Pulse Width Modulation

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Pulse Width Modulation"

Transcription

1 Pulse Width Modulation Pulse width modulation (PWM) is a powerful technique for controlling analog circuits with a microprocessor's digital outputs. PWM is employed in a wide variety of applications, ranging from measurement and communications to power control and conversion. Analogue circuits An analogue signal has a continuously varying value, with infinite resolution in both time and magnitude. A nine-volt battery is an example of an analog device, in that its output voltage is not precisely 9V, changes over time, and can take any real-numbered value. Analogue signals are distinguishable from digital signals because the latter always take values only from a finite set of predetermined possibilities, such as the set 0V, 5V. Analogue voltages and currents can be used to control things directly, like the volume of a car radio. In a simple analogue radio, a knob is connected to a variable resistor. As you turn the knob, the resistance goes up or down. As that happens, the current flowing through the resistor increases or decreases. This changes the amount of current driving the speakers, thus increasing or decreasing the volume. An analogue circuit is one, like the radio, whose output is linearly proportional to its input. Digital control By controlling analogue circuits digitally, system costs and power consumption can be drastically reduced. In a nutshell, PWM is a way of digitally encoding analogue signal levels. Through the use of high-resolution counters, the duty cycle of a square wave is modulated to encode a specific analogue signal level. The PWM signal is still digital because, at any given instant of time, the full DC supply is either fully on or fully off. The voltage or current source is supplied to the analog load by means of a repeating series of on and off pulses. The on-time is the time during which the DC supply is applied to the load, and the offtime is the period during which that supply is switched off. Figure 1 shows three different PWM signals. Figure 1a shows a PWM output at a 10% duty cycle. That is, the signal is on for 10% of the period and off the other 90%. Figures 1b and 1c show PWM outputs at 50% and 90% duty cycles, respectively. These three PWM outputs encode three different analogue signal values, at 10%, 50%, and 90% of the full strength. If, for example, the supply is 9V and the duty cycle is 10%, a 0.9V analogue signal results.

2 Figure 1: PWM signals of varying duty cycles Figure 2 shows a simple circuit that could be driven using PWM. In the figure, a 9V battery powers an incandescent lightbulb. If we closed the switch connecting the battery and lamp for 50ms, the bulb would receive 9V during that interval. If we then opened the switch for the next 50ms, the bulb would receive 0V. If we repeat this cycle 10 times a second, the bulb will be lit as though it were connected to a 4.5V battery (50% of 9V). We say that the duty cycle is 50% and the modulating frequency is 10Hz. Figure 2: A simple circuit The AVR atmega16 supports pulse width modulation (PWM) on all three timer counters. Initially we will use the 8 bit timer 0 to implement this function. The AVR supports normal PWM or so called fast PWM. Normal PWM involves starting a counter which counts up to it s maximum value and then reverses, counts back to zero and then repeats. This can be visualised as a sawtooth waveformas shown in Figure 3. In order to create output pulses whose mark:space ratio changes the output compare register (Ref) is loaded with a value so that when the count reaches that value the Output is reversed. Figure 3

3 As the value of Ref reduces so the width of the pulses increase and as Ref increase then the width of the pulses will decrease. In the atmega16 Ref = OCR0 and the output is OC0 which is bit 3 on PORTB. Section from mega16 datasheet The phase correct PWM mode (WGM01:0 = 1) provides a high resolution phase correct PWM waveform generation option. The phase correct PWM mode is based on a dualslope operation. The counter counts repeatedly from BOTTOM to MAX and then from MAX to BOTTOM. In non-inverting Compare Output mode, the Output Compare (OC0) is cleared on the compare match between TCNT0 and OCR0 while upcounting, and set on the compare match while downcounting. In inverting Output Compare mode, the operation is inverted. The dual-slope operation has lower maximum operation frequency than single slope operation. However, due to the symmetric feature of the dual-slope PWM modes, these modes are preferred for motor control applications. The PWM resolution for the phase correct PWM mode is fixed to eight bits. In phase correct PWM mode the counter is incremented until the counter value matches MAX. When the counter reaches MAX, it changes the count direction. The TCNT0 value will be equal to MAX for one timer clock cycle. The timing diagram for the phase correct PWM mode is shown on Figure 33. The TCNT0 value is in the timing diagram shown as a histogram for illustrating the dual-slope operation. The diagram includes non-inverted and inverted PWM outputs. The small horizontal line marks on the TCNT0 slopes represent compare matches between OCR0 and TCNT0. This technique is effectively digital to analogue conversion. Fast Pulse Width Mode Figure. 4: Fast Pulse Width Mode

4 Section from mega16 datasheet The fast Pulse Width Modulation or fast PWM mode provides a high frequency PWM waveform generation option. The fast PWM differs from the other PWM option by its single-slope operation. The counter counts from BOTTOM to MAX then restarts from BOTTOM. In non-inverting Compare Output mode, the Output Compare (OC0) is cleared on the compare match between TCNT0 and OCR0, and set at BOTTOM. In inverting Compare Output mode, the output is set on compare match and cleared at BOTTOM. Due to the single-slope operation, the operating frequency of the fast PWM mode can be twice as high as the phase correct PWM mode that use dualslope operation. This high frequency makes the fast PWM mode well suited for power regulation, rectification, and DAC applications. High frequency allows physically small sized external components (coils, capacitors), and therefore reduces total system cost. In fast PWM mode, the counter is incremented until the counter value matches the MAX value. The counter is then cleared at the following timer clock cycle. The timing diagram for the fast PWM mode is shown in Figure 32. The TCNT0 value is in the timing diagram shown as a histogram for illustrating the single-slope operation. The diagram includes non-inverted and inverted PWM outputs. The small horizontal line marks on the TCNT0 slopes represent compare matches between OCR0 and TCNT0. #include <avr/io.h> #include <avr/signal.h> #include <avr/interrupt.h> #define PWM_select ((~(inp(pina)) & 3)) main() unsigned int oldtogs; outp(0x??,ddra); outp(0x??,ddrb); outp(0x??,porta); outp(0x??,tccr0); while (1) if (PWM_select!= (oldtogs)) oldtogs = PWM_select; oldtogs = oldtogs; switch (oldtogs) case 0: break; case 1: break; case 2:

5 break; case 3: ; Type in the above program and insert the correct values for the registers. Enter comments where relevant and save in your area. Date Tutors signature

AVR Timer/Counter. Prof Prabhat Ranjan DA-IICT, Gandhinagar

AVR Timer/Counter. Prof Prabhat Ranjan DA-IICT, Gandhinagar AVR Timer/Counter Prof Prabhat Ranjan DA-IICT, Gandhinagar 8-bit Timer/Counter0 with PWM Single Compare Unit Counter Clear Timer on Compare Match (Auto Reload) Glitch-free, Phase Correct Pulse Width Modulator

More information

Digital to Analog Conversion Using Pulse Width Modulation

Digital to Analog Conversion Using Pulse Width Modulation Digital to Analog Conversion Using Pulse Width Modulation Samer El-Haj-Mahmoud Electronics Engineering Technology Program Texas A&M University Instructor s Portion Summary The purpose of this lab is to

More information

PWM IN AVR. Developed by: Krishna Nand Gupta Prashant Agrawal Mayur Agarwal

PWM IN AVR. Developed by: Krishna Nand Gupta Prashant Agrawal Mayur Agarwal PWM IN AVR Developed by: Krishna Nand Gupta Prashant Agrawal Mayur Agarwal PWM (pulse width Modulation) What is PWM? Frequency = (1/T) Duty Cycle = (Thigh/T) What is need of PWM? I answer this in respect

More information

UNIVERSITY OF BOLTON. ENGINEERING, SPORTS and SCIENCES BSC (HONS) MECHATRONICS SEMESTER 1 EXAMINATION 2013/2014 ELECTRONICS FOR MECHATRONICS

UNIVERSITY OF BOLTON. ENGINEERING, SPORTS and SCIENCES BSC (HONS) MECHATRONICS SEMESTER 1 EXAMINATION 2013/2014 ELECTRONICS FOR MECHATRONICS [kh24] UNIVERSITY OF BOLTON ENGINEERING, SPORTS and SCIENCES BSC (HONS) MECHATRONICS SEMESTER 1 EXAMINATION 2013/2014 ELECTRONICS FOR MECHATRONICS MODULE NO: MEC6005 Date: 16 December 2013 Time: 10:00

More information

Experiment 8 : Pulse Width Modulation

Experiment 8 : Pulse Width Modulation Name/NetID: Teammate/NetID: Experiment 8 : Pulse Width Modulation Laboratory Outline In experiment 5 we learned how to control the speed of a DC motor using a variable resistor. This week, we will learn

More information

Pulse Width Modulation

Pulse Width Modulation Pulse Width Modulation Pulse width modulation (PWM) is a technique in which a series of digital pulses is used to control an analog circuit. The length and frequency of these pulses determines the total

More information

DIGITAL-TO-ANALOGUE AND ANALOGUE-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION

DIGITAL-TO-ANALOGUE AND ANALOGUE-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION DIGITAL-TO-ANALOGUE AND ANALOGUE-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION Introduction The outputs from sensors and communications receivers are analogue signals that have continuously varying amplitudes. In many systems

More information

APPLICATION NOTE - 017

APPLICATION NOTE - 017 APPLICATION NOTE - 017 PWM Motor Drives Theory and Measurement Considerations Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) power electronic techniques represent a large and increasing proportion of modern power electronics.

More information

CONVERTERS. Filters Introduction to Digitization Digital-to-Analog Converters Analog-to-Digital Converters

CONVERTERS. Filters Introduction to Digitization Digital-to-Analog Converters Analog-to-Digital Converters CONVERTERS Filters Introduction to Digitization Digital-to-Analog Converters Analog-to-Digital Converters Filters Filters are used to remove unwanted bandwidths from a signal Filter classification according

More information

1/22/16. You Tube Video. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ympzipfabyw. Definitions. Duty Cycle: on-time per period (specified in per cent)

1/22/16. You Tube Video. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ympzipfabyw. Definitions. Duty Cycle: on-time per period (specified in per cent) Definition Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) is simply a way of getting the micro-controller to manage pulsing a pin on and off at a set period and duty cycle. The LPC11U24 has four timers with four match registers

More information

Generation of Square and Rectangular Waveforms Using Astable Multivibrators

Generation of Square and Rectangular Waveforms Using Astable Multivibrators Generation of Square and Rectangular Waveforms Using Astable Multivibrators A square waveform can be generated by arranging for a bistable multivibrator to switch states periodically. his can be done by

More information

Interfacing a Servo to the ATmega16

Interfacing a Servo to the ATmega16 Learning Objectives: Interfacing a Servo to the ATmega16 After successfully completing this lab, students will be able to: Desribe how a radio control (RC) servo works Interface a RC servo to a microcontroller

More information

This representation is compared to a binary representation of a number with N bits.

This representation is compared to a binary representation of a number with N bits. Chapter 11 Analog-Digital Conversion One of the common functions that are performed on signals is to convert the voltage into a digital representation. The converse function, digital-analog is also common.

More information

8-Bit Timer/Counter 0

8-Bit Timer/Counter 0 Counter/Timer 0 and 2 (TCNT0, TCNT2) are nearly identical. Differences: -TCNT0 can run off an external 32Khz clock (Tosc) or the internal clock after it has passed through the prescaler. -TCNT2 can run

More information

The counterpart to a DAC is the ADC, which is generally a more complicated circuit. One of the most popular ADC circuit is the successive

The counterpart to a DAC is the ADC, which is generally a more complicated circuit. One of the most popular ADC circuit is the successive The counterpart to a DAC is the ADC, which is generally a more complicated circuit. One of the most popular ADC circuit is the successive approximation converter. 1 2 The idea of sampling is fully covered

More information

Generating Common Waveforms Using the LM555, Operational Amplifiers, and Transistors

Generating Common Waveforms Using the LM555, Operational Amplifiers, and Transistors Generating Common Waveforms Using the LM555, Operational Amplifiers, and Transistors Kenneth Young November 16, 2012 I. Abstract The generation of precise waveforms may be needed within any circuit design.

More information

PERIPHERAL INTERFACE CONTROLLERS. There are many different Peripheral Interface Controllers: examples include the PIC16F873 and the PIC16F876 and the

PERIPHERAL INTERFACE CONTROLLERS. There are many different Peripheral Interface Controllers: examples include the PIC16F873 and the PIC16F876 and the PERIPHERAL INTERFACE CONTROLLERS There are many different Peripheral Interface Controllers: examples include the PIC16F873 and the PIC16F876 and the PIC16F877. The PIC16F873 and PIC16F876 have the same

More information

Chapter 6: From Digital-to-Analog and Back Again

Chapter 6: From Digital-to-Analog and Back Again Chapter 6: From Digital-to-Analog and Back Again Overview Often the information you want to capture in an experiment originates in the laboratory as an analog voltage or a current. Sometimes you want to

More information

UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHARLOTTE. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHARLOTTE. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHARLOTTE Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Experiment No. 5 - Gain-Bandwidth Product and Slew Rate Overview: In this laboratory the student will explore

More information

MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. Embedded C on a PIC. Programming a Pulse Width Modulation on a PIC18F4520. Merav Nahoom 11/13/2009

MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. Embedded C on a PIC. Programming a Pulse Width Modulation on a PIC18F4520. Merav Nahoom 11/13/2009 MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Embedded C on a PIC Programming a Pulse Width Modulation on a PIC18F4520 Merav Nahoom 11/13/2009 Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) is the most effective mean

More information

ETEC 421 - Digital Controls PIC Lab 10 Pulse Width Modulation

ETEC 421 - Digital Controls PIC Lab 10 Pulse Width Modulation ETEC 421 - Digital Controls PIC Lab 10 Pulse Width Modulation Program Definition: Write a program to control the speed of a dc motor using pulse width modulation. Discussion: The speed of a dc motor is

More information

Objectives. Electric Current

Objectives. Electric Current Objectives Define electrical current as a rate. Describe what is measured by ammeters and voltmeters. Explain how to connect an ammeter and a voltmeter in an electrical circuit. Explain why electrons travel

More information

MODULE 13 - INTERFACING THE ANALOG WORLD TO DIGITAL CIRCUITS

MODULE 13 - INTERFACING THE ANALOG WORLD TO DIGITAL CIRCUITS Introduction to Digital Electronic Design Module 13, Interfacing Analog to Digital Circuits 1 MODULE 13 - INTERFACING THE ANALOG WORLD TO DIGITAL CIRCUITS OVERVIEW: Digital circuits require the input signal

More information

ARRL Morse Code Oscillator, How It Works By: Mark Spencer, WA8SME

ARRL Morse Code Oscillator, How It Works By: Mark Spencer, WA8SME The national association for AMATEUR RADIO ARRL Morse Code Oscillator, How It Works By: Mark Spencer, WA8SME This supplement is intended for use with the ARRL Morse Code Oscillator kit, sold separately.

More information

Improved LC filter in class D. audio power amplifier using. simulated inductor *

Improved LC filter in class D. audio power amplifier using. simulated inductor * CHAPTER 6 Improved LC filter in class D audio power amplifier using simulated inductor * * Partial contents of this Chapter has been published in D.Susan, S.Jayalalitha, Improved LC filter in Class D amplifier

More information

Comparator and Schmitt Trigger

Comparator and Schmitt Trigger Comparator and Schmitt Trigger Comparator circuits find frequent application in measurement and instrumentation systems. Learning Objectives Understand the Op-Amp Comparator with and without an offset

More information

Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) Drives. AC Drives Using PWM Techniques

Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) Drives. AC Drives Using PWM Techniques Drives AC Drives Using PWM Techniques Power Conversion Unit The block diagram below shows the power conversion unit in Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) drives. In this type of drive, a diode bridge rectifier

More information

Introduction 1 Block diagram 1

Introduction 1 Block diagram 1 Electric Druid VCLFO Introduction 1 Block diagram 1 Features 2 Fastest LFO frequency of around 12.8Hz 2 Slowest LFO frequency of around 0.05Hz 2 10-bit LFO output resolution 2 19.5KHz sample output rate

More information

Chapter 15. Time Response of Reactive Circuits. Objectives

Chapter 15. Time Response of Reactive Circuits. Objectives Chapter 15 Time Response of Reactive Circuits Objectives Explain the operation of an RC integrator Analyze an RC integrator with a single input pulse Analyze an RC integrator with repetitive input pulses

More information

Overview: The purpose of this experiment is to introduce diode rectifier circuits used in DC power supplies.

Overview: The purpose of this experiment is to introduce diode rectifier circuits used in DC power supplies. UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHARLOTTE Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Experiment No. 3 Diodes and Bridge Rectifiers Overview: The purpose of this experiment is to introduce diode

More information

Figure 1. Front Panel of Function Generator

Figure 1. Front Panel of Function Generator Equipment Introduction: Part I - Introduction to the Function Generator Overview: The function generator is used to generate a wide range of alternating-current (AC) signals. A diagram of the Leader LFG-1300S

More information

Interfacing Analog to Digital Data Converters

Interfacing Analog to Digital Data Converters Converters In most of the cases, the PIO 8255 is used for interfacing the analog to digital converters with microprocessor. We have already studied 8255 interfacing with 8086 as an I/O port, in previous

More information

Fundamentals of Signature Analysis

Fundamentals of Signature Analysis Fundamentals of Signature Analysis An In-depth Overview of Power-off Testing Using Analog Signature Analysis www.huntron.com 1 www.huntron.com 2 Table of Contents SECTION 1. INTRODUCTION... 7 PURPOSE...

More information

EET272 Worksheet Week 9

EET272 Worksheet Week 9 EET272 Worksheet Week 9 answer questions 1-5 in preparation for discussion for the quiz on Monday. Finish the rest of the questions for discussion in class on Wednesday. Question 1 Questions AC s are becoming

More information

Digital to Analog and Analog to Digital Conversion

Digital to Analog and Analog to Digital Conversion Real world (lab) is Computer (binary) is digital Digital to Analog and Analog to Digital Conversion V t V t D/A or DAC and A/D or ADC D/A Conversion Computer DAC A/D Conversion Computer DAC Digital to

More information

Digital Fundamentals

Digital Fundamentals Digital Fundamentals Tenth Edition Floyd Chapter 1 2009 Pearson Education, Upper 2008 Pearson Saddle River, Education NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved Analog Quantities Most natural quantities that we see

More information

Switch Mode Power Supply Topologies

Switch Mode Power Supply Topologies Switch Mode Power Supply Topologies The Buck Converter 2008 Microchip Technology Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. WebSeminar Title Slide 1 Welcome to this Web seminar on Switch Mode Power Supply Topologies.

More information

History of inverter technology

History of inverter technology 1 1. What is Inverter technology? 2. Basic structure of inverter device 3. History of Inverter technology 0. Transition of inverter technology 1. What is the difference between AC inverter and DC inverter

More information

Analog and Digital Interfacing

Analog and Digital Interfacing Analog and Digital Interfacing BJ Furman Spring, 1999 DAC & ADC Digital-to-Analog Conversion (DAC) Converts a binary word from computer to a scaled analog voltage Used for controlling systems that require

More information

Embedded Systems Design Course Applying the mbed microcontroller

Embedded Systems Design Course Applying the mbed microcontroller Embedded Systems Design Course Applying the mbed microcontroller Analog input and output These course notes are written by R.Toulson (Anglia Ruskin University) and T.Wilmshurst (University of Derby). (c)

More information

Solar Energy Conversion using MIAC. by Tharowat Mohamed Ali, May 2011

Solar Energy Conversion using MIAC. by Tharowat Mohamed Ali, May 2011 Solar Energy Conversion using MIAC by Tharowat Mohamed Ali, May 2011 Abstract This work introduces an approach to the design of a boost converter for a photovoltaic (PV) system using the MIAC. The converter

More information

Using Arduino Microcontrollers to Sense DC Motor Speed and Position

Using Arduino Microcontrollers to Sense DC Motor Speed and Position ECE480 Design Team 3 Using Arduino Microcontrollers to Sense DC Motor Speed and Position Tom Manner April 4, 2011 page 1 of 7 Table of Contents 1. Introduction ----------------------------------------------------------

More information

Pulse Width Modulated (PWM)

Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) Control Technologies Manual PWM AC Drives Revision 1.0 Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) Figure 1.8 shows a block diagram of the power conversion unit in a PWM drive. In this type of drive, a diode bridge rectifier

More information

Introduction to Electronic Signals

Introduction to Electronic Signals Introduction to Electronic Signals Oscilloscope An oscilloscope displays voltage changes over time. Use an oscilloscope to view analog and digital signals when required during circuit diagnosis. Fig. 6-01

More information

LOW COST MOTOR PROTECTION FILTERS FOR PWM DRIVE APPLICATIONS STOPS MOTOR DAMAGE

LOW COST MOTOR PROTECTION FILTERS FOR PWM DRIVE APPLICATIONS STOPS MOTOR DAMAGE LOW COST MOTOR PROTECTION FILTERS FOR PWM DRIVE APPLICATIONS STOPS MOTOR DAMAGE Karl M. Hink, Executive Vice President Originally presented at the Power Quality 99 Conference ABSTRACT Motor protection

More information

Adding Pneumatic Preset Counter. Type 497. Continuously visible preset Integrated pneumatic reset 3 or 5-digit display Convenient button setting

Adding Pneumatic Preset Counter. Type 497. Continuously visible preset Integrated pneumatic reset 3 or 5-digit display Convenient button setting Adding Pneumatic Preset Counter Type 497 Continuously visible preset Integrated pneumatic reset 3 or 5-digit display Convenient button setting VARIABLE PILOT SIGNAL Using two pneumatic preset counters

More information

BI Technologies R2R Resistor Ladder Networks

BI Technologies R2R Resistor Ladder Networks BI Technologies esistor Ladder Networks 8-Bit and 0-Bit resistor ladder networks for DAC and ADC applications. Auto calibration circuits Slope generators Function generators Motor speed control Model BCN3Ladder

More information

555 Timers. We are going to look at using the 555 to create two very different types of timer. A MONOSTABLE timer and an ASTABLE timer.

555 Timers. We are going to look at using the 555 to create two very different types of timer. A MONOSTABLE timer and an ASTABLE timer. 555 Timers We are now going to concentrate on specific IC s and how they can be used to perform useful functions. In turn we shall be looking at Timers, Amplifiers, Counters, Microprocessors and finally

More information

Display Board Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Power/Speed Controller Module

Display Board Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Power/Speed Controller Module Display Board Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Power/Speed Controller Module RS0 Microcontroller LEDs Motor Control Pushbuttons Purpose: To demonstrate an easy way of using a Freescale RS0K2 microcontroller

More information

AUTOMATIC NIGHT LAMP WITH MORNING ALARM USING MICROPROCESSOR

AUTOMATIC NIGHT LAMP WITH MORNING ALARM USING MICROPROCESSOR AUTOMATIC NIGHT LAMP WITH MORNING ALARM USING MICROPROCESSOR INTRODUCTION This Project "Automatic Night Lamp with Morning Alarm" was developed using Microprocessor. It is the Heart of the system. The sensors

More information

Chapter 12. Common Switching Functional Blocks

Chapter 12. Common Switching Functional Blocks Chapter 12 Common Switching Functional Blocks Voltage Comparators In many applications, it is necessary to cause a digital switching action when an analog voltage rises above or drops below some value.

More information

Introduction to Power Supplies

Introduction to Power Supplies Introduction to Power Supplies INTRODUCTION Virtually every piece of electronic equipment e g computers and their peripherals calculators TV and hi-fi equipment and instruments is powered from a DC power

More information

DT8211 LCD Back Light Inverter Drive IC Rev July 2008

DT8211 LCD Back Light Inverter Drive IC Rev July 2008 D8211 Rev1.1 11 July 2008 1. General description 2. Features 3. Applications he D8211 is a LCD backlight inverter controller for driving CCFL (Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamp). It drives a half bridge topology

More information

ch 18 practice Multiple Choice

ch 18 practice Multiple Choice ch 18 practice Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which of the following is the best description of a schematic diagram? a. uses pictures

More information

Capacitors. We charge a capacitor by connecting the two plates to a potential difference, such as a battery:

Capacitors. We charge a capacitor by connecting the two plates to a potential difference, such as a battery: RC Circuits PHYS 1112L Capacitors A capacitor is an electrical component that stores charge. The simplest capacitor is just two charged metal plates separated by a non-conducting material: In the diagram

More information

Milkshake Low Frequency Oscillator

Milkshake Low Frequency Oscillator Milkshake Low Frequency Oscillator User Manual 1.0.0 2015 Time Extend Audio Ltd All rights reserved 1 of 7 Overview The Milkshake Low Frequency Oscillator is a utility Rack Extension designed to generate

More information

Timer A (0 and 1) and PWM EE3376

Timer A (0 and 1) and PWM EE3376 Timer A (0 and 1) and PWM EE3376 General Peripheral Programming Model Each peripheral has a range of addresses in the memory map peripheral has base address (i.e. 0x00A0) each register used in the peripheral

More information

1. Learn about the 555 timer integrated circuit and applications 2. Apply the 555 timer to build an infrared (IR) transmitter and receiver

1. Learn about the 555 timer integrated circuit and applications 2. Apply the 555 timer to build an infrared (IR) transmitter and receiver Electronics Exercise 2: The 555 Timer and its Applications Mechatronics Instructional Laboratory Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Lab Director: I. Charles Ume,

More information

A.4 Specifications for the CPU 224

A.4 Specifications for the CPU 224 A.4 Specifications for the CPU 224 Specifications for and Physical Size Dimensions (W x H x D) Weight Power loss (dissipation) CPU Features On-Board digital inputs On-Board digital outputs High speed counters

More information

Data Sheet SIMATIC S7-200 CPU 226 DC/DC/DC and CPU 226 AC/DC/Relay

Data Sheet SIMATIC S7-200 CPU 226 DC/DC/DC and CPU 226 AC/DC/Relay SIMATIC S7-200 and Table 1 Specifications for and Physical Size Dimensions (W x H x D) Weight Power loss (dissipation) CPU Features On-board digital inputs On-board digital outputs High speed counters

More information

Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) LED Dimmer Circuit. Using a 555 Timer Chip

Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) LED Dimmer Circuit. Using a 555 Timer Chip Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) LED Dimmer Circuit Using a 555 Timer Chip Goals of Experiment Demonstrate the operation of a simple PWM circuit that can be used to adjust the intensity of a green LED by varying

More information

EN 206: Power Electronics and Machines

EN 206: Power Electronics and Machines EN 206: Power Electronics and Machines Inverters Suryanarayana Doolla Department of Energy Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Bombay email: suryad@iitb.ac.in March 15, 2013 Prof. Doolla

More information

Easy-to Use Function Generator Applying PIC

Easy-to Use Function Generator Applying PIC Easy-to Use Function Generator Applying PIC P. Kiss, Gy. Györök and T. Orosz Obuda University/AREK, Székesfehérvár, Hungary pkiss9@gmail.com, gyorok.gyorgy@arek.uni-obuda.hu, orosz.tamas@arek.uni-obuda.hu

More information

LRC Circuits. Purpose. Principles PHYS 2211L LAB 7

LRC Circuits. Purpose. Principles PHYS 2211L LAB 7 Purpose This experiment is an introduction to alternating current (AC) circuits. Using the oscilloscope, we will examine the voltage response of inductors, resistors and capacitors in series circuits driven

More information

VFD Fundamentals. Variable Frequency Drive Fundamentals. AC Motor Speed - The speed of an AC induction motor depends upon two factors:

VFD Fundamentals. Variable Frequency Drive Fundamentals. AC Motor Speed - The speed of an AC induction motor depends upon two factors: VFD1 VFD Fundamentals opyright 2003 Kilowatt lassroom, LL. Drive Fundamentals Motor Speed - The speed of an induction motor depends upon two factors: 1) The number of motor poles 2) The frequency of the

More information

Chapter 4: One-Shots, Counters, and Clocks

Chapter 4: One-Shots, Counters, and Clocks Chapter 4: One-Shots, Counters, and Clocks I. The Monostable Multivibrator (One-Shot) The timing pulse is one of the most common elements of laboratory electronics. Pulses can control logical sequences

More information

Chapter 7: AC Transistor Amplifiers

Chapter 7: AC Transistor Amplifiers Chapter 7: AC Transistor Amplifiers The transistor amplifiers that we studied in the last chapter have some serious problems for use in AC signals. Their most serious shortcoming is that there is a dead

More information

9.7 DATA CONVERTERS AN INTRODUCTION

9.7 DATA CONVERTERS AN INTRODUCTION 9.7 DATA ONVERTERS AN INTRODUTION In this section we begin the study of another group of analog I circuits of great importance; namely, data converters. 9.7.1 Digital Processing of Signals Most physical

More information

Charge and Discharge of a Capacitor

Charge and Discharge of a Capacitor Charge and Discharge of a Capacitor INTRODUCTION Capacitors 1 are devices that can store electric charge and energy. Capacitors have several uses, such as filters in DC power supplies and as energy storage

More information

TSTE19 Power Electronics

TSTE19 Power Electronics TSTE19 Power Electronics Lecture 7 Tomas Jonsson ISY/EKS 2015-11-24 2 Outline DC-AC switching inverters Switch-mode principle Single-phase inverter PWM switching Current ripple and commutation 2015-11-24

More information

Analog-to-Digital Conversion

Analog-to-Digital Conversion Analog-to-Digital Conversion Curtis A. Nelson Engr355 Introduction Connecting digital circuitry to sensor devices is simple if the sensor devices are inherently digital themselves. Switches, relays, and

More information

PCM Encoding and Decoding:

PCM Encoding and Decoding: PCM Encoding and Decoding: Aim: Introduction to PCM encoding and decoding. Introduction: PCM Encoding: The input to the PCM ENCODER module is an analog message. This must be constrained to a defined bandwidth

More information

RC Circuits and The Oscilloscope Physics Lab X

RC Circuits and The Oscilloscope Physics Lab X Objective RC Circuits and The Oscilloscope Physics Lab X In this series of experiments, the time constant of an RC circuit will be measured experimentally and compared with the theoretical expression for

More information

Fig. 2 shows a simple step waveform in which switching time of power devices are not considered and assuming the switch is ideal.

Fig. 2 shows a simple step waveform in which switching time of power devices are not considered and assuming the switch is ideal. CHAPTER 3: ANAYSIS OF THREE-EE INERTER In this chapter an analysis of three-level converter is presented by considering the output voltage waveform in order to determine the switching angle of power devices.

More information

PROGRAMMING WITH ARDUINO - 1

PROGRAMMING WITH ARDUINO - 1 PROGRAMMING WITH ARDUINO - 1 IESL RoboGames 2014 University of Moratuwa Department of Computer Science & Engineering Table of Contents Introduction... 2 Arduino Development Board... 2 How to Setup Arduino

More information

CHAPTER 11: Flip Flops

CHAPTER 11: Flip Flops CHAPTER 11: Flip Flops In this chapter, you will be building the part of the circuit that controls the command sequencing. The required circuit must operate the counter and the memory chip. When the teach

More information

Material and Equipment NI ELVIS 741 Op Amp, 5k pot, Assorted Resistors (10k, 100k, 220k (2), 100 (2), 560 )

Material and Equipment NI ELVIS 741 Op Amp, 5k pot, Assorted Resistors (10k, 100k, 220k (2), 100 (2), 560 ) Lab 8 Operational Amplifier Characteristics Purpose The purpose of this lab is to study the non-ideal characteristics of the operational amplifier. The characteristics that will be investigated include

More information

DC Circuits. 3. Three 8.0- resistors are connected in series. What is their equivalent resistance? a c b. 8.0 d. 0.13

DC Circuits. 3. Three 8.0- resistors are connected in series. What is their equivalent resistance? a c b. 8.0 d. 0.13 DC Circuits 1. The two ends of a 3.0- resistor are connected to a 9.0-V battery. What is the current through the resistor? a. 27 A c. 3.0 A b. 6.3 A d. 0.33 A 2. The two ends of a 3.0- resistor are connected

More information

Notes. Astable and Monostable Multivibrator Trainer NV6507. Operating Manual Ver 1.1

Notes. Astable and Monostable Multivibrator Trainer NV6507. Operating Manual Ver 1.1 Notes Astable and Monostable Multivibrator Trainer Operating Manual Ver 1.1 Nvis Technologies 20 141-B, Electronic Complex, Pardeshipura, Indore- 452 010 India Tel.: 91-731- 4211500 Email: info@nvistech.com

More information

RC Circuit (Power amplifier, Voltage Sensor)

RC Circuit (Power amplifier, Voltage Sensor) Object: RC Circuit (Power amplifier, Voltage Sensor) To investigate how the voltage across a capacitor varies as it charges and to find its capacitive time constant. Apparatus: Science Workshop, Power

More information

Fundamentals of Power Electronics. Robert W. Erickson University of Colorado, Boulder

Fundamentals of Power Electronics. Robert W. Erickson University of Colorado, Boulder Robert W. Erickson University of Colorado, Boulder 1 1.1. Introduction to power processing 1.2. Some applications of power electronics 1.3. Elements of power electronics Summary of the course 2 1.1 Introduction

More information

AMZ-FX Guitar effects. (2007) Mosfet Body Diodes. http://www.muzique.com/news/mosfet-body-diodes/. Accessed 22/12/09.

AMZ-FX Guitar effects. (2007) Mosfet Body Diodes. http://www.muzique.com/news/mosfet-body-diodes/. Accessed 22/12/09. Pulse width modulation Pulse width modulation is a pulsed DC square wave, commonly used to control the on-off switching of a silicon controlled rectifier via the gate. There are many types of SCR s, most

More information

Implementing Pulse-Width Modulation through MSP430 Timers. Roy Dong 11/19/2010

Implementing Pulse-Width Modulation through MSP430 Timers. Roy Dong 11/19/2010 Implementing Pulse-Width Modulation through MSP430 Timers Roy Dong 11/19/2010 Executive Summary: Pulse-width modulation has a variety of uses, and is particularly useful because it allows digital sources,

More information

hij Teacher Resource Bank GCE Electronics Schemes of Work AS

hij Teacher Resource Bank GCE Electronics Schemes of Work AS hij Teacher Resource Bank GCE Electronics Schemes of Work AS The Assessment and Qualifications Alliance (AQA) is a company limited by guarantee registered in England and Wales (company number 3644723)

More information

Application Note SX8122. 1V Timer (Next Gen 555) Application Note AN8122-1. Advanced Communications and Sensing

Application Note SX8122. 1V Timer (Next Gen 555) Application Note AN8122-1. Advanced Communications and Sensing Application Note 1V Timer (Next Gen 555) Page 1 1. Introduction The is a new kind of timer based on a precise clock and an analog to digital converter. Its simple architecture is making possible to have

More information

M8 Transistor Tester(Ver.12864) Installation Instruction

M8 Transistor Tester(Ver.12864) Installation Instruction M8 Transistor Tester(Ver.12864) Installation Instruction Thank you for purchasing our M8 Transistor Tester Kit Tools. We believe our product will bring you an experience of convenience and accuracy. Before

More information

Conversion Between Analog and Digital Signals

Conversion Between Analog and Digital Signals ELET 3156 DL - Laboratory #6 Conversion Between Analog and Digital Signals There is no pre-lab work required for this experiment. However, be sure to read through the assignment completely prior to starting

More information

LAB 7 MOSFET CHARACTERISTICS AND APPLICATIONS

LAB 7 MOSFET CHARACTERISTICS AND APPLICATIONS LAB 7 MOSFET CHARACTERISTICS AND APPLICATIONS Objective In this experiment you will study the i-v characteristics of an MOS transistor. You will use the MOSFET as a variable resistor and as a switch. BACKGROUND

More information

The full wave rectifier consists of two diodes and a resister as shown in Figure

The full wave rectifier consists of two diodes and a resister as shown in Figure The Full-Wave Rectifier The full wave rectifier consists of two diodes and a resister as shown in Figure The transformer has a centre-tapped secondary winding. This secondary winding has a lead attached

More information

Wireless DC Motor Speed Control

Wireless DC Motor Speed Control Wireless DC Motor Speed Control Senior Design Proposal 2012 Spring Yu Qiao & Jing Y. Guo TA: Jim Kolodziej Introduction The title of our project is High-performance low-cost low-loss wireless DC motor

More information

Lecture 19. Link. Peter Cheung Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering Imperial College London

Lecture 19. Link. Peter Cheung Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering Imperial College London Lecture 19 Link Peter Cheung Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering Imperial College London URL: www.ee.ic.ac.uk/pcheung/teaching/de1_ee/ E-mail: p.cheung@imperial.ac.uk Lecture 17 Slide 1 Linking

More information

EXPERIMENT 4:- MEASUREMENT OF REACTANCE OFFERED BY CAPACITOR IN DIFFERENT FREQUENCY FOR R-C CIRCUIT

EXPERIMENT 4:- MEASUREMENT OF REACTANCE OFFERED BY CAPACITOR IN DIFFERENT FREQUENCY FOR R-C CIRCUIT Kathmandu University Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering BASIC ELECTRICAL LAB (ENGG 103) EXPERIMENT 4:- MEASUREMENT OF REACTANCE OFFERED BY CAPACITOR IN DIFFERENT FREQUENCY FOR R-C CIRCUIT

More information

FILTER CIRCUITS. A filter is a circuit whose transfer function, that is the ratio of its output to its input, depends upon frequency.

FILTER CIRCUITS. A filter is a circuit whose transfer function, that is the ratio of its output to its input, depends upon frequency. FILTER CIRCUITS Introduction Circuits with a response that depends upon the frequency of the input voltage are known as filters. Filter circuits can be used to perform a number of important functions in

More information

Lab 9: Op Amps Lab Assignment

Lab 9: Op Amps Lab Assignment 3 class days 1. Differential Amplifier Source: Hands-On chapter 8 (~HH 6.1) Lab 9: Op Amps Lab Assignment Difference amplifier. The parts of the pot on either side of the slider serve as R3 and R4. The

More information

Part 2: Operational Amplifiers

Part 2: Operational Amplifiers Part 2: Operational Amplifiers An operational amplifier is a very high gain amplifier. Op amps can be used in many different ways. Two of the most common uses are a) as comparators b) as amplifiers (either

More information

Single-Stage High Power Factor Flyback for LED Lighting

Single-Stage High Power Factor Flyback for LED Lighting Application Note Stockton Wu AN012 May 2014 Single-Stage High Power Factor Flyback for LED Lighting Abstract The application note illustrates how the single-stage high power factor flyback converter uses

More information

Application of PWM speed control

Application of PWM speed control The Fan Company www.jmcproducts.com Application of PWM speed control Prepared by JMC Engineering Team Introduction: Technical Report Regulating fan speed according to the temperature inside an enclosure

More information

USB Step and Direction Pulse Generator. User Manual

USB Step and Direction Pulse Generator. User Manual USB Step and Direction Pulse Generator User Manual 2012 Kellyware 1/15/2012 Table of Contents Table of Contents... 2 Parts List... 3 Key Features... 3 Introduction... 4 Installation... 5 Setup... 5 Wiring

More information

Wave Shaping Of Current Using PWM Rectifiers

Wave Shaping Of Current Using PWM Rectifiers International Journal of Engineering and Technical Research (IJETR) Wave Shaping Of Current Using PWM Rectifiers Mahasweta Bhattacharya, Ashish Srivastava Abstract The paper presents the modeling and analysis

More information

Experiment # (7) FSK Modulator

Experiment # (7) FSK Modulator Islamic University of Gaza Faculty of Engineering Electrical Department Experiment # (7) FSK Modulator Digital Communications Lab. Prepared by: Eng. Mohammed K. Abu Foul Experiment Objectives: 1. To understand

More information