Fuels and Lubricants in the Future. NVF Energieffectivitet för tunga fordon Feb 3, 2010 Seppo Mikkonen

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1 Fuels and Lubricants in the Future NVF Energieffectivitet för tunga fordon Seppo Mikkonen

2 Drivers behind fuel specifications Neste Oil / Seppo Mikkonen 2

3 Requirements for fuel Operabililty Correlation Immediate, e.g. cold start cold operability Durability, e.g. fuel injection system catalyst, particulate filter deposits, corrosion Fuel specification EN 590, e.g. cetane number CFPP lubricity (HFRR) ash, sulfur voluntary additive Vehicle & engine tests Correlation take time (weeks, months) expensive accuracy? often in-house or only in R&D Laboratory tests fast (hours) cheap accurate EN xxx, ISO xxx routine duties for fuel quality control Neste Oil / Seppo Mikkonen 3

4 Requirements for fuel Emissions Environment, health SO x NO x particulates Fossil CO 2, life cycle GHG Correlation Legislation dir. 2009/30/EC, 2009/28/EC sulfur cetane, aromatics sulfur, distillation, density bioenergy-%, GHG reduction Safety fire health, leakages to nature Political sustainability, social needs flash point REACH, safety data sheet dir. 2009/28/EC Neste Oil / Seppo Mikkonen 4

5 Correlations Not perfect evolving vehicle designs, different driving conditions new fuel chemistries slow and laborious to develop, standardization process compromise What has happened, e.g. cold operability <=> CFPP correlation from s fuel filter lifetime <=> total contamination specification for fuel new vehicle designs new fuel chemistries, biocomponents (FAME), new additives laboratory tests fast, do not correlate with real life => correlation may be history, but fuel has to be fit-for-purpose Neste Oil / Seppo Mikkonen 5

6 Evolution of diesel fuels and engine requirements Higher quality fuels, e.g. lower sulfur More demanding engines Sulfur 500 mg/kg Euro II PM 350 mg/kg Euro III PM 50 mg/kg Euro IV Oxicats 10 mg/kg Euro V DPFs Fuel enhancing factor for emissions Euro VI Durability Fuel enabling factor for aftertreatment Neste Oil / Seppo Mikkonen 6

7 Evolution of diesel fuels and engine requirements Higher quality fuels, e.g. lower sulfur More demanding engines Sulfur 500 mg/kg Euro II PM 350 mg/kg Euro III PM 50 mg/kg Euro IV Oxicats 10 mg/kg Euro V DPFs Fuel enhancing factor for emissions Fuel with HVO, BTL Euro VI Durability Fuel with FAME B0-> B5 -> B7 -> Bxx? Fuel enabling factor for aftertreatment Neste Oil / Seppo Mikkonen 7

8 Properties of future fuels Neste Oil / Seppo Mikkonen 8

9 Properties of diesel fuels S-free EN590 HVO BTL GTL If not ok diesel fuel (even 100 %) Sulfur content OK OK Aftertreatment operation Distillation range OK OK Engine oil dilution Stability OK OK Deposits in fuel system Ash, metals OK OK Aftertreatment durability Cold properties OK OK Fit for purpose all the year round HVO = hydrotreated vegetable oil BTL = bio-to-liquids from biomass by Fischer-Tropsch GTL = gas-to-liquids from natural gas by Fischer-Tropsch Neste Oil / Seppo Mikkonen 9

10 Typical fuel properties EN 590 diesel (summer) HVO Biodiesel FAME (rape seed) Density (kg/m 3 ) Cetane number Distillation range ( C) Heating value (MJ/l) Total aromatics (wt-%) Oxygen (wt-%) Stability Ok Ok Challenge Ash, metals Ok Ok Challenge Cold operability Ok Ok Challenge In diesel fuel (vol-%) (... 10?) Neste Oil / Seppo Mikkonen 10

11 Esterification (FAME) & hydrotreating (HVO) processes Natural gas Methanol plant Natural gas Hydrogen Methanol plant 10% methanol % hydrogen Veg oil Animal fat Esterification plant Biodiesel FAME Veg oil Animal fat Hydrotreating Esterification plant Renewable diesel, HVO Glycerol Water Natural gas input about the same in both routes The same feedstocks but superior product quality with HVO Neste Oil / Seppo Mikkonen 11

12 Technologies for biobased diesel fuels Commercial scale Process Product Feedstock availability Product quality Chemistry Process plant capital cost Esterification FAME - Some veg oils - Ester Hydrotreating HVO + All veg oils Paraffin ? Gasification + Fischer- Tropsch BTL Biomass Paraffin Benefit - Challenge Neste Oil / Seppo Mikkonen 12

13 Think well-to-wheels in fuel life-cycle Neste Oil / Seppo Mikkonen 13

14 Directives think well-to-tank (calorific combustion) GHG (gco2eq/mj) Fuel prod chain FAME rape HVO rape HVO palm BTL wood E100 sugarcane Palm with methane capture at oil mill Source: Dir2009/28/EC typical values Neste Oil / Seppo Mikkonen 14

15 Drivers think tank-to-wheels in liters Fuel cons (l/100km) Fixed engine efficiency for diesels Fixed engine efficiency for spark igniteds Gasoline Diesel FAME Example: Medium size passenger car HVO BTL E100 E85 FAME100 and E100 only theory for current cars Neste Oil / Seppo Mikkonen 15

16 Well-to-wheels GHG GHG (gco2eq/km) Tailpipe Fuel prod chain The best current large scale engine+fuel Gasoline Diesel FAME rape Tailpipe CO 2 = 0 for biofuels HVO rape HVO palm BTL wood E100 sugarcane E85 sugarcane Benefit of ethanol lost due to lower engine efficiency Neste Oil / Seppo Mikkonen 16

17 Optimizing engine + diesel fuel Neste Oil / Seppo Mikkonen 17

18 Trade-off NO x particulates in a HD engine Smoke (FSN) 1,8 1,4 1 0,6 Default 3 3,5 4 4,5 5 5,5 NOx (g/kwh) Only smoke measured, device for particulates not available Diesel HVO If fuel changed keeping default injection settings Neste Oil / Seppo Mikkonen 18

19 Playing field with changing injection timing Smoke (FSN) 1,8 1,4 1 Default Diesel HVO Playing field with constant smoke 0,6 3 3,5 4 4,5 5 5,5 NOx (g/kwh) Playing field with constant NO x Similar trade off with fuel consumption: The lower NO x, the higher consumption Neste Oil / Seppo Mikkonen 19

20 Optimizing a HD engine for 100 % HVO Injection timing Default Advanced Remarkably advanced Retarted NO x - 6 % +/- 0 % + 4 % - 16 % Smoke - 35 % - 37 % - 32 % - 32 % Fuel cons (mass) - 3 % - 6 % - 8 % +/-0 Fuel cons (volume) + 5 % + 2 % +/- 0 % + 8 % Fuel cons (vol) increased due to lower fuel density Lower mass fuel cons => well-to-wheels GHG down Lower mass fuel cons => well-to-wheels GHG down % = change compared to S-free EN590 diesel fuel Details: SAE Neste Oil / Seppo Mikkonen 20

21 Compatibility essential: All need to work together Engine Fuel Engine oil Aftertreatment Neste Oil / Seppo Mikkonen 21

22 Lubricants for Commercial Vehicles NVF Energieffectivitet för tunga fordon Kari Kulmala

23 Lubricant Development for Busses, Coaches, Lorries and Trucks Lube development work has focused on Engine Oils. All new engine oil formulations in Europe must fulfil European Automobile Manufacturers Association ACEA-08 requirements as of 22 nd Dec E-category for Heavy Duty Engine Oils contains new European engine tests from Daimler For example: OM501LA (11.9 l, V6, 350 kw power) Piston cleanliness, bore polish, oil consumption Modern Euro V hardware running on a modern diesel fuel B5 (<10ppm ULSD + 5% FAME) Neste Oil / Seppo Mikkonen 23

24 Market Tiers Four distinct market tiers for Euro V Sulphated Ash, Phosphorus, Sulphur High SAPS Low/Mid SAPS UHPD (Ultra High Performance Diesel Engine Oil) Some EGR engines some SCR units EGR engines SCR units with/without DPF with low S diesel Extended drain performance (up to ~90-120tkm) SHPD (Super High Performance Diesel Engine Oil) most EGR engines most SCR units most EGR engines most SCR units with/without DPF with low S diesel Mid drain performance (~30-60tkm) SCR/EGR (Euro V) DPF (Euro V/VI) Source: The Lubrizol Corporation 24

25 Market Tiers Four distinct market tiers for Euro V Sulphated Ash, Phosphorus, Sulphur High SAPS Low/Mid SAPS UHPD (Ultra High Performance Diesel Engine Oil) Some EGR engines some SCR units EGR engines SCR units with/without DPF with low S diesel Extended drain performance SHPD (Super High Performance Diesel Engine Oil) most EGR engines most SCR units most EGR engines most SCR units with/without DPF with low S diesel Mid drain performance SCR/EGR (Euro V) DPF (Euro V/VI) Source: The Lubrizol Corporation 25

26 Focus areas for future Engine Oils Engine oil capability for higher biodiesel (FAME) content Engine Oil s effect on ultrafine particulate number Fuel economy improvement (FEI) and CO 2 reduction Fuel Economy Improvement Engine test with Cummins ISBe4 160B (measured in VTT) Fuel Economy Improvement, % 0,8 0,7 0,6 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 0,0 15W-40 (reference) 10W-40 5W-40 15W-30 10W-30 5W-30 0W-30 SAE Viscosity Grade Only higher quality, sulphur free base oils suitable for Euro VI and beyond heavy duty engine oil development programmes Neste Oil / Seppo Mikkonen 26

27 Group III base oil markets and Neste Oil s market share in 2015 EUROPE 29% NORTH AMERICA 15% 12% 0% % % M. EAST, AFRICA ASIA PACIFIC 17% 5% 2% SOUTHERN AMERICA % 37% 52% % 42% 32% Neste Oil / Seppo Mikkonen 27

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