MEMS mirror for low cost laser scanners. Ulrich Hofmann

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1 MEMS mirror for low cost laser scanners Ulrich Hofmann

2 Outline Introduction Optical concept of the LIDAR laser scanner MEMS mirror requirements MEMS mirror concept, simulation and design fabrication process first results summary and outlook

3 Introduction Goals of the LIDAR sensor development: range: 80 m field of view: 250 degrees compact size: 6 cm x 6 cm x 8 cm low cost: < 40

4 LIDAR sensor optics concept

5 LIDAR sensor optics concept omnidirectional lens 2D-MEMS mirror

6 MEMS mirror requirements 1. large mirror aperture size of 7mm

7 MEMS mirror requirements 1. large mirror aperture size of 7mm 2. two-axis laser beam deflection

8 MEMS mirror requirements 1. large mirror aperture size of 7mm 2. two-axis laser beam deflection 3. circular scan pattern => constant azimuth angle

9 MEMS mirror requirements 1. large mirror aperture size of 7mm 2. two-axis laser beam deflection 3. circular scan pattern => constant azimuth angle 4. large tilt angle of 15 degrees in both axes

10 MEMS mirror requirements 1. large mirror aperture size of 7mm 2. two-axis laser beam deflection 3. circular scan pattern => constant azimuth angle 4. large tilt angle of 15 degrees in both axes 5. low static and dynamic mirror deformation

11 MEMS mirror requirements 1. large mirror aperture size of 7mm 2. two-axis laser beam deflection 3. circular scan pattern => constant azimuth angle 4. large tilt angle of 15 degrees in both axes 5. low static and dynamic mirror deformation 6. shock and vibration robust design

12 MEMS mirror requirements 1. large mirror aperture size of 7mm 2. two-axis laser beam deflection 3. circular scan pattern => constant azimuth angle 4. large tilt angle of 15 degrees in both axes 5. low static and dynamic mirror deformation 6. shock and vibration robust design 7. full functionality over broad temperature range ( C)

13 MEMS mirror requirements 1. large mirror aperture size of 7mm 2. two-axis laser beam deflection 3. circular scan pattern => constant azimuth angle 4. large tilt angle of 15 degrees in both axes 5. low static and dynamic mirror deformation 6. shock and vibration robust design 7. full functionality over broad temperature range ( C) 8. mass producible at low cost

14 Standard 2D MEMS mirror design approach: Gimbal mount configuration mirror stacked vertical comb drives springs gimbal

15 Gimbal mount design is the optimum choice for laser projection displays...

16 ... but not for a 7mm circle scanner 1. circular scanning requires identical resonant frequencies of both axes difficult to achieve with a gimbal design 2. the MEMS scanner would become too large and too expensive 3. disadvantageous eigenmode spectrum

17 MEMS mirror concept: Tripod design mirror plate (diameter 7mm, thickness 500 µm) circular bending springs (thickness 40 µm) identical resonant frequencies in xy minimum chip-size circular springs enable large tilt angle advantageous eigenmode spectrum stacked vertical comb electrodes for driving and sensing

18 deformation [µm] Finite element analysis of dynamic mirror deformation mirror standard thickness 80µm mirror with stiffening rings thickness 500µm solid mirror thickness 500µm standard mirror with no reinforcement mirror diameter [mm] mirror with stiffening ring solid mirror

19 Modal analysis Tripod 1st axis (f=677hz) Tripod 1st axis (f=1.6khz) Tripod 1st axis (f=1.6khz) 1st mode: parasitic piston 1kHz 2nd mode: first scan 1.6kHz 3rd mode: second scan 1.6kHz 4th mode: parasitic 11.7kHz

20 Capacitive Signal [V] electrostatic out-of-plane actuation by stacked vertical comb drives 0,15 0,10 0,05 0,00 drive pulse -0,05-0,10-0,15 0,0000 0,0005 0,0010 0,0015 0,0020 0,0025 Time [s] capacitive signal phase control loop

21 hermetic vacuum packaging of MEMS mirrors on wafer level 1. minimum damping 2. maximum scan angle 3. low driving voltage 4. effective protection against contamination

22 vacuum encapsulation of 2D-MEMS mirrors on wafer-level MEMS wafer

23 vacuum encapsulation of 2D-MEMS mirrors on wafer-level Glass wafer MEMS wafer glassfrit bonding

24 vacuum encapsulation of 2D-MEMS mirrors on wafer-level Glass wafer MEMS wafer glassfrit bonding bottom wafer Au / Si eutectic bonding

25 the benefit of vacuum encapsulation of MEMS scanning mirrors atmosphere vacuum Q-factor > 140,000

26 fabrication process based on dual layer 80µm thick polysilicon process

27 frontside etch

28 rear side etch

29 Wafer level vacuum encapsulation (cavity depth > 3 mm) titanium-getter

30 fabricated tripod mirror test structure comb drive electrodes mirror circular suspension rear side of the mirror stiffening rings spacer

31 first functional test of tripod mirror test structure single axis excitation f=1.5khz dual axis excitation f=1.5khz

32 tilt angle [degree] Tripod MEMS mirror design with increased tilt angle Finite Element Analysis of nonlinear springs new tripod mirror f = 0.8 khz volts tripod test structure f = 1.5 khz torque [mnm]

33 Conclusion Vacuum packaging is the key for large aperture MEMS mirrors to achieve large scan angles A tripod seems to be the appropriate design for a two-axis circle scanning MEMS mirror Batch processing on 8-inch silicon wafers enables low-cost mass production of these devices

34 Acknowledgement This work has been supported by the EC within the 7th framework programme under grant agreement no. FP7-ICT _ (MiniFaros)

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