APPENDIX I SI AND ENGLISH UNITS AND CONVERSION FACTORS


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1 APPENDIX I SI AND ENGLISH UNITS AND CONVERSION FACTORS The International System of Units (Systéme International d Unités, or SI) recognizes seven basic units from which all others are derived. They are: No. Quantity Name of Unit Symbol 1 length meter m 2 mass kilogram kg 3 time second s 4 electric current ampere A 5 temperature kelvin K 6 luminous intensity candela cd 7 amount of substance mole mol Multiples of units are designated by the following names: Amount Prefix Symbol Amount Prefix Symbol 10 1 deca da 10 1 deci d 10 2 hecto h 10 2 centi c 10 3 kilo k 10 3 milli m 10 6 mega M 10 6 micro 10 9 giga G 10 9 nano n This appendix presents the SI and English (imperial) units, which are used in various areas of transportation engineering, and their conversion factors. Some metric units and factors that are not listed in the SI but are commonly used and remain internationally recognized are also included. Examples are the units of centimeter (10 2 m), hour ( s) and kilowatthour (3.6 MJ) and multiples of 10, 10 2,10 1, and Urban Transit Systems and Technology. Vukan R. Vuchic Copyright 2007 John Wiley &Sons, Inc. ISBN:
2 566 APPENDIX I For more extensive coverage of units, the following book is suggested: Cardarelli, Francois. Scientific Unit Conversion. New York: SpringerVerlag, Units and conversion factors within and between the two systems of measures are presented here for each dimension in a separate box. The format followed for each dimension is shown in the first box: DIMENSION SI unit (symbol) English unit (symbol) Conversion factors (for conversion in the direction of the arrow, multiply by the number provided) LENGTH millimeter (mm) centimeter (cm) meter (m) kilometer (km) inch (in. ") foot (ft. ') yard (yd) mile (mi) 10 3 mm = 10 2 cm = 1 m 10 3 m = 1 km mm m m km in. ft yd mi 36 in. = 3 ft = 1 yd 5280 ft = 1760 yd = 1 mi
3 APPENDIX I 567 AREA square millimeter (mm 2 ) square centimeter (cm 2 ) square meter (m 2 ) hectare (ha) square kilometer (km 2 ) 10 6 mm 2 = 10 4 cm 2 = 1 m m 2 = 10 2 ha = 1 km 2 cm in. 2 m ft 2 m yd 2 ha acre km mi 2 square inch (in 2 ) square foot (ft 2 ) square yard (yd 2 ) acre square mile (mi 2 ) 1296 in. 2 = 9 ft 2 = 1 yd 2 3,097,600 yd 2 = 640 acres = 1 mi 2 cubic millimeter (mm 3 ) cubic centimeter (cm 3 or cc) liter (L) cubic meter (m 3 ) 10 6 mm 3 = 10 3 cm 3 = 1 L 10 6 cm 3 = 10 3 L = 1 m 3 VOLUME cm in. 3 L gal m ft 3 m yd 3 cubic inch (in. 3 ) quart (qt) gallon* (g) cubic foot (ft 3 ) cubic yard (yd 3 ) 46,656 in. 3 = 27 ft 3 = 1 yd 3 4 qt = 1 gal = 231 in. 3 1 qt = in. 3
4 568 APPENDIX I MASS gram (g) kilogram (kg) (metric) tone or tonne (t) 10 3 g = 1 kg 10 3 kg = 1 t g kg t t oz lb tn ltn ounce (oz) pound (lb), pounds mass (lbm) (short) ton (tn + or stn), long ton (ltn) 16 oz = 1 lb 2000 lb = 1 tn 2240 lb = 1.12 tn = 1 ltn DENSITY grams/cubic centimeter (g/cm 3 ) grams/liter (g/l) kilograms/cubic meter (kg/m 3 ) 10 3 kg/m 3 = 10 3 g/l = 1 g/cm 3 cm 3 L m in. 3 gal ft 3 ounces/cubic inch (oz/in. 3 ) pounds/cubic inch (lb/in. 3 ) pounds/cubic foot (lb/ft 3 ) 16 oz/in. 3 = 1 lb/in. 3 = 1728 lb/ft 3 meters/second (m/s) kilometers/hour (km/h) SPEED feet/second (ft/s) miles/hour (mph) 10 m/s = 3.6 km/h m/s km/h ft/s mph 88 ft/s = 60 mph (exact) ( ft/s = 1 mph)
5 APPENDIX I 569 meters per second squared (m/s 2 ) (km/h/s is not used) g = m/s 2 ACCELERATION feet per second squared (ft/s 2 ) miles per hour per second (mphps) g = ft / s 2 1 mphps = ft/s 2 m/s ft/s 2 m/s mphps JERK meters per second cubed (m/s 3 ) feet per second cubed (ft/s 3 ) Factors are the same as the corresponding ones for acceleration. FORCE, WEIGHT dyne (dyn) newton (N) kilonewton (kn) (metric) ton or tonne (t) (not in SI) 10 8 dynes = 10 N = 1 kn Force = mass acceleration 1 N = 1 kg m/s 2 N kn ounce (oz) pound force (lbf) 10 3 pounds (kip) (short) ton force (tnf or s.tnf ) 3200 oz = 2000 lbf = 1 tnf Force = weight acceleration gravity const. (g c ) lbf tnf g c = lbm ft lbf s 2
6 570 APPENDIX I LINEAL MASS* kilograms per meter (kg/m) kg/m lb/yd pounds per yard (lb/yd) *Common use in transportation: mass of rails. pascal (Pa) kilogram force per square meter (kgf/m 2 ) 1 kgf/m 2 = Pa Pa *Often used for area weight of vehicles. PRESSURE* Pa 6, lbf/ft 2 pounds force per square inch (lbf/in. 2 ) (psi) pounds force per square foot (lbf/ft 2 ) psi FUEL CONSUMPTION (C) (C) liters per 100 kilometers AND EFFICIENCY (E) * (L/100 km) (C) joules per kilometer (J/km) (E) kilometers per liter (km/l) m/s ft/s km/h mph km/h mph (C) gallons per mile (gpm, gal/mi) (C) British thermal units per mile (Btu/mi) (E) miles per gallon (mpg, mi/gal)
7 APPENDIX I 571 ENERGY erg joule (J) British thermal unit (BTU) footpound force (ftlbf) 10 7 ergs = 1 J J J Joint units: watthours (Wh) kilowatthours (kwh) 10 3 Wh = 1 kwh Btu ftlbf 1 Btu = ftlbf = hph J kwh 10 6 ftlbf ergs per second horsepower (metric) (HP) POWER footpounds force per second (ftlbf/s) horsepower (British) (hp) 1 HP (metric) = 75 kgm/s Joint units: 1 hp (British) = 550 ftlbf/s watt (W) [1 W = 1 J /s 10 7 ergs/s] kilowatt (kw) HP (metric) kw hp (British) dynecentimeter (dyncm) newtonmeter (Nm) 10 7 dyncm = 1 Nm TORQUE inchpounds force (in.lbf) footpounds force (ftlbf) 12 in. lbf = 1 ftlbf Nm ftlbf
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