Carl Zeiss SMT GmbH. Thermal Fluid-Structure Analysis of an optical Device including Radiation and Conduction

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1 Carl Zeiss SMT GmbH Star European Conference March 22-23, 2011 Noordwijk Thermal Fluid-Structure Analysis of an optical Device including Radiation and Conduction Timo Laufer Senior Engineer Carl Zeiss SMT GmbH, Oberkochen, Germany CFD-Simulations Aron Kneer, TinniT Technologies GmbH, Karlsruhe, Germany - PUBLIC - Page 1

2 Content 1. Carl Zeiss SMT GmbH and Products 2. Basic Principles of EUVL (Extreme Ultra Violet Lithography) 3. Essential System-Components, thermal Boundary Conditions 4. Heat Transport Mechanisms in rarefied Gases 5. CFD-Model and Results of the Simulation 6. Summary and Benefits - PUBLIC - Page 2

3 Content 1. Carl Zeiss SMT GmbH and Products 2. Basic Principles of EUVL (Extreme Ultra Violet Lithography) 3. Essential System-Components, thermal Boundary Conditions 4. Heat Transport Mechanisms in rarefied Gases 5. CFD-Model and Results of the Simulation 6. Summary and Benefits - PUBLIC - Page 3

4 Position of Carl Zeiss SMT GmbH within the Carl Zeiss Group - PUBLIC - Page 4

5 Sequence of Producing Micro Chips cutting polishing Material layering or alteration Photo resistcoating exposure (step and scan) Development and fixture exposure with lenses from Carl Zeiss SMT GmbH Etching and ion implementation Photo resistremoval (ashing) Finished wafer separation apply connections ASML other suppliers - PUBLIC - Page 5

6 Exposure Machine ASML TWINSCAN XT:1950i Zeiss components reticle wafer - PUBLIC - Page 6

7 Moore s Law The number of transistors on a chip doubles every 2 years Design rule / Resolution (mm) Processors 25-50Mhz Mhz Mhz Mhz 1-3 Ghz 3 Ghz Future Processors 4-? Ghz Increasing Performance year - PUBLIC - Page 7

8 Projection Lenses of Carl Zeiss SMT AG - PUBLIC - Page 8

9 Microlithography Optics enable Moore s Law bigger Lenses for Finer Details Optics have increased pixels/field ~24.000x! = k k Resolution = 1 NA Stepper / Scanner First stepper lens 436nm 365nm 248nm 193nm David Mann (GCA) 4800 ASML /40 ASML /300 ASML / nm immersion ASML 19X0i 13.5nm ASML 3100 NA Resolution (nm) No. of pixels x 10^ weight (kg) st prototype PUBLIC - Page 9

10 Projection Lens Starlith 1900i Technical Key Data Wavelength 193 nm NA 1.35 RMS optical performance < 0.9 nm Height 1290 mm Weight 1080 kg - PUBLIC - Page 10

11 Content 1. Carl Zeiss SMT GmbH and Products 2. Basic Principles of EUVL (Extreme Ultra Violet Lithography) 3. Essential System-Components, thermal Boundary Conditions 4. Heat Transport Mechanisms in rarefied Gases 5. CFD-Model and Results of the Simulation 6. Summary and Benefits - PUBLIC - Page 11

12 Projection Optics EUV Alpha Demo Tool Key Technical Data Wavelength 13.5 nm Height Weight 1500 mm 790 kg Resolution 50 nm (early PO) 40 nm (AD1, AD2) Aberrations < 3 nm (early PO) 1.4 nm (AD1, AD2) - PUBLIC - Page 12

13 EUV Mirror Specs: Compared to Real World Germany 1000 km 2962 m mirror surface roughness about 0.2 nm 100 mm surface roughness corresponds peaks of 2 mm in area of Germany of ~ 0.2 nm to - PUBLIC - Page 13

14 Alpha-Tool schematic Representation ca. 1 m - PUBLIC - Page 14

15 Content 1. Carl Zeiss SMT GmbH and Products 2. Basic Principles of EUVL (Extreme Ultra Violet Lithography) 3. Essential System-Components, thermal Boundary Conditions 4. Heat Transport Mechanisms in rarefied Gases 5. CFD-Model and Results of the Simulation 6. Summary and Benefits - PUBLIC - Page 15

16 EUV-System reticle EUV source wafer ca. 1 m - PUBLIC - Page 16

17 Thermal Boundary Conditions Heat Loads and Heat Sinks reticle EUV source wafer Heat Loads EUV source compartment, total generated heat flux within the source >> 10 kw EUV-light absorbed by the mirrors, max. absorbed heat flux > 500 W Actuators / motors, sensors, electrical components, ca. 1 m Heat Sinks (Coolers) Water cooled heat sinks and heat shields at temperature sensitive components. - PUBLIC - Page 17

18 Thermal Boundary Conditions Heat Transfer Heat Transfer Heat conduction in solids Heat transfer solid / solid Heat transfer in atmosphere in rarefied gases - conduction and / or convection also in small gaps - heat transfer fluid / solid fluid / solid interaction with consideration of the slip condition. IR-radiation with consideration of - the view factors of all components - the emissivities of all components Radiation is important specially for bigger distances between heat exchanging components and in case of high temperatures; the hottest components reach a temperature >> 700 C. - PUBLIC - Page 18

19 Thermal Boundary Conditions Output to be Evaluated Output Transient thermal analyses of the whole EUV system. All components with every single heat transfer between solid/solid and fluid/solid, emissivities, view factors, thermal conductivity, heat capacity and density are taken into account. For the temperature sensitive components a stability in the µk/min-range must be reached. Transient thermal-elastic analyses show the deformations over time. The transient deformations in the pm/min-range are important. - PUBLIC - Page 19

20 StarCCM+ Simulation Model Summary Data CFD: Number of Cells: > 4.5 million Number of Structure Properties: > 20 Number of Fluids: 1 (atmosphere) Number of Interfaces including thermal resistance models: > 130 Number of regions: > 50 dummy POB to test the handling - PUBLIC - Page 20

21 Content 1. Carl Zeiss SMT GmbH and Products 2. Basic Principles of EUVL (Extreme Ultra Violet Lithography) 3. Essential System-Components, thermal Boundary Conditions 4. Heat Transport Mechanisms in rarefied Gases 5. CFD-Model and Results of the Simulation 6. Summary and Benefits - PUBLIC - Page 21

22 Fluid Properties EUV atmosphere Unit Molecular weight M = [g/mol] No. of energy storage modes f = [1] Lennard-Jones length apple = [Å] Lennard-Jones energy apple/k = [K] - PUBLIC - Page 22

23 Slip Boundary and Knudsen Number - PUBLIC - Page 23

24 Content 1. Carl Zeiss SMT GmbH and Products 2. Basic Principles of EUVL (Extreme Ultra Violet Lithography) 3. Essential System-Components, thermal Boundary Conditions 4. Heat Transport Mechanisms in rarefied Gases 5. CFD-Model and Results of the Simulation 6. Summary and Benefits - PUBLIC - Page 24

25 StarCCM+ Simulation CFD-Model Summary Data CFD: Number of Cells: > 4.5 Mio Number of Structure Properties: > 20 Number of Fluids: 1 (atmosphere) Number of Interfaces including thermal resistance models: > 130 Number of regions: > 50 dummy POB to test the handling - PUBLIC - Page 25

26 StarCCM+ Simulation first Result thermal Simulation dummy POB to test the handling This CFD-simulation shows hot spots, which are short term effects in the beginning of the heating. In general the heat generating components have different time constants and the generated heat of these components has different heat paths to the temperature sensitive elements and/or to the heat sink. The heat loads of some heat generating components are even transient, so that we have transient heat loads as an input for a transient CFD-simulation. - PUBLIC - Page 26

27 StarCCM+ Simulation CFD-Model POB Test Facility schematic representation of the test facility CFD model of the vacuum chamber photo of the vacuum chamber within the test facility vacuum chamber vacuum chamber POB Within the vacuum chamber different scenarios can be tested. - PUBLIC - Page 27

28 StarCCM+ Simulation Results POB Test Facility (Vacuum Chamber) CFD model of the vacuum chamber photo of the vacuum chamber within the test facility Hot spots at the outside of the vacuum chamber can be seen according to the heat generating POB components. The heat transfer mechanism from the heat generating POB components to the vacuum chamber is radiation and conduction/convection. with POB inside vacuum chamber - PUBLIC - Page 28

29 Content 1. Carl Zeiss SMT GmbH and Products 2. Basic Principles of EUVL (Extreme Ultra Violet Lithography) 3. Essential System-Components, thermal Boundary Conditions 4. Heat Transport Mechanisms in rarefied Gases 5. CFD-Model and Results of the Simulation 6. Summary and Benefits - PUBLIC - Page 29

30 Summary and Benefits Summary Max. absorbed heat loads > 500 W Temperatures > 700 C Heat transport mechanisms: - heat conduction in solids - heat transfer solid/solid - heat transfer conduction/convection in rarefied gases, also in small gaps - heat transfer fluid/solid in rarefied gases with consideration of slip condition - radiation, all view factors and emissivities are taken into account Complex model with > 4.5 million elements, > 20 structure properties, > 130 interfaces, Transient thermal input for transient thermal CFD-simulations. Thermal stability in the µk/min- and pm/min-range must be guaranteed. Benefits The results of the transient CFD-simulation is an important input to quantify the thermal stability of the EUV-system. This information is essential during the layout and detailed design phase. The results of the transient thermal simulations help in the design of coolers to prohibit hotspots. Within a test facility (vacuum chamber) different scenarios can be tested. - PUBLIC - Page 30

31 - PUBLIC - Page 31

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