# Math Assignment 6

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1 Math Assignment 6 Dylan Zwick Spring 2014 Section 3.8-1, 3, 5, 8, 13 Section 4.1-1, 2, 13, 15, 22 Section 4.2-1, 10, 19, 28 1

2 Section Endpoint Problems and Eigenvalues For the eigenvalue problem y + λy = 0; y (0) = 0, y(1) = 0, first determine whether λ = 0 is an eigenvalue; then find the positive eigenvalues and associated eigenfunctions. Solution - First, if λ = 0 then the solution to the differential equation y = 0 is y = Ax + B. From this we get y = A, and so if y (0) = 0 we must have A = 0. This would mean y = B, and if y(1) = 0 then B = 0. So, only the trivial solution A = B = 0 works, and therefore λ = 0 is not an eigenvalue. For λ > 0 the characteristic polynomial for our linear differential equation is: r 2 + λ = 0, which has roots r = ± λ. The corresponding solution to our ODE will be: y = A cos( λx) + B sin ( λx). with derivative y = A λ sin ( λx) + B λcos ( λx). 2

3 So, y (0) = B λ, and therefore if y (0) = 0 then we must have B = 0, as λ > 0. So, our solution must be of the form: y = A cos ( λx). If we plug in y(1) = 0 we get: y(1) = A cos ( λ) = 0. If A 0 we must have cos( λ) = 0, which is true only if λ = π + nπ. So, the eigenvalues are: 2 λ n = ( ( )) 2 1 π 2 + n, with n N, and corresponding eigenfunctions (( π ) ) y n = cos 2 + nπ x. 3

4 3.8.3 Same instructions as Problem 3.8.1, but for the eigenvalue problem: y + λy = 0; y( π) = 0, y(π) = 0. Solution - If λ = 0 then, as in Problem 3.8.1, our solution will be of the form: y = Ax + B. This means y(π) = Aπ + B = 0, and y( π) = Aπ + B = 0. Adding these two equations we get 2B = 0, which means B = 0. If B = 0 then Aπ = 0, which means A = 0. So, the only solution is the trivial solution A = B = 0, and therefore λ = 0 is not an eigenvalue. Now if λ > 0 then again just as in Problem we ll have a solution of the form: y(x) = A cos ( λx) + B sin ( λx). If we plug in our endpoint values we get: y(π) = A cos ( λπ) + B sin ( λπ) = 0, y( π) = A cos ( λπ) + B sin ( λπ) = A cos ( λπ) B sin ( λπ) = 0, where in the second line above we use that cos is an even function, while sin is odd. If we add these two equations together we get: 2A cos ( λπ) = 0. 4

5 This is true if either A = 0 or ( ) 1 λ = 2 + n. If ( ) 1 λ = 2 + n then (( ) ) 1 y(π) = B sin 2 + n π = 0. (( ) ) 1 As sin 2 + n π = ±1 we must have B = 0. On the other hand, if A = 0 above then we have: y(π) = B sin ( λπ). If B 0 then we must have λ = n. Combining our two results we get that the possible eigenvalues are: λ n = n2 4, for n N, and n > 0, with corresponding eigenfunctions: { ( cos n y n (x) = x) n odd 2 sin ( n x) n even 2 5

6 3.8.5 Same instructions as Problem 3.8.1, but for the eigenvalue problem: y + λy = 0; y( 2) = 0, y (2) = 0. Solution - If λ = 0 then, just as in Problem 3.8.1, the solution to the ODE will be: y(x) = Ax + B, y (x) = A. If we plug in our endpoint conditions we get y( 2) = 2A + B = 0 and y (2) = A = 0. These equations are satisfied if and only if A = B = 0, which is the trivial solution. So, λ = 0 is not an eigenvalue. If λ > 0 then, just as in Problem 3.8.1, the solution to the ODE will be of the form: y(x) = A cos ( λx) + B sin ( λx), with y (x) = A λsin ( λx) + B λ cos ( λx). Plugging in the endpoint conditions, and using that cos is even and sin is odd, we get: y( 2) = A cos ( 2 λ) + B sin ( 2 λ) = A cos (2 λ) B sin (2 λ) = 0, y (2) = A λ sin (2 λ) + B λcos (2 λ) = 0. If we divide both sides of the second equality by λ we get 6

7 A sin (2 λ) + B cos (2 λ) = 0. From these equations we get: A cos (2 λ) = B sin (2 λ) A B = tan (2 λ), B cos (2 λ) = A sin (2 λ) B A = tan (2 λ). So, A B = B A A2 = B 2. So, either A = B or A = B. If A = B then tan (2 λ) = 1, which means 2 λ = π 4 therefore + nπ, and (( ) n λ = π). 8 If A = B then tan(2 λ) = 1, which means 2 λ = 3π 4 therefore + nπ, and (( ) n λ = π). 8 So, the eigenvalues are: 7

8 (( ) ) n λ n = π 8 with n N and n > 0, with corresponding eigenfunctions: { (( cos 1+2n ) ) (( y n = 8 πx + sin 1+2n ) ) 8 πx n even cos (( ) ) (( 1+2n 8 πx sin 1+2n ) ) 8 πx n odd 8

9 Consider the eigenvalue problem y + λy = 0; y(0) = 0 y(1) = y (1) (not a typo).; all its eigenvalues are nonnegative. (a) Show that λ = 0 is an eigenvalue with associated eigenfunction y 0 (x) = x. (b) Show that the remaining eigenfunctions are given by y n (x) = sin β n x, where β n is the nth positive root of the equation tanz = z. Draw a sketch showing these roots. Deduce from this sketch that β n (2n + 1)π/2 when n is large. Solution - (a) - If λ = 0 then the solution to the ODE will be of the form: y(x) = Ax + B, with y (x) = A. So, y(0) = B = 0, and y(1) = A = y (1). So, any function of the form y(x) = Ax will work, and our eigenfunction for λ = 0 is: y 0 = x. (b) - For λ > 0 the solutions will all be of the form: y(x) = A cos(λx) + B sin (λx). If we plug in y(0) = A = 0 we get the solutions are of the form: 9

10 y(x) = Bsin(\/ 5x), with = Bvcos (\/I). If we plug in the other endpoint values we get: y(l) = Bsin(v) = BVcos(v ) = y (l). If B 0 then we must have: tan(/)= So, v X works if it s a root of the equation tan z = z, and if 8, is the iith such root, then the associated eigenfunction is: sin(/ 3x). A sketch intersect: of z and tan z are below. The roots are where they L As ii gets large it occurs at approximately /277 + in J7F. 2 21

11 Consider the eigenvalue problem y + 2y + λy = 0; y(0) = y(1) = 0. (a) Show that λ = 1 is not an eigenvalue. (b) Show that there is no eigenvalue λ such that λ < 1. (c) Show that the nth positive eigenvalue is λ n = n 2 π 2 + 1, with associated eigenfunction y n (x) = e x sin (nπx). Solution - (a) - If λ = 1 then the characteristic polynomial is: r 2 + 2r + 1 = (r + 1) 2, which has roots r = 1, 1. So, 1 is a root with multiplicity 2. The corresponding solution to the ODE will be: y(x) = Ae x + Bxe x. If we plug in the endpoint values we get: y(0) = A = 0, y(1) = Ae 1 + Be 1 = Be 1 = 0. From these we see the only solution is the trivial solution A = B = 0, so λ = 1 is not an eigenvalue. 11

12 (b) - If λ < 1 then the characteristic polynomial will be: r 2 + 2r + λ, which has roots r = 2 ± 2 2 4(1)λ 2 = 1 ± 1 λ. If λ < 1 then 1 λ will be real, and the solution to our ODE will be of the form: y(x) = Ae ( 1+ 1 λ)x + Be ( 1 1 λ)x. Plugging in our endpoint values we get: y(0) = A + B = 0, y(1) = Ae 1+ 1 λ + Be 1 1 λ = 0. From these we get, after a little algebra: A(1 e 2 1 λ ) = 0. If λ < 1 then e 2 1 λ < 1, and therefore 1 e 2 1 λ > 0. So, for the above equality to be true we must have A = 0, which means B = 0, and so the only solution is the trivial solution A = B = 0. Therefore, no value λ < 1 is an eigenvalue. (c) - If λ > 1 then again using the roots from the quadratic equation in part (b) we get that our solutions will be of the form: 12

13 y(x) = Ae x cos ( λ 1x) + Be x sin ( λ 1x). If we plug in the endpoint values we get: y(0) = A = 0, and so y(x) = Be x sin ( λ 1x). If we plug in our other endpoint value we get: y(1) = Be 1 sin ( λ 1) = 0. If B 0 then we must have sin ( λ 1) = 0, which is only possible if λ 1 = nπ, λ n = n 2 π So, the eigenvalues are given above, and the corresponding eigenfunctions are: y n = e x sin (nπx), for n N, n > 0. 13

14 Section First-Order Systems and Applications Transform the given differential equation into an equivalent system of first-order differential equations. x + 3x + 7x = t 2. Solution - If we define x = x 1 then define: x 1 = x 2, x 2 = t2 3x 2 7x 1. So, the system is: x 1 = x 2 x 2 = 7x 1 3x 2 + t 2. 14

15 Transform the given differential equation into an equivalent system of first-order differential equations. x (4) + 6x 3x + x = cos 3t. Solution - Define x = x 1. Then the equivalent system is: x 1 = x 2 x 2 = x 3 x 3 = x 4 x 4 = 6x 3 + 3x 2 x 1 + cos (3t). 15

16 Find the particular solution to the system of differential equations below. Use a computer system or graphing calculator to construct a direction field and typical solution curves for the given system. x = 2y, y = 2x; x(0) = 1, y(0) = 0. Solution - If we differentiate y = 2x, we get y = 2x = 4y. So, we have the differential equation: y + 4y = 0. The solution to this ODE is: y(t) = A cos (2t) + B sin (2t). Now, x(t) = 1 2 y = 1 ( 2A sin (2t) + 2B cos (2t)) = A sin (2t) + B cos (2t). 2 If we plug in x(0) = B = 1 and y(0) = A = 0 we get: x(t) = cos (2t) y(t) = sin (2t). 16

17 More room, if necessary, for Problem Pirec lvi V 4 / 7 o( Ndfe; 5hoI) be CI(cIJ 40 A 1 I bei 19

18 Find the general solution to the system of differential equations below. Use a computer system or graphing calculator to construct a direction field and typical solution curves for the given system. x = 1 2 y, y = 8x. Solution - If we differentiate y = 8x we get y = 8x = 4y. So, our ODE is: y + 4y = 0. The solution to this ODE is: y(t) = A cos (2t) + B sin (2t). The function x(t) is: x(t) = 1 8 y (t) = A 4 sin (2t) + B 4 cos (2t). So, the general solution to this system of ODEs is: x(t) = A 4 sin (2t) + B 4 cos (2t) y(t) = A cos (2t) + B sin (2t). 18

19 Pirecio More room, if necessary, for Problem

20 (a) - Beginning with the general solution of the system from Problem 13, calculate x 2 + y 2 to show that the trajectories are circles. (b) - Show similarly that the trajectories of the system from Problem 15 are ellipses of the form 16x 2 + y 2 = C 2. (a) - The general solution to the system of ODEs from Problem is: From these we get: x(t) = A sin (2t) + B cos (2t) y(t) = A cos (2t) + B sin (2t). x(t) 2 + y(t) 2 = ( A sin (2t) + B cos (2t)) 2 + (A cos (2t) + B sin (2t)) 2 = A 2 sin 2 (2t) 2AB sin (2t) cos (2t) + B 2 cos 2 (2t) + A 2 cos 2 (2t) + 2AB sin (2t) cos (2t) + B 2 sin 2 (2t) So, circles. = A 2 + B 2. (b) - The general solution to the system of ODEs from Problem is: x(t) = A 4 sin (2t) + B 4 cos (2t) y(t) = A cos (2t) + B sin (2t). So, 16x(t) 2 = A 2 sin 2 (2t) 2AB sin (2t) cos (2t) + B 2 cos 2 (2t), y(t) 2 = A 2 cos 2 (2t) + 2AB sin (2t) cos (2t) + B 2 sin 2 (2t). Combining these we get 16x(t) 2 + y(t) 2 = A 2 + B 2 = C 2. So, ellipses. 20

21 Section The Method of Elimination Find a general solution to the linear system below. Use a computer system or graphing calculator to construct a direction field and typical solution curves for the system. x = x + 3y y = 2y Solution - The differential equation y = 2y has the solution y(t) = Ae 2t. So, x = x + 3Ae 2t x + x = 3Ae 2t. This is a first-order linear ODE. Its integrating factor is: ρ(t) = e R 1dt = e t. Multiplying both sides by this integrating factor our linear ODE becomes: d ( e t x ) = 3Ae 3t. dt 21

22 33 The direction field looks kind of like this: (I)4(i)2t+B(i)t We can write this in vector form as: j(t) = Ae 2t. x(t) = Ae 2t + Be_t, So, the general solution to this system is: x Ae 2 + Be. etx = Ae 3t + B Integrating both sides we get:

23 Find a particular solution to the given system of differential equations that satisfies the given initial conditions. x + 2y = 4x + 5y, 2x y = 3x; x(0) = 1, y(0) = 1. Solution - If we add 2 times the second equation to the first we get: 5x = 10x + 5y. If we subtract 2 times the first equation from the second we get: 5y = 5x 10y 5y = 5x + 10y. Differentiating 5x = 10x+5y and plugging in 5y = 5x+10y we get: 5x = 10x + 5y = 10x + (5x + 10y) 5x = 10x + (5x + 10x 20x) 5x = 20x 15x x = 4x 3x. The linear homogeneous differential equation x 4x + 3x = 0 has characteristic equation: r 2 4r + 3 = (r 3)(r 1). 23

24 So, the roots are r = 3, 1, and the general solution to the ODE is: x(t) = c 1 e 3t + c 2 e t. From the equation 5y = 5x + 10y we get y = x + 2y, and therefore: y 2y = c 1 e 3t + c 2 e t. If we multiply both sides by the integrating factor e 2t we get: d ( e 2t y ) = c 1 e t + c 2 e t. dt Integrating both sides we get: e 2t y = c 1 e t c 2 e t + C, and so: y(t) = c 1 e 3t c 2 e t + Ce 2t. Plugging this into any of the equations in our system gives us C = 0. So, y(t) = c 1 e 3t c 2 e t. We can write this solution in matrix form as: x(t) = c 1 ( 1 1 ) e 3t + c 2 ( 1 1 ) e t. 24

25 If we plug in x(0) = ( 1 1 ) ( 1 = c 1 1 ) + c 2 ( 1 1 ) we can see immediately that c 1 = 0 and c 2 = 1. So, the solution to our initial value problem is: x(t) = ( 1 1 ) e t. 25

26 Find a general solution to the given system of differential equations. x = 4x 2y, y = 4x + 4y 2z, z = 4y + 4z. Solution - If we differentiate the first equation we get: x = 4x 2y = 4x 2( 4x + 4y 2z) x = 4x + 8x 8y + 4z. Differentiating again we get: x (3) = 4x + 8x 8y + 4z = 4x + 8x 8y + 4( 4y + 4z) x (3) = 4x + 8x 8y 16y + 16z x (3) = 4x + 8x 8y 16y + 8( y 4x + 4y) x (3) = 4x + 8x 16y + 16y 32x x (3) = 4x + 8x 8(4x x ) + 8(4x x ) 32x x (3) = 12x 32x x (3) 12x + 32x = 0. The characteristic equation for this ODE is r 3 12r r = r(r 8)(r 4). So, 26

27 x(t) = c 1 + c 2 e 8t + c 3 e 4t. From this we get: x (t) = 8c 2 e 8t + 4c 3 e 4t and y(t) = 2x 1 2 x = 2c 1 2c 2 e 8t. Finally, z(t) = 2x (t) + 2y(t) 1 2 y (t) = 2c 1 + 2c 2 e 8t 2c 3 e 4t. So, x(t) = c 1 + c 2 e 8t + c 3 e 4t, y(t) = 2c 1 2c 2 e 8t, z(t) = 2c 1 + 2c 2 e 8t 2c 3 e 4t. 27

28 For the system below first calculate the operational determinant to determine how many arbitrary constants should appear in a general solution. Then attempt to solve the system explicitly so as to find such a general solution. (D 2 + D)x + D 2 y = 2e t (D 2 1)x + (D 2 D)y = 0 Solution - The operational determinant of the system above is: (D 2 +D)(D 2 D) D 2 (D 2 1) = D 4 D 3 +D 3 D 2 D 4 +D 2 = 0. So, there are 0(!) arbitrary constants. How is this possible? Well, if we subtract the second relation from the first we get: (D + 1)x + Dy = 2e t Dy = 2e t (D + 1)x D 2 y = 2e t (D 2 + D)x (D 2 + D)x + D 2 y = 2e t. However, this cannot be, as our first relation above is: (D 2 + D)x + D 2 y = 2e t, and 2e t 2e t. So, there is no solution to the system. 28

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