a. 61. The number has significant figures. 62. The number has significant figures. 63. The extent to which a measurement approaches the true value is referred to as. 64. Although a measurement of cm is very, it may not be accurate. Problem cm equals m g equals kg. 67. The number would be written as 3.4 times in scientific notation. 68. In scientific notation, the number 46,500,000 would be written. 69. The number would be written in scientific notation as. 70. The number 56,780,000,000 would be written in scientific notation as. Essay 71. List and explain the steps in the scientific method by using one of the famous discoveries described in the chapter as an example. 72. As science has progressed, the branches of science have merged together. Explain this statement. 73. Explain why a scientific theory might be changed or replaced. Give an example of a law that was changed. 74. Describe the relationship between science and technology, and give an example of how they are related. 75. What does it mean to say that no experiment is a failure? Do you agree or disagree? Why? 76. Why are organizing and presenting data important scientific skills? 77. Explain why scientists use scientific notation. 78. That measurement is very precise, but it is still not accurate. Explain how this statement might be true. 6

7 PS Chapter 1 Review Answer Section MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 1 2. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 1 STA: P ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 1 4. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 1 5. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 1 STA: P ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 1 STA: P.6.1 P.6.2 P ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 1 OBJ: 3 STA: P.1.2 P ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 1 OBJ: 3 STA: P ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 1 OBJ: 4 STA: P ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 1 OBJ: 3 STA: P.4.2 P ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 1 OBJ: 4 STA: P ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 2 STA: P ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 2 STA: P.1.1 C ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 2 OBJ: 3 STA: P.1.1 C ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 2 STA: C ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 2 OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 2 OBJ: 5 STA: P.1.1 C ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 2 OBJ: 5 1

8 21. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 2 OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 2 OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 2 OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 3 STA: P ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 3 STA: P ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 3 OBJ: 3 STA: P ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 3 OBJ: 3 STA: P ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 3 STA: P ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 3 OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 3 OBJ: 4 COMPLETION 36. ANS: physical PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: X-rays PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: ANS: natural PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 1 2

9 39. ANS: knowledge PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: technology PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: engineers PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 1 STA: P ANS: explanation PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 1 OBJ: ANS: quantitative PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 1 OBJ: 3 STA: P.5.3 C ANS: discoveries PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 1 OBJ: 3 STA: P.5.2 C ANS: model PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 1 OBJ: 4 C ANS: predictions PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 1 OBJ: 4 STA: P.2.2 C ANS: organize PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 2 STA: C ANS: hypothesis PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 2 STA: C ANS: light microscope PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 2 OBJ: 3 STA: C ANS: variable PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 2 P.2.2 C.1.2 3

10 51. ANS: particle accelerators PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 2 OBJ: 3 P.2.2 C ANS: observations PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 2 P.2.2 C ANS: base units PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 2 OBJ: ANS: derived units PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 2 OBJ: 4 STA: P ANS: giga- PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 2 OBJ: 5 STA: P ANS: micro- PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 2 OBJ: ANS: nitrogen PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 3 STA: P ANS: 20 PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 3 STA: P ANS: Line PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: ANS: bar graph PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 3 STA: P ANS: four PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 3 OBJ: 3 STA: C ANS: five PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 3 OBJ: 3 4

11 63. ANS: accuracy PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 3 OBJ: ANS: precise PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: 3 OBJ: 4 PROBLEM 65. ANS: 3.75 PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 2 OBJ: ANS: PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 2 OBJ: ANS: 10 3 PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 3 STA: P ANS: PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 3 STA: P ANS: PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: ANS: PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 3 5

12 ESSAY 71. ANS: Wilhelm Roentgen was investigating the properties of cathode rays. He wondered if the rays could pass through a glass tube (question). He designed an apparatus to test this (collect data). He found that the rays were visible much longer than he expected. This caused him to formulate a new question and a new series of observations to determine what the new rays were. PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: 1 2 STA: P ANS: As more discoveries are made about the nature of matter and energy, different sciences become interconnected. For example, biochemistry studies the chemistry of living things. Geophysics studies the forces that affect the earth. PTS: 1 DIF: 3 REF: ANS: Scientific laws need to be changed as new discoveries are made. For example, caloric theory seemed to explain heat until the effects of friction were discovered. Then a new theory, kinetic theory, was developed to include the new information. PTS: 1 DIF: 3 REF: 1 OBJ: 3 STA: P ANS: Science involves making discoveries about the world, and technology involves finding practical uses for those discoveries. Sometimes science precedes technology, and sometimes it s the other way around. For example, microorganisms were not discovered until usable lenses were invented. PTS: 1 DIF: 3 REF: 1 STA: P ANS: No experiment is a failure because, even if an experiment does not give the expected results, its results will lead to new questions and new observations. [Student should give a reason for the opinion expressed.] PTS: 1 DIF: 3 REF: 2 STA: P ANS: Scientists need to read and find out about other scientists work so they know what questions to ask and what observations to test. To do this, data must be presented and organized clearly and logically. PTS: 1 DIF: 3 REF: 3 STA: P.1.1 6

13 77. ANS: Scientists often need to express data using numbers that are very small or very large. Scientific notation, which eliminates a lot of zeroes and expresses numbers in terms of powers of 10, helps them do this efficiently. PTS: 1 DIF: 3 REF: ANS: Suppose you were measuring a room. You might measure the length at m. This is a very precise measurement. However, if you wrote down the numbers incorrectly and the actual length was , your measurement would not be accurate. PTS: 1 DIF: 3 REF: 3 OBJ: 4 7

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