COOKING THE ROOF CFD BEYOND THE WHITE SPACE

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1 COOKING THE ROOF CFD BEYOND THE WHITE SPACE Alex Nock 20 November 2013

2 CONTENTS 1. Introduction» Introduction to RED» Modeling in Data Centres 1. What is CFD» How it works» CFD in Data Centres 3. Cooking the Roof» Case Study 4. Why is it Important» Hints and Tips» Case Study 5. Conclusion» Final Word

3 INTRODUCTION TO RED RED Engineering is a multi-award winning building services practice delivering MEP engineering design services globally with a focus on local delivery» Established in 2004» Currently 140 staff worldwide» Regional headquarters in the UK, UAE and the newlyopened Istanbul and Singapore offices serving projects in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, India and the Far East» RED designs MEP services for infrastructure, new buildings and upgrade projects, with a focus on innovative, low energy solutions.» RED designs for mixed-use projects, data centres, offices, hotels, residential, retail and high rise.» Awarded globally for our low energy and innovative designs» Designed & delivered some of the most energy efficient data centres in the world» The first two Uptime Institute accredited tier designers in the UK» Designed & delivered 4 of the UK s tier certified data centres» Leading the field in the advancement of modular data centres Alex Nock Position: Head of Building Physics Education: BEng Electromechanical Engineering MSc Management Science & Finance

4 INTRODUCTION Energy Modelling» Conceptual Energy Modelling using Sefaira» DSM and Load Analysis using IES» Data Centre Energy Modelling using Romonet

5 INTRODUCTION 3D Design» Conceptual Building Design and Space Planning» 3D Renders and Walkthroughs» Revit and BIM

6 INTRODUCTION Hydraulic CFD» Design stage CFD Analysis of Hydraulic Systems» Modelling failure scenarios» Troubleshooting of existing system issues

7 INTRODUCTION Computational Fluid Dynamics» Data Hall Design Verification» Transient response analysis to data hall cooling failures» Analysis of existing data halls» Ongoing data hall management and expansion strategies» Plant room modelling» External plant compound modelling

8 WHAT IS CFD» Computational Fluid Dynamics or CFD is a technique used by Formula 1 teams and the aerospace industry for many years.» Using software, complex air flows, temperatures and pressures can be modelled such that the interaction between items of plant, equipment and their environment can be accurately predicted.» CFD enables a design to be fully tested and proven in a virtual environment before being put into production.» Over the last few years the use of CFD within the data centre sector has grown rapidly and it is now becoming an increasingly popular and important design tool.

9 HOW IT WORKS The CFDSolver takes a computational representation of the model... It iteratively solves the many simultaneous equations representing the Conservation Equations or Navier-Stokes Equations which define the mass, momentum and energy on a three dimensional array of points, defined by the superimposed grid or mesh, with a view to solving the equations numerically, which by themselves have no analytic solution.

10 HOW IT WORKS (SIMPLIFIED) Let the software do the hard work Build a 3D Model 2. Specify environment and behaviour of items inside the model 3. Press Solve... and in the Background... The scale model within the software is then diced into micro proportions through a 3 dimensional grid, each portion or cell is then examined with iterative calculations for the following variables, until a steady state solution is achieved» X Velocity» Y Velocity» Z Velocity» Temperature» Pressure» Kinetic Energy» Turbulence Dispersion Rate» Relative Humidity RED use the Future Facilities 6Sigma suite of software. This industry leading software package is designed specifically to capture the resolution and level of detail required to analyse mission critical facilities such as data centres.

11 CFD IN DATA CENTRES New Data Centres: White Space Analysis Data hall design verification Analyse the performance of unproven data hall designs to ensure even cooling distribution and modelling different control strategies. Transient response analysis to data hall cooling system failures Time dependant, second by second simulation of a data halls response to any cooling system failure. T =? Minutes

12 CFD IN DATA CENTRES Existing Data Centres: White Space Analysis Analysis of existing data hall facilities Survey the facility and investigate the operation of the existing data hall installations down to a server by server level of analysis, highlighting any hot spots, areas of recirculation and overheating. On-going data hall management and expansion strategies Advise on the placement of new equipment within the data hall, how to manage the facilities future expansion by simulating the installation of new servers in their optimal location and examining the effect of these on their surroundings.

13 CFD BEYOND THE WHITESPACE Plant room modelling Air flow and cooling analysis of critical equipment such as UPS, transformers and switchgear to ensure their environment remains within the constraints determined by the manufacturer. External plant compound modelling Analysis of external plant performance under different ambient conditions and wind strengths, illustrating how different items of plant interact with their environment.

14 CFD BEYOND THE WHITESPACE

15 CFD BEYOND THE WHITESPACE

16 CFD BEYOND THE WHITESPACE

17 CFD BEYOND THE WHITESPACE

18 CFD BEYOND THE WHITESPACE

19 CFD BEYOND THE WHITESPACE

20 COOKING THE ROOF Project Requirements» Client requirement for a minimum of 4,000m2 technical white space at 2kW/m2.» System design requirement of Uptime Tier III concurrent maintainability.» BREEAM Excellent for Data Centres» Planning acoustic requirement to be designed for 10dB below the background noise level at the nearest residential property resulting in a required noise level of 30dBA at 10m.» Planning Requirement for a 20% onsite renewable energy including Data Centre process load.» Building height and volume restrictions at inner city location.

21 COOKING THE ROOF Project Requirements» Chilled water system with economiser.» Water cooled Turbocor chillers with roof mounted adiabatic coolers (free cooling air cooled chillers too noisy and insufficient roof space for desired IT load).» Elevated chilled water temperatures and the available area for heat rejection plant maximised to create the optimal free cooling performance.» Plant room generators with remote radiators to reduce noise emissions from the facility.» Manufacturers recommended separation between plant

22 COOKING THE ROOF 35 o C Peak Ambient Condition on a Still Day:

23 COOKING THE ROOF 35 o C Peak Ambient Temperature and Max Wind Strength on that Day

24 COOKING THE ROOF What to do? Insufficient vertical separation between generator exhausts causing heat rejection plant to pull in hotter air...» Increase Generator Flue Discharge Height Recirculation of air flow around dry air coolers and radiators...» Raised Discharge Ducts on Dry Coolers Hotter air from around generator radiators being pulled towards Dry Coolers...» Baffle between Generator Radiators and Dry Coolers

25 COOKING THE ROOF 35 o C Peak Ambient Temperature and Max Wind Strength on that Day

26 COOKING THE ROOF 35 o C Peak Ambient Temperature and Max Wind Strength on that Day Further Analysis:

27 COOKING THE ROOF 35 o C Peak Ambient Temperature and Max Wind Strength on that Day Further Analysis:

28 COOKING THE ROOF Key Issues» Traditional solutions haven t solved the problem...» Still need to get more air into the roof compound...» Still need better separation between intake and exhaust air flows Iterations later...

29 CFD BEYOND THE WHITESPACE Refined Design: Re-alignment of dry coolers Increased spacing between generator dry coolers Extended Exhaust Flues Gap under acoustic louvre behind parapet wall to reduce air flow resistance into plant compound were acoustic conditions can be relaxed. All Pipework at high level Full height acoustic screen where required Complete separation between supply and exhaust air flows through plant compound lid. Dry cooler discharge ducts removed and dry coolers raised to allow more air underneath.

30 CFD BEYOND THE WHITESPACE 35 o C Peak Ambient Temperature and Max Wind Strength on that Day Proposed Design:

31 CFD BEYOND THE WHITESPACE 35 o C Peak Ambient Temperature and Max Wind Strength on that Day Proposed Design:

32 CFD BEYOND THE WHITESPACE 35 o C Peak Ambient Temperature and Max Wind Strength on that Day Proposed Design: Dry Air Cooler & Generator Radiator Inflows:

33 CFD BEYOND THE WHITESPACE

34 WHY IS IT IMPORTANT? Hints and Tips - Generators» Produces High Temperatures» Make sure airflow is optimised

35 WHY IS IT IMPORTANT? Hints and Tips Chillers / Dry Coolers» Manufacturer s minimum spacing is derived primarily by component replacement and maintenance.» Put wind into the mix and all bets are off...» As seen previously wind has more of an impact than high temperature alone. Things to think about:» Prevailing peak wind direction?» How does air get into the plant compound?

36 WHY IS IT IMPORTANT? High Temperature Incident Case Study Inputs:» Existing data centre at part load» Roof mounted free cooling air cooled chillers» Summers day 34 o C and peak 30kph wind speed Thermal Runaway of CHW System Multiple Compressors Trip on HP Chillers Manually Restarted Primary pumps taking return water into flow with no compressors running More Chillers Tripping Increased CHW recirculation Additional Chillers Started Increasing airflow requirement to plant compound

37 CONCLUSION» Manufacturers recommended space requirement is a GUIDELINE for access - It does not mean that the design will function as intended by default.» Heat rejection plant tested in the factory under peak conditions will perform very differently when installed outside as part of an array of units under differing wind conditions.» Peak wind conditions can have a much greater impact than peak temperature A warm windy day is usually worse than a hot still day.» Recirculation can not only impact performance at peak ambient but will hinder free cooling availability.» The plant compound is just as critical as the Data Hall to get right during the design phase - But is harder to achieve as you have no control on the environment!» The case studies have demonstrated the benefits of using CFD outside of the white space and the importance it has in modelling plant compounds it can still go wrong if you are following manufactures guidelines and best practices alone.

38 FINAL WORD» Data centre modelling... predict the otherwise un-predictable...why leave it to chance?

39 THANK YOU FOR LISTENING ALEX NOCK

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