EOC Review Acids Bases and Salts

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1 EOC Review Acids Bases and Salts

2 1.Identify the Bronsted-Lowry acid and base in each of the following reactions. 2.The hydroxide ion is 3. The hydronium ion is 4.HCl is a strong/weak acid? 5.CH 3 COOH is a strong/weak acid? 6.NaOH is a strong/weak base? 7.What is the formula for sulfuric acid? 8.What is the formula for sulfurous acid? 9.What is the formula for nitric acid? 10.What is the formula for nitrous acid? 11.What is the formula for sodium hydroxide?

3 12. What is the formula for magnesium hydroxide? 13. [H3O+] = 1 x 10-6 equals a ph of x 10-4 M KOH has a ph of 15. The concentration of an acid or base solution is determined by a process called 16. A strong acid mixed with a strong base will result in a solution.

4 Identify the Bronsted-Lowry Acid and Base in each of the following: Acid Base Conjugate Conjugate Acid Base Base Acid Conjugate Acid Conjugate Base

5 The hydroxide ion is OH- is the hydroxide ion and is a proton acceptor which is also known as a base.

6 The hydronium ion is H3O+ is the hydronium ion. It is known as a proton acceptor and is an acid. H+ also denotes acid The hydronium ion has a +1 charge

7 HCl is a strong/weak acid? Hydrochloric is a strong acid It dissociates almost completely in water Don t confuse strong/weak with concentrated/dilute You can have a dilute solution of strong acid You can have a concentrated solution of a weak or a strong acid

8 CH3COOH is a strong/weak acid? There are 7 strong acids which include Hydrochloric (HCl), Chloric (HClO3), Perchloric (HClO4), Nitric (HNO3), Sulfuric (H2SO4), Hydrobromic (HBr), and Hydroiodic (HI) Acetic acid is not one of these and does not dissociate completely in solution It is therefore a weak acid Acetic acid is also known as vinegar

9 NaOH is a strong/weak base? Strong bases dissociate completely in solution There are 8 strong bases 5 elements from group 1A form metal hydroxides [LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, CsOH] 3 heavy group 3A elements form metal hydroxides [Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, Ba(OH)2]

10 NaOH is a strong/weak base? NaOH is on the strong list so it is a strong base. If a base is not on the strong list, consider it to be weak

11 What is the formula for sulfuric acid? -ic ending means (most of the time) that the acid forms from the ate polyatomic ion Sulfuric acid forms from the sulfate ion Sulfate ion is SO4 `² There must be 2 positive H s to balance the 2 negative charges Therefore sulfuric acid has the formula H2SO4

12 What is the formula for sulfurous acid? -ous ending means (usually) that the acid is formed from the ite polyatomic ion Sulfurous acid forms from the sulfite ion Sulfite ion SO3`² There must be 2 positive H charges to balance the 2 negative charges Therefore sulfurous acid is H2SO3

13 What is the formula for nitric acid? -ic ending Remember I ate something icky Nitrate ion NO3` HNO3

14 What is the formula for nitrous acid? -ous ending Nitrite ion NO2` HNO2

15 What is the formula for sodium hydroxide? Hydroxide means it s a base Hydroxide is OH` Sodium is in group 1 and has a positive 1 charge Positive 1 and negative 1 cancel Therefore sodium hydroxide is NaOH

16 What is the formula for magnesium Hydroxide OH` hydroxide? Magnesium is in group 2 and has a +2 charge It requires two negatively charged OH` to cancel the +2 charge Therefore magnesium hydroxide is Mg(OH)2

17 [H3O+] = 1 x 10-6 equals a ph of ph hydrogen ion concentration [H3O]+ is the hydronium ion which indicates an acid If the acid ion (hydrogen ion) concentration is 1 x 10-6 then the ph must be 6.

18 KOH that is 1.0 x 10-4 has a ph of _ KOH is a base the ph must be 14 4 = 10 ph 10

19 The concentration of an acid or base solution is determined by a titration process called A titration of an unknown acid or base with a known of its opposite (acid or base) will allow one to determine the concentration of the unknown acid or base.

20 A strong acid mixed with a strong base will result in a solution. Neutral When a strong acid is mixed with a strong base, their ions are neutralized to form a neutral solution of salt and water. HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O Hydrochloric acid + sodium hydroxide sodium chloride (table salt) + water

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