1 Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) and Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) Training Module
2 DEF SCR Training Module Welcome to the Cummins Filtration DEF SCR training module. DEF & SCR systems are key to Cummins meeting the 2010 On-Highway emissions requirements. Many other engine manufacturers have selected SCR as their 2010 emission strategy. Consequently, DEF will be an integral part of their solution as well.
3 DEF SCR Training Module The following training module will introduce you to the basic aspects of SCR technology, providing an overview of the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system and Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF).
4 DEF SCR Training Module Objectives: Objective 1: Become familiar with DEF and SCR systems Objective 2: Gain further knowledge of DEF Objective 3: Understand Cummins Filtration s s role in DEF supply
5 Objective 1: Become familiar with DEF and SCR systems
6 Objective 1: Become familiar with DEF and SCR systems 2010 heavy-duty emissions standards for North America are: 0.2 g/hp-hr NOx 0.01 g/hp-hr Particulate Matter (PM). NOx (g/hp-hr) hr) PM (g/hp-hr) hr)
7 Objective 1: Become familiar with DEF and SCR systems This is a reduction of emissions by 98% since the late 1980 s. NOx (g/hp-hr) hr) PM (g/hp-hr) hr)
8 Objective 1: Become familiar with DEF and SCR systems Cummins has committed to providing a complete lineup of certified and compliant on-highway engine products that will meet the 2010 emissions standards.
9 Objective 1: Become familiar with DEF and SCR systems For 2010, Cummins is enhancing the technology that it currently has in the marketplace. Building on its successes with cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) introduced in 2002 and the Cummins Particulate Filter introduced in 2007, Cummins will meet the 2010 emissions standards with the addition of Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) aftertreatment using Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology.
10 Objective 1: Become familiar with DEF and SCR systems SCR technology uses a urea based chemical called diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) and a catalytic converter to significantly reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions. SCR Catalyst Very high efficiency Thermal stability
11 Objective 1: Become familiar with DEF and SCR systems SCR technology is not new to Cummins or Cummins Filtration. In 2006, Cummins launched its midrange engines certified to the Euro 4 standard using SCR for commercial vehicle applications in Europe. SCR Catalyst Very high efficiency Thermal stability
12 Objective 1: Become familiar with DEF and SCR systems Cummins has built and shipped over 50,000 SCR engines to date. Cummins Emission Solutions has built and shipped over 250,000 SCR systems. SCR Catalyst Very high efficiency Thermal stability
13 Objective 1: Become familiar with DEF and SCR systems Cummins Filtration has offered DEF for stationary applications for over 5 years. SCR Catalyst Very high efficiency Thermal stability
14 Objective 1: Become familiar with DEF and SCR systems DEF is injected into the hot exhaust gas stream where it vaporizes and decomposes to form ammonia and carbon dioxide. Ammonia (NH3) ) is the desired product which in conjunction with the SCR catalyst, converts the NOx to Nitrogen (N2) ) and water (H20). SCR Catalyst Very high efficiency Thermal stability
15 Selective Catalytic Reduction Components And The Chemical Process That Occurs Inside The SCR Device Chemistry is well understood and controllable DEF Injection Small quantity of DEF injected Proportional to NOx rate 32.5% solution in water, freezing point = 11 F Stored in heated tanks (NH 2 ) 2 CO Hydrolysis When the DEF is injected into hot exhaust gas, it vaporizes and decomposes to form ammonia and carbon dioxide NH 3 NOx Catalysis NO and NO 2 react with ammonia over a catalyst to form nitrogen and water vapor 4 Ammonia Slip Any trace amounts of ammonia remaining after reaction with NOx is broken down to nitrogen Maximum tailpipe ammonia 10PPM Urea Injector SCR Catalyst Slip Catalyst
16 Objective 1: Become familiar with DEF and SCR systems SCR maximizes combustion efficiencies allowing the engine to be fully optimized, providing: Improved engine performance and drivability Up to 5% fuel economy advantage over 07 Cummins Heavy Duty engines Lower contaminants in both exhaust and lube system Fewer Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) regenerations
17 Objective 1: Become familiar with DEF and SCR systems The combination of combustion design, fuel systems, air handling,, aftertreatment, filtration and electronic controls, all in-house core technologies, puts Cummins in a very unique and strong market position. Crankcase Ventilation System Engine Filtration Systems SCR - DEF Exhaust System Fuel Lube Coolant Air Intake System Turbo Centrifuge Aftertreatment System Exhaust Gas Recirculation System
18 Objective 2: Gain further knowledge of DEF
19 Objective 2: Gain further knowledge of DEF Diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) is the reactant necessary for the functionality of the SCR system. DEF is produced from natural gas, coal or other petroleum products.
20 Objective 2: Gain further knowledge of DEF Pure urea is solid at room temperature. DEF is prepared by dissolving solid urea to create a 32.5% solution in deionized water.
21 Objective 2: Gain further knowledge of DEF DEF has high purity requirements which are defined by the German Institute of Standardization DIN and the International Organization for Standardization ISO There is also an American Petroleum Institute (API) certification.
22 Objective 2: Gain further knowledge of DEF While urea is used commonly in agriculture, the formula used in an SCR system as DEF is a highly purified specially made liquid. End-users and operators will not be capable of producing their own DEF to these strict standards.
23 Objective 2: Gain further knowledge of DEF A 32.5% solution of DEF will freeze at 12 degrees F, (-11 C). This is the ideal solution as it allows the lowest freeze point. In the event the solution does freeze, the urea and water will thaw at the same rate, ensuring the solution does not become diluted.
24 Objective 2: Gain further knowledge of DEF The installation of an SCR system will provide for heating of the DEF tank by temperature controlled coolant heat. The DEF line from the tank to the doser will be heated by temperature controlled electrical heat tape. The system is designed to operate properly in cold climates. Cummins has seen unaided cold starts at -40 in under 2 seconds!
25 Objective 2: Gain further knowledge of DEF It is important to note, that even in the event that the DEF supply is frozen, (in a vehicle) it will NOT impact the operators ability to start up and continue normal operation of the vehicle. Note: If DEF freezes, it can be thawed and used. DEF is not damaged or destroyed from being frozen
26 Objective 2: Gain further knowledge of DEF Shelf life of DEF is a function of ambient storage temperature Not a concern even in the harshest climates ISO Spec details the Storage, Handling and Shelf Life minimum expectations DEF stored at a constant temperature of 95 deg F had a shelf life of over 6 months!
27 Objective 2: Gain further knowledge of DEF In order to maintain maximum shelf life, Cummins recommends DEF be stored at under 86 F (30 C) In order to avoid freezing, Cummins recommends DEF be stored at above 12 F (-11( 11 C)
28 Diesel Exhaust Fluid - Properties DEF is safe to handle and store Non-toxic and non-polluting Non-flammable Stable and colorless Non-hazardous Does not require special handling When stored at extreme temperatures, neither DEF nor Urea become toxic DEF is slightly alkaline with a ph of approximately 9
29 Objective 2: Gain further knowledge of DEF DEF consumption is expected to be approximately 2% of fuel consumption, dependant on vehicle operation, duty cycle, geography, ratings etc.
30 Diesel Exhaust Fluid - Operation Example: Heavy Duty Annual miles for average truck = 120,000 mpg for average truck = 6 mpg 120,000/ 6 mpg = 20,000 gallons diesel fuel per year DEF 2% of fuel consumption = 400 gallons of DEF/year 400 gallons / 20 gallon tank (average size) = 20 DEF fill-ups/year
31 Diesel Exhaust Fluid - Operation Example: Medium Duty Annual miles for average truck = 50,000 mpg for average truck = 8 mpg 50,000 miles/8 mpg = 6,250 gallons diesel fuel per year DEF 2% of fuel consumption = 125 gallons of DEF/year 125 gallons / 10 gallon tank (average size) = 13 DEF fill-ups/year A truck averaging 8 mpg can expect to travel approximately 400 miles on 1 gallon of DEF!
32 Diesel Exhaust Fluid - Operation DEF level gauge incorporated with all fuel gauges Multiple step notification system as to remaining DEF At no time is the vehicle ever shut down due to no DEF remaining
33 Diesel Exhaust Fluid - Operation The function of the SCR system is dependant on a high quality, 32.5% DEF solution: NOx sensors are in place to ensure good quality DEF is always used NOx Sensors
34 Diesel Exhaust Fluid - Maintenance On Cummins engines, maintenance is a simple filter change every 200K miles, 322K kilometers or 5000 hours. This DEF dosing unit filter will be available for order from your local Cummins Distributor. DEF Dosing Unit Filter Location
35 Diesel Exhaust Fluid - Maintenance The filter is located under a twist off cap in the DEF tank
36 Objective 3: Understand Cummins Filtration s s role in DEF supply
37 Objective 3: Understand Cummins Filtration s role in DEF supply Cummins Filtration has been providing DEF for use in stationary engines since 2003, formerly sold under the StableGuard Urea name.
38 Objective 3: Understand Cummins Filtration s role in DEF supply Cummins Filtration offers DEF through our extensive distribution network, which includes over 20,000 locations with nearly 8,000 retailers in North America. Fleetguard DEF is available for OEM first-fill as well as Aftermarket sales.
39 Objective 3: Understand Cummins Filtration s role in DEF supply Fleetguard DEF meets ISO22241 specifications and is certified by API.
40 Objective 3: Understand Cummins Filtration s role in DEF supply Fleetguard DEF is available in bulk, plastic and disposable totes, plastic drums, and smaller container sizes.
41 Objective 3: Understand Cummins Filtration s role in DEF supply Bulk delivery is available directly from our blending facilities for added convenience, and will be available throughout North America. Minimum tanker loads are 5,000 gallons, FOB blending location.
42 Objective 3: Understand Cummins Filtration s role in DEF supply DEF Products include: CC36057 Bulk CC36056 Plastic 330 gal. tote CC36055 Disposable 275 gal. tote CC36054 Plastic 55 gal. drum CC gal. bottle CC gal. bottle CC gal. bottle S Valve/Cutter Kit (for disposable tote)
43 Cummins Filtration DEF All-in in-one Kits for DEF Dispensing include motor, pump, nozzle, hose, and adapter Tote Electric Kit Tote Air Kit Drum Electric Kit Drum Air Kit Optional flow meter All materials meet ISO requirements for DEF compatibility
44 Diesel Exhaust Fluid Pricing DEF pricing is driven by various market factors Natural gas prices are only one driver of DEF pricing Current pricing is based on low volume The growing demand and increasing availability for DEF will influence competitive pricing Pricing of bulk DEF will be around the price of diesel, in the $2 - $3 per gallon range Smaller package pricing will vary based upon size and delivery method
45 Learn More about DEF To learn more about DEF, there are several helpful tools on cumminsfiltration.com: Brochure, LT15618 DEF Usage Calculator DEF Fact Sheet, MB10033 DEF Informational Video DEF MSDS Sheet Or visit these websites: everytime.cummins.com factsaboutscr.com truthaboutscr.com truckscr.com
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