# Time-Domain Solution of LTI State Equations. 2 State-Variable Response of Linear Systems

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1 2.14 Analysis and Design of Feedback Control Systems Time-Domain Solution of LTI State Equations Derek Rowell October 22 1 Introduction This note examines the response of linear, time-invariant models expressed in the standard state -equation form: ẋ Ax + Bu (1) y Cx + Du. (2) that is, as a set of coupled, first-order differential equations. The solution proceeds in two steps; first the state-variable response x(t) is found by solving the set of first-order state equations, Eq. (1), and then the state response is substituted into the algebraic output equations, Eq. (2) in order to compute y(t). As in the classical solution method for ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients, the total system state response x(t) is considered in two parts: a homogeneous solution x h (t) that describes the response to an arbitrary set of initial conditions x(), and a particular solution x p (t) that satisfies the state equations for the given input u(t). The two components are then combined to form the total response. The solution methods used in this note rely heavily on matrix algebra. In order to keep the treatment simple we attempt wherever possible to introduce concepts using a first-order system, in which the A, B, C, andd matrices reduce to scalar values, and then to generalize results by replacing the scalars with the appropriate matrices. 2 State-Variable Response of Linear Systems 2.1 The Homogeneous State Response The state-variable response of a system described by Eq. (1) with zero input, u(t), and an arbitrary set of initial conditions x() is the solution of the set of n homogeneous first-order differential equations: ẋ Ax. (3) To derive the homogeneous response x h (t), we begin by considering the response of a firstorder (scalar) system withstate equation ẋ ax + bu (4) 1

2 withinitial condition x(). In this case the homogeneous response x h (t) has an exponential form defined by the system time constant τ 1/a, or: x h (t) e at x(). (5) The exponential term e at in Eq. (5) may be expanded as a power series, to give: ( x h (t) 1+at + a2 t 2 + a3 t ak t k ) +... x(), (6) 2! 3! k! where the series converges for all finite t>. Let us now assume that the homogeneous response x h (t) ofthestatevectorofahigher order linear time-invariant system, described by Eq. (3), can also be expressed as an infinite power series, similar in form to Eq. (6), but in terms of the square matrix A, thatiswe assume: ( x h (t) I + At + A2 t 2 + A3 t Ak t k ) +... x() (7) 2! 3! k! where x() is the initial state. Each term in this series is a matrix of size n n, andthe summation of all terms yields another matrix of size n n. To verify that the homogeneous state equation ẋ Ax is satisfied by Eq. (7), the series may be differentiated term by term. Matrix differentiation is defined on an element by element basis, and because eachsystem matrix A k contains only constant elements: ( ẋ h (t) + A + A 2 t + A3 t Ak t k 1 ) 2! (k 1)! +... x() ( A I + At + A2 t 2 + A3 t Ak 1 t k 1 ) +... x() 2! 3! (k 1)! Ax h (t). (8) Equation (8) shows that the assumed series form of the solution satisfies the homogeneous state equations, demonstrating that Eq. (7) is in fact a solution of Eq. (3). The homogeneous response to an arbitrary set of initial conditions x() can therefore be expressed as an infinite sum of time dependent matrix functions, involving only the system matrix A. Because of the similarity of this series to the power series defining the scalar exponential, it is convenient to define the matrix exponential of a square matrix A as e At I + At + A2 t 2 + A3 t Ak t k +... (9) 2! 3! k! which is itself a square matrix the same size as its defining matrix A. The matrix form of the exponential is recognized by the presence of a matrix quantity in the exponent. The system homogeneous response x h (t) may therefore be written in terms of the matrix exponential x h (t) e At x() (1) 2

3 which is similar in form to Eq. (5). The solution is often written as x h (t) Φ(t)x() (11) where Φ(t) e At is defined to be the state transition matrix 1 5. Equation (11) gives the response at any time t to an arbitrary set of initial conditions, thus computation of e At at any t yields the values of all the state variables x(t) directly. Example 1 Determine the matrix exponential, and hence the state transition matrix, and the homogeneous response to the initial conditions x 1 () 2, x 2 () 3 of the system withstate equations: ẋ 1 2x 1 + u ẋ 2 x 1 x 2. Solution: The system matrix is A From Eq. (9) the matrix exponential (and the state transition matrix) is Φ(t) e At ( I + At + A2 t 2 + A3 t Ak t k ) ! 3! k! t 2 + t ! 8 t ! t + 4t2 8t ! 3! +t 3t2 + 7t t + t2 2! 3! 2! t3 3! (i) The elements φ 11 and φ 22 are simply the series representation for e 2t and e t respectively. The series for φ 21 is not so easily recognized but is in fact the first four terms of the the expansion of e t e 2t. The state transition matrix is therefore e Φ(t) 2t e t e 2t e t (ii) 3

4 and the homogeneous response to initial conditions x 1 () and x 2 () is x h (t) Φ(t)x() (iii) or x 1 (t) x 1 ()e 2t (iv) x 2 (t) x 1 () ( e t e 2t) + x 2 ()e t. (v) With the given initial conditions the response is x 1 (t) 2e 2t (vi) x 2 (t) 2 ( e t e 2t) +3e t 5e t 2e 2t. (vii) In general the recognition of the exponential components from the series for each element is difficult and is not normally used for finding a closed form for the state transition matrix. Although the sum expressed in Eq. (9) converges for all A, in many cases the series converges slowly, and is rarely used for the direct computation of Φ(t). There are many methods for computing the elements of Φ(t), including one presented in Section 4.3, that are much more convenient than the direct series definition. 1,5,6 2.2 The Forced State Response of Linear Systems We now consider the complete response of a linear system to an input u(t). Consider first a first-order system witha state equation ẋ ax + bu written in the form ẋ(t) ax(t) bu(t). (12) If bothsides are multiplied by an integrating factor e at, the left-hand side becomes a perfect differential e at ẋ e at ax d ( e at x(t) ) e at bu (13) dt which may be integrated directly to give t d ( e aτ x (τ) ) t dτ e at x (t) x () e aτ bu (τ) dτ (14) dτ and rearranged to give the state variable response explicitly: x (t) e at x () + t 4 e a(t τ) bu (τ) dτ. (15)

5 The development of the expression for the response of higher order systems may be performed in a similar manner using the matrix exponential e At as an integrating factor. Matrix differentiation and integration are defined to be element by element operations, therefore if the state equations ẋ Ax + Bu are rearranged, and all terms pre-multiplied by the square matrix e At : e At ẋ (t) e At Ax (t) d ( e At x (t) ) e At Bu(t). (16) dt Integration of Eq. (16) gives t d dτ ( e Aτ x (τ) ) dτ e At x(t) e A x() t e Aτ Bu(τ)dτ (17) and because e A I and e At 1 e At the complete state vector response may be written in two similar forms t x(t) e At x() + e At e Aτ Bu(τ)dτ (18) x(t) e At x() + t e A(t τ) Bu(τ)dτ. (19) The full state response, described by Eq. (18) or Eq. (19) consists of two components: the first is a term similar to the system homogeneous response x h (t) e At x() that is dependent only on the system initial conditions x(). The second term is in the form of a convolution integral, and is the particular solution for the input u(t), withzero initial conditions. Evaluation of the integral in Eq. (19) involves matrix integration. For a system of order n and with r inputs, the matrix e At is n n, B is n r and u(t) isanr 1 column vector. The product e A(t τ) Bu(τ) is therefore an n 1 column vector, and solution for eachof the state equations involves a single scalar integration. Example 2 Findtheresponseofthetwostatevariablesofthesystem ẋ 1 2x 1 + u ẋ 2 x 1 x 2. to a constant input u(t) 5 for t>, if x 1 (), and x 2. Solution: This is the same system described in Example 1. The state transition matrix was shown to be e Φ(t) 2t e t e 2t e t 5

6 Withzero initial conditions, the forced response is (Eq. (18)): t x(t) e At e Aτ Bu(τ)dτ. Matrix integration is defined on an element by element basis, so that x1 (t) e 2t t e 2τ 5 x 2 (t) e t e 2t e t e τ e 2τ e τ dτ e 2t t e t e 2t e t 5e2τ dτ t 5eτ 5e 2τ dτ e 2t 5 2 5e t e 2t (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 3 The System Output Response For either the homogeneous or forced responses, the system output response y(t) may be found by substitution of the state variable response into the algebraic system output equations y Cx + Du. (2) In the case of the homogeneous response, where u(t), Eq. (2) becomes y h (t) Ce At x(), (21) while for the forced response substitution of Eq. (19) into the output equations gives t y(t) Ce At x() + C e A(t τ) Bu(τ)dτ + Du(t). (22) Example 3 Find the response of the output variable y 2x 1 + x 2 in the system described by state equations ẋ 1 2x 1 + u ẋ 2 x 1 x 2. 6

7 Scalar exponential: e at 1+at + a2 t 2 e a 1 e at 1 e at 2! + a3 t 3 3! Matrix exponential: +... e At I + At + A2 t 2 e A I e At e At 1 e a(t 1+t 2 ) e at 1 e at 2 e A(t 1+t 2 ) e At 1 e At 2 2! + A3 t 3 3! +... e (a 1+a 2 )t e a1t e a 2t e (A 1+A 2 )t e A1t e A2t only if A 1 A 2 A 2 A 1 d dt eat ae at e at d a dt eat Ae At e At A t e at dt 1 e at 1 t e At dt A 1 e At I e At I A 1 a if A 1 exists. Otherwise defined by the series. Table 1: Comparison of properties of the scalar and matrix exponentials. to a constant input u(t) 5 for t>, if x 1 (), and x 2. Solution: This is the same system described in Example 1 with the same input and initial conditions as used in Example 2. The state-variable response is (Example 2): 5 x1 (t) e 2t 5 x 2 (t) 2 5e t + 5 (i) 2 e 2t The output response is y(t) 2x 1 (t)+x 2 (t) e 2t 5e t. (ii) 4 The State Transition Matrix 4.1 Properties of the State Transition Matrix Table 1 shows some of the properties that can be derived directly from the series definition of the matrix exponential e At. For comparison the similar properties of the scalar exponential e at are also given. Although the sum expressed in Eq. (9) converges for all A, in many cases the series converges slowly, and is rarely used for the direct computation of Φ(t). There are many methods for computing the elements of Φ(t), including one presented in the next 7

8 section, that are much more convenient than the series definition. The matrix exponential representation of the state transition matrix allows some of its properties to be simply stated: (1) Φ() I, which simply states that the state response at time t is identical to the initial conditions. (2) Φ( t) Φ 1 (t). The response of an unforced system before time t may be calculated from the initial conditions x(), x( t) Φ( t)x() Φ 1 (t)x() (23) and the inverse always exists. (3) Φ(t 1 )Φ(t 2 )Φ(t 1 + t 2 ). With this property the state response at time t may be defined from the system state specified at some time other than t, for example at t t. Using Property (2), the response at time t is x() Φ( t )x(t ) (24) and using the properties in Table 1, x(t) Φ(t)x() Φ(t)Φ( t )x(t ) (25) or x h (t) Φ(t t )x(t ). (26) (4) If A is a diagonal matrix then e At is also diagonal, and eachelement on the diagonal is an exponential in the corresponding diagonal element of the A matrix, that is e aiit. This property is easily shown by considering the terms A n in the series definition and noting that any diagonal matrix raised to an integer power is itself diagonal. 4.2 System Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors In Example 1 eachelement of Φ(t) e At was shown to be a sum of scalar exponential terms, and the resulting homogeneous response of each of the two state variables is therefore a sum of exponential terms. In general, the homogeneous response of linear systems is exponential in form, containing components of the form e λt,whereλ is a root of the characteristic equation. For example, the first-order homogeneous output response is of the form y(t) Ce λt where C is determined from the initial condition C y(), and the second-order response consists of two exponential components y(t) C 1 e λ 1t + C 2 e λ 2t where the constants C 1 and C 2 are determined by a pair of initial conditions, usually the output and its derivative. It is therefore reasonable to conjecture that for an nth order system the homogeneous response of eachof the n state variables x i (t) isaweightedsumofn exponential components: n x i (t) m ij e λ jt j1 (27) 8

9 where the m ij are constant coefficients that are dependent on the system structure and the initial conditions x(). The proposed solution for the complete state vector may be written in a matrix form or x 1 (t) x 2 (t). x n (t) m 11 m m 1n m 21 m m 2n m n1 m n2... m nn e λ 1t e λ 2t x h (t) M. e λnt where M is an n n matrix of the coefficients m ij. To determine the conditions under which Eq. (29) is a solution of the homogeneous state equations, the suggested response is differentiated and substituted into the state equation. From Eq. (27) the derivative of each conjectured state response is e λ 1t e λ 2t. e λnt (28) (29) or in the matrix form x 1 x 2. x n dx n i dt λ j m ij e λ jt j1 λ 1 m 11 λ 2 m λ n m 1n λ 1 m 21 λ 2 m λ 2 m 2n λ 1 m n1 λ 2 m n2... λ n m nn e λ 1t e λ 2t. e λnt (3). (31) Equations (28) and (31) may be substituted into the homogeneous state equation, Eq. (3), λ 1 m 11 λ 2 m λ n m 1n e λ 1t m 11 m m 1n e λ 1t λ 1 m 21 λ 2 m λ 2 m 2n e λ 2t A m 21 m m 2n e λ 2t (32) λ 1 m n1 λ 2 m n2... λ n m nn e λnt m n1 m n2... m nn e λnt and if a set of m ij and λ i can be found that satisfy Eq. (32) the conjectured exponential form is a solution to the homogeneous state equations. It is convenient to write the n n matrix M in terms of its columns, that is to define a set of n column vectors m j for j 1, 2,...,n from the matrix M m j 9 m 1j m 2j. m nj

10 so that the matrix M may be written in a partitioned form Equation (32) may then be written λ1 m 1 λ 2 m 2... λ n m n M m 1 m 2... m n. (33) e λ 1t e λ 2t. e λnt A m 1 m 2... m n and for Eq.(34) to hold the required condition is λ1 m 1 λ 2 m 2... λ n m n A m 1 m 2... m n e λ 1t e λ 2t. e λnt (34) Am 1 Am 2... Am n. (35) The two matrices in Eq. (35) are square n n. If they are equal then the corresponding columns in eachmust be equal, that is λ i m i Am i i 1, 2,...,n. (36) Equation (36) states that the assumed exponential form for the solution satisfies the homogeneous state equation provided a set of n scalar quantities λ i,andasetofn column vectors m i can be found that each satisfy Eq. (36). Equation (36) is a statement of the classical eigenvalue/eigenvector problem of linear algebra. Given a square matrix A, the values of λ satisfying Eq. (36) are known as the eigenvalues, or characteristic values, of A. The corresponding column vectors m are defined to be the eigenvectors, or characteristic vectors, of A. The homogeneous response of a linear system is therefore determined by the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors of its system matrix A. Equation (36) may be written as a set of homogeneous algebraic equations λ i I A m i (37) where I is the n n identity matrix. The condition for a non-trivial solution of such a set of linear equations is that (λ i )detλ i I A. (38) which is defined to be the characteristic equation of the n n matrix A. Expansion of the determinant generates a polynomial of degree n in λ, and so Eq. (38) may be written λ n + a n 1 λ n 1 + a n 2 λ n a 1 λ + a (39) or in factored form in terms of its n roots λ 1,...,λ n (λ λ 1 )(λ λ 2 )...(λ λ n ). (4) For a physical system the n roots are either real or occur in complex conjugate pairs. The eigenvalues of the matrix A are the roots of its characteristic equation, and these are commonly known as the system eigenvalues. 1

11 Example 4 Determine the eigenvalues of a linear system with state equations: ẋ 1 1 x 1 ẋ 2 1 x 2 + u(t). ẋ x 3 1 Solution: The characteristic equation is det λi A or det λ 1 λ λ +4 (i) λ 3 +4λ 2 +9λ + 1 (ii) (λ +2)(λ +(1+j2)) (λ +(1 j2)) (iii) The three eigenvalues are therefore λ 1 2, λ 2 1+j2, and λ 2 1 j2. For each eigenvalue of a system there is an eigenvector, defined from Eq. (37). If the eigenvalues are distinct, the eigenvectors are linearly independent, and the matrix M is non-singular. In the development that follows it is assumed that M has an inverse, and therefore only applies to systems without repeated eigenvalues. An eigenvector m i associated witha given eigenvalue λ i is found by substituting into the equation λ i I A m i. (41) No unique solution exists, however, because the definition of the eigenvalue problem, Eq. (36), shows that if m is an eigenvector then so is αm for any non-zero scalar value α. The matrix M, which is simply a collection of eigenvectors, defined in Eq. (33) therefore is not unique and some other information must be used to fully specify the homogeneous system response. Example 5 Determine the eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors associated with a system having an A matrix: 2 1 A

12 Solution: The characteristic equation is det λi A or λ +2 1 det 2 λ +3 λ 2 +5λ +4 (λ +4)(λ +1). (i) The two eigenvalues are therefore λ 1 1, and λ 2 4. To find the eigenvectors these values are substituted into the equation λ i I A m i. For the case λ 1 1 thisgives m11 m 21. (ii) Both of these equations give the same result; m 11 m 21. The eigenvector cannot be further defined, and although one particular solution is 1 m 1 1 the general solution must be defined in terms of an unknown scalar multiplier α 1 m 1 α1 α 1 (iii) provided α 1. Similarly, for the second eigenvalue, λ 2 4, the equations are 2 1 m m 22 whichbothstate that 2m 12 m 22. The general solution is α m 2 2 2α 2 (iv) (v) for α 2. The following are all eigenvectors corresponding to λ 2 4: Assume that the system matrix A has no repeated eigenvalues, and that the n distinct eigenvalues are λ 1,λ 2,...,λ n.definethemodal matrix M by an arbitrary set of corresponding eigenvectors m i : M m 1 m 2... m n. (42) 12

13 From Eq. (29) the homogeneous system response may be written e λ 1t e λ 2t x h (t) M. e λnt α 1 m 1 α 2 m 2... α n m n for any non-zero values of the constants α i. The rules of matrix manipulation allow this expression to be rewritten: α 1 e λ 1t x h (t) α 2 e λ 2t m 1 m 2... m n. α n e λnt e λ 1t... α 1 e λ 2t... α 2 m 1 m 2... m n e λnt α n e λ 1t e λ 2t. e λnt (43) Me Λt α (44) where α is a column vector of length n containing the unknown constants α i,ande Λt is an n n diagonal matrix containing the modal responses e λit on the leading diagonal e λ 1t... e Λt e λ 2t (45)... e λnt At time t all of the diagonal elements in e Λ are unity, so that e Λ I is the identity matrix and Eq. (44) becomes x() MIα. (46) For the case of distinct eigenvalues the modal matrix M is non-singular, and the vector α may be found by pre-multiplying eachside of the equation by M 1 : α M 1 x() (47) specifying the values of the unknown α i in terms of the system initial conditions x(). The complete homogeneous response of the state vector is x h (t) Me Λt M 1 x(). (48) 13

14 Comparison with Eq. (11) shows that the state transition matrix may be written as leading to the following important result: Φ(t) Me Λt M 1 (49) Given a linear system of order n, described by the homogeneous equation ẋ Ax, and where the matrix A has n distinct eigenvalues, the homogeneous response of any state variable in the system from an arbitrary set of initial conditions x() is a linear combination of n modal components e λ it,wheretheλ i are the eigenvalues of the matrix A. 4.3 A Method For Determining the State Transition Matrix Equation (49) provides the basis for the determination of the state transition matrix for systems withdistinct eigenvalues: (1) Substitute numerical values into the system A matrix, and compute the system eigenvalues, a modal matrix M, anditsinversem 1. A computer based linear algebra package provides a convenient method for doing this. (2) Form the diagonal matrix e Λt by placing the modal components e λ it on the leading diagonal. (3) The state transition matrix Φ(t) isφ(t) Me Λt M 1. Example 6 Determine the state transition matrix for the system discussed in Example 2, and find its homogeneous response to the initial conditions x 1 () 1, and x 2 () 2. Solution: The system is described by the matrix 2 1 A 2 3 and in Example 2 the eigenvalues are shown to be λ 1 1, and λ 2 4, and a pair of corresponding eigenvectors are 1 1 m 1, m A modal matrix M is therefore M

15 and its inverse M 1 is M The matrix e Λt is found by placing the modal responses e t and e 4t on the diagonal: e e Λt t e 4t. (i) The state transition matrix Φ(t) is Φ(t) Me Λt M e t e 4t e t + e 4t e t e 4t 3 2e t 2e 4t e t +2e 4t. (ii) The homogeneous response for the given pair of initial conditions is x h (t) Φ(t)x() or or x1 (t) x 2 (t) 1 3 2e t + e 4t e t e 4t 2e t 2e 4t e t +2e 4t 1 2 (iii) x 1 (t) 4 3 e t 1 3 e 4t (iv) x 2 (t) 4 3 e t e 4t. (v) 4.4 Systems with Complex Eigenvalues The modal components of the response are defined by the eigenvalues of the matrix A, as found from the roots of the characteristic equation det λi A which is a polynomial of degree n in λ, withconstant and real coefficients. Any polynomial equation with real coefficients must have roots that are real, or which appear in complex conjugate pairs. The eigenvalues of A are therefore either real, or occur as pairs of the form λ i,i+1 σ ± jω, wherej 1. In suchcases there are modal response components in 15

16 the matrix e Λt of the form e (σ±jω)t e σt e ±jωt. However, when the state transition matrix is computed the conjugate components combine, and the Euler relationships sin ωt 1 ( e jωt e jωt) 2j (5) cos ωt 1 ( e jωt + e jωt) 2 (51) may be used to express the elements of the state transition matrix in a purely real form e σt sin (ωt) ore σt cos (ωt). Example 7 Determine the state transition matrix for the undamped mechanical oscillator, witha mass m 1 Kg suspended on a spring withstiffness K 1 N/m, as shown withits linear graphin Fig. 1. Figure 1: Simple spring-mass mechanical oscillator. Solution: The state equations for this system are F K v m K 1/m FK v m + 1/m F s (t). (i) With the values given the state equations become F K v m 1 1 FK v m + 1 F s (t). (ii) The characteristic equation det λi A is λ (iii) 16

17 so that the eigenvalues are purely imaginary: λ 1 j1 and λ 2 j1. A pair of corresponding eigenvectors is found by substituting these values back into the equation λ i I A m i and choosing an arbitrary scaling constant: m 1 1.1j, m 2 1.1j The modal matrix M and its inverse are 1 1 M M 1 1.1j 1.1j.1j.2j.1j 1 and the state transition matrix is e j1t.1j 1 Φ(t).2j.1j.1j e j1t.1j 1 e j1t + e j1t 1 ej1t e j1t 2 2j.1 ej1t e j1t e j1t + e j1t 2j 2 cos(1t) 1sin(1t). (iv).1sin(1t) cos(1t) The homogeneous response to arbitrary initial values of F K and v m is therefore FK (t) cos(1t) 1sin(1t) FK () (v) v m (t).1sin(1t) cos(1t) v m () and the individual state responses are F K (t) F K () cos(1t)+1v m () sin(1t) (vi) v m (t).1f K () sin(1t)+v m () cos(1t) (vii) which are purely real responses, despite the imaginary system eigenvalues Systems with Repeated Eigenvalues The method for deriving the state transition matrix presented in the previous section is dependent on the existence of the inverse of the modal matrix M, thatism must be nonsingular. In general, if there are two or more eigenvalues with the same value, the eigenvectors are not linearly independent, and M 1 does not exist. It is possible to extend the method to handle repeated eigenvalues, as described in references on linear system theory. 17

18 When there is a pair of repeated eigenvalues, instead of a linear combination of simple exponential terms, the state response may have a pair of components e λit and te λit corresponding to the two identical eigenvalues. This does not imply that the state transition matrix Φ(t) does not exist for systems withrepeated eigenvalues; it may be computed by other methods. It may however lose the simple exponential form assumed throughout this chapter. We do not discuss this case further in this introductory note, and readers are referred to more advanced texts Stability of Linear Systems In state-space terminology, a system is said to be asymptotically stable if the homogeneous response of the state vector x(t) returns to the origin of the state-space x from any arbitrary set of initial conditions x() as time t. This definition of stability is equivalent to stating that the homogeneous response of all state variables must decay to zero in the absence of any input to the system, or lim x i(t) (52) t for all i 1,...,n. This condition may be rewritten in terms of the state transition matrix lim Φ(t)x() (53) t for any x(). All of the elements of the state transition matrix are linear combinations of the modal components e λ it, therefore the stability of a system depends on all such components decaying to zero with time. For real eigenvalues this requires that λ i <, since any positive eigenvalue generates a modal response that increases exponentially with time. If eigenvalues appear in complex conjugate pairs λ i,i+1 σ ± jω the state homogeneous response contains components of the form e σt sin(ωt) ore σt cos(ωt). If σ>thesecomponentsgrowexponentially with time and the system is by definition unstable. The requirements for system stability may be therefore summarized: A linear system, described by state equations ẋ AX + Bu, is asymptotically stable if and only if all eigenvalues of the matrix A have negative real parts. Three other separate conditions should be considered: 1. If one or more eigenvalues, or pair of conjugate eigenvalues, has a positive real part there is at least one corresponding modal component that increases exponentially without bound from any finite initial condition, violating the definition of stability. 2. Any pair of conjugate eigenvalues that are purely imaginary, λ i,i+1 ±jω witha real part σ, generate an undamped oscillatory component in the state response. The magnitude of the homogeneous system response neither decays or grows, but continues to oscillate for all time at a frequency ω. Sucha system is defined to be marginally stable. 18

19 3. An eigenvalue witha value λ generates a modal component e t that is a constant. The system response neither decays nor grows, and again the system is defined to be marginally stable. Example 8 Discuss the stability of an inverted pendulum consisting of a mass m on the end of a long light rod of length l which is mounted in a rotational bearing that exhibits a viscous rotational drag, as shown in Fig. 2. Figure 2: An inverted pendulum. Solution: The system may be treated as a rotational system. The moment of inertia J of the mass is J ml 2, and when the rod is displaced from the vertical, gravity exerts a torque mgl sin θ about the bearing as shown. This system is inherently non-linear because of the angular dependence of the torque, but it may be linearized by using the small angle approximation sin θ θ for small θ. Then the restoring torque after a displacement θ is mglθ. This is the constitutive relationship of an ideal T-type element, and allows the gravitational effect to be modeled as a torsional spring witha negative spring constant K mgl. Let the frictional drag about the bearing be represented by the damping coefficient B. The linear graph for the system is shown in Fig. 2. Define the states to be the torque in the spring T K and the angular velocity of the shaft Ω. The linearized state equations for this homogeneous system are: T K Ω J K 1/J B/J TK Ω J. (i) The characteristic equation is det λi A det λ K 1/Jλ + B/J (ii) 19

20 or λ 2 + B J λ + K J λ 2 + B J λ g R. (iii) The quadratic equation may be used to determine the two eigenvalues λ 1,2 B 2J ± 1 2 The following may be noted directly from Eq. (v). (B ) 2 + 4g R. (iv) 1. The quantity under the radical is positive, therefore both eigenvalues are real. 2. (B ) g 2 J R > B (v) 2J so that there is always a positive eigenvalue. We conclude, therefore, that the inverted pendulum is an unstable system and in its linearized form will exhibit an exponential growth in angular displacement from the vertical for any finite initial offset or angular velocity. J 4.7 Transformation of State Variables The choice of a set of state variables used to represent a system is not unique. In Chapter operational methods to transfer between representations are discussed. It is possible to define an infinite number of different representations by transforming the state vector by linear operations. If a system is described by a state vector x, a new set of state variables x may be generated from any linearly independent combination of the original state variables x i (t), for example: x i(t) p i1 x 1 (t)+p i2 x 2 (t)+ + p in x n (t) (54) where the p ij are constants. This linear transformation may be written in matrix form x Px (55) where P is a non-singular n n square matrix. (With this definition the elements p ij in Eq. (52) above are elements of P 1.) The state equations in the new state variables become ẋ Pẋ APx + Bu (56) 2

21 and pre-multiplying eachside by the inverse of P, the new set of state equations gives The output equation must be similarly transformed ẋ ( P 1 AP ) x + ( P 1 B ) u. (57) y (CP) x + Du. (58) The system is now represented by modified A, B, andc matrices. The state variable representation is an internal system representation that is made observable to the system environment through the output equations. The input-output system dynamic behavior should be independent of the internal system representation. For the transformed state equations the characteristic equation is defined in terms of the transformed A matrix If the substitution I P 1 IP is made: det λi ( P 1 AP ). (59) det λp 1 P P 1 AP (6) det P 1 λi A P. (61) Since the determinant of a product is the product of the determinants, the characteristic equation is det P 1 det λi AdetP (62) and because P is not singular, det P anddetp 1, the transformed characteristic equation is det λi A (63) which is the same as that of the original state equations, leading to the following important conclusion: The characteristic equation, and hence the eigenvalues λ i and the modal response components e λ it, are invariant under a linear transformation of the system state variables. These quantities are properties of the system itself and are not affected by the choice of state variables used to describe the system dynamics. If a transformation of the state variable representation is made, it is necessary to similarly transform any initial conditions to the new representation using x () P 1 x(). (64) 21

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