# Chapter 13. Properties of Solutions

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1 Sample Exercise 13.1 (p. 534) By the process illustrated below, water vapor reacts with excess solid sodium sulfate to form the hydrated form of the salt. The chemical reaction is Na 2 SO 4(s) + 10 H 2 O (g) Na 2 SO 4 10 H 2 O (s) Essentially all of the water vapor in the closed container is consumed in this reaction. If we consider our system to consist initially of Na 2 SO 4(s) and 10 H 2 O (g) a) does the system become more or less ordered in this process, and b) does the entropy of the system increase or decrease? Practice Exercise 13.1 Does the entropy of the system increase or decrease when the stopcock is opened to allow mixing of the two gases in the apparatus? - 1 -

2 Sample Exercise 13.2 (p. 539) Predict whether each of the following substances is more likely to dissolve in carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) or in water: C 7 H 16, Na 2 SO 4, HCl, and I 2. Practice Exercise 13.2 Arrange the following substances in order of increasing solubility in water: - 2 -

3 Sample Exercise 13.3 (p. 540) Calculate the concentration of CO 2 in a soft drink that is bottled with a partial pressure of CO 2 of 4.0 atm over the liquid at 25 o C. The Henry s Law constant for CO2 in water at this temperature is 3.1 x 10-2 mol/l-atm. (0.12 M) Practice Exercise 13.3 Calculate the concentration of CO 2 in a soft drink after the bottle is opened and equilibrates at 25 o C under a CO 2 partial pressure of 3.0 x 10-4 atm. (9.3 x 10-6 M) Sample Exercise 13.4 (p. 542) a) A solution is made by dissolving 13.5 g glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) in kg of water. What is the mass percentage of solute in this solution? (11.9%) b) A 2.5-g sample of groundwater was found to contain 5.4 µg of Zn 2+. What is the concentration of Zn 2+ in parts per million? (2.2 ppm) Practice Exercise 13.4 a) Calculate the mass percentage of NaCl in a solution containing 1.50 g of NaCl in 50.0 g of water. (2.91%) b) A commercial bleaching solution contains 3.62 mass % sodium hypochlorite, NaOCl. What is the mass of NaOCl in a bottle containing 2500 g of bleaching solution? (90.5 g NaOCl) - 3 -

4 Sample Exercise 13.5 (p. 544) A solution is made by dissolving 4.35 g glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) in 25.0 ml of water. Calculate the molality of glucose in the solution. (0.964 m) Practice Exercise 13.5 What is the molality of a solution made by dissolving 36.5 g of naphthalene (C 10 H 8 ) in 425 g of toluene (C 7 H 8 )? (0.670 m) Sample Exercise 13.6 (p. 544) A solution of hydrochloric acid contains 36% HCl by mass. a) Calculate the mole fraction of HCl in the solution. (0.22) b) Calculate the molality of HCl in the solution. (15 m) Practice Exercise 13.6 A commercial bleach solution contains 3.62 mass % NaOCl in water. Calculate a) the mole fraction of NaOCl in the solution and (9.00 x 10-3 ) b) the molality of NaOCl in the solution (0.505 m) - 4 -

5 Sample Exercise 13.7 (p. 546) A solution with a density of g/ml contains 5.0 g of toluene (C 7 H 8 ) and 225 g of benzene. Calculate the molarity of the solution. (0.21 M) Practice Exercise 13.7 A solution containing equal masses of glycerol (C 3 H 8 O 3 ) and water has a density of 1.10 g/ml. Calculate a) the molality of glycerol; (10.9 m) b) the mole fraction of glycerol; (0.163) c) the molarity of glycerol in the solution. (5.97 M) - 5 -

6 NEW - optional Sample Exercise 13.8 (p. 547) Glycerin (C 3 H 8 O 3 ) is a nonvolatile nonelectrolyte with a density of 1.25 g/ml at 25 o C. Calculate the vapor pressure at 25 o C of a solution made by adding 50.0 ml of glycerin to ml of water. The vapor pressure of pure water at 25 o C is 23.8 torr. (23.2 torr) Practice Exercise 13.8 The vapor pressure of pure water at 110 o C is 1070 torr. A solution of ethylene glycol and water has a vapor pressure of 1.00 atm at 110 o C. Assuming that Raoult s law is obeyed, what is the mole fraction of ethylene glycol in the solution? (0.290) Sample Exercise 13.9 (p. 550) Automotive antifreeze consists of ethylene glycol (C 2 H 6 O 2 ), a nonvolatile nonelectrolyte. Calculate the boiling point and freezing point of a 25.0 mass % solution of ethylene glycol in water. (102.7 o C; o C) Practice Exercise 13.9 Calculate the freezing point of a solution containing kg of chloroform (CHCl 3 ) and 42.0 g of eucalyptol (C 10 H 18 O), a fragrant substance found in the leaves of eucalyptus trees. (See Table 13.4) (-65.6 o C) - 6 -

7 Sample Exercise (p. 551) List the following aqueous solutions in order of their expected freezing points: m CaCl 2 ; 0.15 m HCl; m HC 2 H 3 O 2 ; 0.10 m C 12 H 22 O 11. Practice Exercise Which of the following solutes will produce the largest increase in boiling point upon addition of 1 kg of water: 1 mol Co(NO 3 ) 2, 2 mol of KCl, 3 mol of ethylene glycol (C 2 H 6 O 2 )? (2 mol KCl) - 7 -

8 Sample Exercise (p. 553) The average osmotic pressure of blood is 7.7 atm at 25 o C. What concentration of glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) will be isotonic with blood? (0.31 M) Practice Exercise What is the osmotic pressure at 20 o C of a M sucrose (C 12 H 22 O 11 ) solution? (0.048 atm or 37 torr) - 8 -

9 Sample Exercise (p. 555) A solution of an unknown nonvolatile nonelectrolyte was prepared by dissolving g of the substance in 40.0 g of CCl 4. The boiling point of the resultant solution was o C higher than that of the pure solvent. Calculate the molar mass of the solute. (88.0 g/mol) Practice Exercise Camphor (C 10 H 16 O) melts at o C, and it has a particularly large freezing-point-depression constant, K f = 40.0 o C/m. When g of an organic substance of unknown molar mass is dissolved in g of liquid camphor, the freezing point of the mixture is found to be o C. What is the molar mass of the solute? (110 g/mol) - 9 -

10 Sample Exercise (p. 556) The osmotic pressure of an aqueous solution of a certain protein was measured in order to determine its molar mass. The solution contained 3.50 mg of protein dissolved in sufficient water to form 5.00 ml of solution. The osmotic pressure of the solution at 25 o C was found to be 1.54 torr. Calculate the molar mass of the protein. (8.45 x 10 3 g/mol) Practice Exercise A sample of 2.05 g of the plastic polystyrene was dissolved in enough toluene to form L of solution. The osmotic pressure of this solution was found to be 1.21 kpa at 25 o C. Calculate the molar mass of the polystyrene. (4.20 x 10 4 g/mol)

11 Sample Integrative Exercise 13 (p. 560) A L solution is made by dissolving g of CaCl 2(s) in water. a) Calculate the osmotic pressure of this solution at 27 o C, assuming that it is completely dissociated into its component ions. (2.93 atm) b) The measured osmotic pressure of this solution is 2.56 atm at 27 o C. Explain why it is less than the value calculated in (a), and calculate the van t Hoff factor, i, for the solute in this solution. (2.62) c) The enthalpy of solution for CaCl 2 is H = kj/mol. If the final temperature of the solution was 27.0 o C, what was its initial temperature? (Assume that the density of the solution is 1.00 g/ml, that its specific heat is 4.18 J/g-K, and that the solution loses no heat to its surroundings.) (26.2 o C)

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