Talk in. Arrhenius Acid- Base Definition and ph

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1 Talk in. Arrhenius Acid Base Definition and ph When we think of acids, we typically think of the Arrhenius definition. Svante Arrhenius ( ) Arrhenius Acid = Any compound that increases the hydronium ion (H 3 O + ) concentration in aqueous solution Arrhenius Base = Any compound that increases the hydroxide ion concentration in aqueous solution MOVIE For any Acid: HA + H 2 O H 3 O + (aq) + A (aq) Acid + Water Hydronium + Acid anion The hydrogen of the acid is essentially a single proton that can bond through a coordination bond to water forming H 3 O +, called the hydronium ion. Examples: HCl (g) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + Cl (aq) CH 3 CO 2 H + H 2 O H 3 O + (aq) + CH 3 CO 2 (aq) Draw the Lewis structures for both examples above and show the proton movement with arrows. A careless but often seen abbreviation for acid systems: HCl (g) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + Cl (aq) Could be written as: HCl (g) H + (aq) + Cl (aq) It is important to remember that water is still there and H + (aq) is truly in the form of H 3 O + (aq) Therefore, for any acid written, H 2 SO 4(aq), it really means: H 2 SO 4(l) H + (aq) + HSO 4 (aq) Or H 2 SO 4(l) H 3 O + (aq) + HSO 4 (aq) 1

2 Strong Acids You will recall that the seven strong acids are HCl, HBr, HI, HNO 3, H 2 SO 4, HClO 3, and HClO 4. These are, by definition, strong electrolytes and exist totally as ions in aqueous solution. For the monoprotic strong acids, [H 3 O + ] = [acid]. For any Base: MOH + H 2 O M + + OH + H 2 O Water acts as a solvent and does not form a complex for Arrhenius bases as it does for Arrhenius acids Therefore, H NaOH Na 2 O + (aq) + OH (aq) Ca(OH) 2 H 2 O Ca 2+ (aq) + 2OH (aq) Strong Bases Strong bases are the soluble hydroxides, which are the alkali metal and heavier alkaline earth metal hydroxides (Ca 2+, Sr 2+, and Ba 2+ ). Again, these substances dissociate completely in aqueous solution. 1. Write the dissociation (ionization) reaction for each of the following acids or bases, both with and with out water. a. Nitric acid b. Strontium hydroxide c. Ammonium ion d. Anilinum ion (C 6 H 5 NH 3+ ) e. Lithium hydroxide Autoionization of Water Autoionization = self ionization of a molecule into ions by the intermolecular forces of the substance In water, a very small fraction of molecules are ionized by the effects of hydrogen bonding. H 2 O H + + OH Notice, this is an equilibrium reaction where: K = [H 3 O + ][OH ] / [H 2 O] Remember, H 2 O is a pure liquid, therefore the equilibrium expression reads: K = [H 3 O + ][OH ] = K w K w is called the ionproduct constant of water. 2

3 K w = 1.0 x o C) You should memorize this number. In neutral solutions, the concentration of hydronium ions must equal the concentration of hydroxide ions. Since water is neutral [H 3 O + ] = [OH ] = 1.0 x 10 7 Using the ionproduct constant of water, it is possible to calculate the H + concentration or OH concentration in any acidic or basic solution if either is known. This is true because the product of H + and OH in any aqueous solution must always equal the ionproduct constant (1.0 x ) Because the ion product of H + and OH is constant if: [H + ] > 1.0 x 10 7 the solution is acidic [H + ] < 1.0 x 10 7 the solution is basic Or [H + ] > [OH ] acidic solution [H + ] < [OH ] basic solution 2. A M NaOH solution was made in the laboratory. What is the hydronium ion concentration of the solution? Acid Concentration In the laboratory, we have worked with extremely strong acid solutions (0.1, 1.0, 3.0, 6.0 M, ) In the natural and biological world, acid concentrations are much much lower. For example, stomach acid is only 1.00 x 10 2 M or mol/l HCl Because acid and base concentrations are usually extremely low, a log scale is generally used to make the numbers easier to work with. ph = log [H 3 O + ] This is how we get the ph of water equal to 7 [H 3 O + ] = [OH ] = 1.0 x 10 7 ph = log (1.0 x 10 7 ) = 7 3

4 ph scale acid neutral base highest [H 3 O + ] on left lowest [H 3 O + ] on right ph These are the ph values for several common substances 3. For the following HCl solutions, calculate either the [H + ] and [OH ] concentrations if given ph or ph if given concentration. a M b.ph of 2.73 c M d.ph of 10.4 In basic solutions, the H 3 O + ion concentration is very low and we may want to describe the solution in terms of OH ion concentration. Using the same log scale, poh = log [OH ] 4. Calculate the poh for the solutions in sample problem 3 above (AP equation Sheet) 4

5 Using the log scale for ion concentration, we should recognize that for the expression: K w = [H 3 O + ][OH ] log K w = log [H 3 O + ] + log [OH ] pk w = ph +poh = Therefore, if we know ph, poh, [H 3 O + ], or [OH ] all other values can be obtained. (AP equation Sheet) 5. For the following solutions, calculate ph, poh, [H 3 O + ], [OH ] and state whether the solution is neutral, basic or acidic. a M HCl b. 1.0 x 10 7 M NaOH c. Sulfuric acid solution with a ph of 4.8 d. ph 8.92 calcium hydroxide solution e M perchloric acid solution How Do We Measure ph? For less accurate measurements, one can use Litmus paper Red paper turns blue above ~ph = 8 Blue paper turns red below ~ph = 5 An indicator How Do We Measure ph? For more accurate measurements, one uses a ph meter, which measures the voltage in the solution. 5

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