# LEDs and Sensors: Analog to Digital

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1 LEDs and Sensors: Analog to Digital In the last lesson, we used switches to create input for the Arduino, and, via the microcontroller, the inputs controlled our LEDs when playing Simon. In this lesson, we will again use input to control output, but this time we will use analog input and analog output. Analog Input The real world is not digital. Consider temperature fluctuation as an example, it generally moves within some range of values without making large abrupt changes. We can measure aspects of our world like temperature, light intensity, forces, or whatever using analog sensors. In a digital device, the resulting signals are stored as sequential digital data. Consider the analog signal depicted below. In a digital device, we discretize the input signal range (i.e., 0 to 5 Volts for the Arduino) into different voltage levels or intervals called states. The number of states is the resolution. Common resolution values range from 256 states (i.e., stored in 8 bits) to 4,294,967,296 states (i.e., stored in 32 bits); the Arduino uses 1024 states stored in 10 bits. This means that 5V/1024 or 4.8 mv is the smallest voltage change that you can measure. The translation of analog voltage values into different states is called Analog to Digital Conversion. The Arduino has built-in analog-to-digital conversion, and the analogread()command (it s actually a procedure call), is used to invoke that conversion process.

2 Analog Output As you know, the digital pins on the Arduino board can output either high (5V) or low (0V) on or off. But what if we want an output voltage in between 0V and 5V--something simulating an analog signal? Well, we can do this using a process called Pulse Width Modulation (PWM). Although we can t use the Arduino s digital pins to directly supply say 2.5V, we can pulse the output on and off really fast to produce the same effect. If you were to watch the output signal on an oscilloscope, you would see the output pulsing between high and low at regular intervals. Since this on-off pulsing is happening so quickly, the connected output device sees the result as a 50% reduction in the normal voltage (in this example). We can vary the output voltage (the effective voltage ) by regulating or modulating the width of the high pulse. For example, if we make the high pulse 25% as wide (in time) as the low pulse, the effective voltage will 25% of full voltage. On the Arduino, the analogwrite() command (i.e., procedure call) applied to an analog output pin is used to invoke the PWM process. In the next exercises, we will use a potentiometer and several sensors to generate analog input. We ll then use that input to control both digital and analog (i.e., PWM) output.

3 Analog I/O Exercise 1: LED Fader In this exercise, we will use a potentiometer to generate analog input. We ve used them before; a potentiometer, or, pot for short, is just a variable resistor. Connect the middle leg of the pot (the one marked measure in the image above) to analog pin 2 of the Arduino. Connect the other 2 legs of the pot to 5V and ground as shown above. Turning the knob of the pot changes the voltage experienced at pin 2 as shown below. Now add an LED to your breadboard and connect it to pin 9 of the Arduino as shown below. Note that pin 9 is an analog output, or PWM pin.

5 Analog I/O Exercise 4: A Light-Sensitive Theremin This time replace the SHARP distance sensor with a photoresistor as shown in the schematic below. Use a large resistor such as a 10k Ohm (brown-black-orange) resistor for R1 in the schematic below. A photoresistor is a light-dependent resistor---brighter light means less resistance. Again, run the program that you developed for exercise 2 and enjoy the effect that varying the light on the photoresistor has on the sound and the LED.

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