# Three-Dimensional Figures or Space Figures. Rectangular Prism Cylinder Cone Sphere. Two-Dimensional Figures or Plane Figures

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1 SHAPE NAMES Three-Dimensional Figures or Space Figures Rectangular Prism Cylinder Cone Sphere Two-Dimensional Figures or Plane Figures Square Rectangle Triangle Circle Name each shape. [triangle] [cone] [square] [sphere] [rectangular prism] 9. Which figures in the exercises are plane figures? [1, 3, 6, 8] 10. Which figures in the exercises are space figures? [2, 4, 5, 7] [circle] [cylinder] Name a real-life example of a rectangular prism, a cylinder, a cone, and a sphere. [Answers may vary. Possible answers: rectangular prism: cereal box; [rectangle] cylinder: can of soup; cone: ice cream cone; sphere: ball] Discovering Math, Geometry, Shape Names...or, Get in Shape 1

2 SHAPE NAMES Three-Dimensional Figures cube rectangular prism square pyramid sphere cylinder cone Polygons triangle rectangle square pentagon hexagon octagon Name each figure. [square pyramid] 5. [rectangle] 6. [cylinder] [sphere] 7. [pentagon] [hexagon] 8. [triangle] [cone] A polygon with four sides is called a quadrilateral. Draw a quadrilateral that is not a rectangle. Then draw another quadrilateral that is not a parallelogram and not a trapezoid. [Check students drawings.] Discovering Math, Geometry, Shape Names...or, Get in Shape 2

3 SHAPE NAMES Polygons Triangle Quadrilateral Pentagon Hexagon Octagon 3 sides 3 angles 4 sides 4 angles 5 sides 5 angles 6 sides 6 angles 8 sides 8 angles Special Quadrilaterals Trapezoid Parallelogram Rectangle Rhombus Square Only two parallel sides. Opposite sides are parallel and the same length. Parallelogram with 4 right angles. Parallelogram with all sides the same length. Rectangle with all sides the same length. Name each polygon. [pentagon] [octagon] [triangle] [hexagon] Classify each quadrilateral. Some may have more than one name [parallelogram, rhombus] [trapezoid] [parallelogram, rectangle, rhombus, square] Discovering Math, Geometry, Shape Names...or, Get in Shape 3

4 PROPERTIES OF GEOMETRIC FIGURES Angles Right Angle A right angle forms a square corner. Acute Angle An acute angle is less than a right angle. Obtuse Angle An obtuse angle is greater than a right angle. The square in the corner means the angle is a right angle. Tell whether each angle is right, acute, or obtuse. [acute] [right] [obtuse] [acute] Tell whether the angle each arrow points to is right, acute, or obtuse Draw a triangle with an obtuse angle. [Check students drawings.] Discovering Math, Geometry, Properties of Geometric Figures...or, Information in Forms 1

5 PROPERTIES OF GEOMETRIC FIGURES Angles Right Angle A right angle forms a square corner. Acute Angle An acute angle is less than a right angle. Obtuse Angle An obtuse angle is greater than a right angle. An angle can be named in three ways. B or ABC or CBA Read: angle B or angle ABC or angle CBA Tell whether each angle is right, acute, or obtuse. Two rays meet at an endpoint to form an angle. The endpoint is always included in the angle name. [acute] [right] [obtuse] For each figure, tell whether ABC is right, acute, or obtuse [right] [right] [obtuse] [acute] [obtuse] Classify each of the angles of the parallelogram. [angles A and C are acute and angles B and D are obtuse] Discovering Math, Geometry, Properties of Geometric Figures...or, Information in Forms 2

6 PROPERTIES OF GEOMETRIC FIGURES An angle is formed when two rays meet at the same endpoint, or vertex. The angle can be named by three letters or by its vertex: vertex ray Angles are measured in degrees ( ). ray B or ABC or CBA Right Angle A right angle measures 90. Acute Angle An acute angle is greater than 0 and less than 90. Obtuse Angle An obtuse angle is greater than 90 and less than 180. Straight Angle A straight angle measures 180. Use the figure below. Tell whether each angle is right, acute, obtuse, or straight. DCG [right] GDE [straight] CDE CDG Use the figure below. Name as many examples of each type of angle as possible. [obtuse] 5. acute [ QJK or KLS] 7. right [acute] 6. obtuse [ JKR or RKL] 8. straight [ JQR or QRK or [ QRS] KRS or RSL] Discovering Math, Geometry, Properties of Geometric Figures...or, Information in Forms 3

7 ALTERING SHAPES Shapes can be combined to make different shapes. Joining two squares makes a rectangle: Shapes can be divided to make different shapes. Dividing a rectangle along the diagonal makes two triangles: Name the shapes used to make each figure. [square and 2 triangles] [rectangle and 2 triangles] [square and triangle] [2 rectangles and 4 triangles] [6 triangles] [3 rectangles] Make a new shape by combining at least 3 different geometric shapes. [Check students drawings.] Discovering Math, Geometry, Altering Shapes...or, Shape Shifting 1

8 ALTERING SHAPES Polygons can be combined to make different polygons. Joining a square and two triangles makes a trapezoid: Polygons can be divided to make different polygons. Dividing a parallelogram along the diagonal makes two triangles: Name the polygons used to make each figure. Then identify the figure. [rectangle and 2 triangles; hexagon] [triangle and trapezoid; parallelogram] [4 triangles; pentagon] [2 parallelograms; hexagon] [2 trapezoids; hexagon] [trapezoid, 2 rectangles, 2 triangles; octagon] Make a new shape by combining at least 3 different polygons. [Check students drawings.] Discovering Math, Geometry, Altering Shapes...or, Shape Shifting 2

9 ALTERING SHAPES Polygons can be combined to make different polygons. Joining two parallelograms can make a hexagon: Polygons can be divided to make different polygons. A hexagon can be divided into two trapezoids: Name the polygons used to make each figure. Then identify the figure. [5 triangles; pentagon] [trapezoid and 2 triangles; trapezoid] [2 trapezoids and rectangle; octagon] [triangle and trapezoid; pentagon] [Check students drawings. Sample answers shown.] Make a pentagon by joining together 4 triangles. Make a hexagon by joining together 6 triangles. [4 triangles; rhombus] [4 triangles; parallelogram] Discovering Math, Geometry, Altering Shapes...or, Shape Shifting 3

10 CONGRUENT AND SIMILAR SHAPES Congruent Figures Similar Figures These rectangles are congruent. Congruent figures have the same shape and the same size. These rectangles are similar. Similar figures have the same shape but not the same size. Are the figures congruent, similar, or neither? [similar] [congruent] [congruent] [similar] [similar] [neither] [congruent] [neither] Discovering Math, Geometry, Congruent and Similar Shapes...or, Same Difference 1

11 CONGRUENT AND SIMILAR SHAPES Congruent Figures Congruent figures have the same shape and the same size. Similar figures have the same shape but not the same size. Similar Figures The rectangles are similar. The rectangles are congruent. Are the figures congruent, similar, or neither? [congruent] [similar] 5. [similar] [congruent] [congruent] Discovering Math, Geometry, Congruent and Similar Shapes...or, Same Difference 6. [neither] Danny takes a photograph of his house. Then he has the photograph enlarged. Is the house in the enlargement congruent to the house in the original photograph? Is it similar? Explain. [It is not congruent because the enlargement is larger than the original. It is similar since everything should be enlarged by the same ratio.] 2

12 CONGRUENT AND SIMILAR SHAPES Similar figures have the same shape but not the same size. Similar Figures The triangles are similar. The corresponding angles of the triangles are equal. The ratios of corresponding sides are equal. Congruent Figures Congruent figures have the same shape and the same size. The triangles are congruent. Since they are the same shape, the triangles are also similar. The ratios of corresponding sides of the triangles is 1: Are the figures congruent, similar, neither, or both? [similar] [neither] [both] Draw a rectangle on the grid. Then draw a rectangle that is similar but not congruent to your rectangle. [Check students drawings.] Explain how you know the rectangles are similar. [neither] [Answers may vary. Possible answer: I doubled both the length and the width of my original rectangle to draw the similar rectangle.] Discovering Math, Geometry, Congruent and Similar Shapes...or, Same Difference 3

13 MOTION GEOMETRY Translation A translation slides a figure along a straight line left, right, up, or down. Reflection A reflection flips a figure across a line. A reflection makes a mirror image. Rotation A rotation turns a figure around a point. Write translation, reflection, or rotation to describe how each figure was moved. [reflection] [translation] [translation] [rotation] Is the reflection of a figure congruent to the original figure? Explain. [Yes. The figure is still the same size and shape. Only its position has changed.] Discovering Math, Geometry, Motion Geometry...or, Drag n Flip 1

14 MOTION GEOMETRY Translation A translation slides a figure along a straight line left, right, up, or down. Reflection A reflection flips a figure across a line. A reflection makes a mirror image. Rotation A rotation is a turn that moves a figure around a point. Write translation, reflection, or rotation to describe how each figure was moved. [translation] [rotation] 5. [reflection] [rotation] 6. [translation] [reflection] Translations, reflections, and rotations are transformations of a figure. Do these transformations result in a figure congruent to the original figure? Explain. [Yes. For these transformations, the transformed figure is still the same size and shape. Only its position has changed.] Discovering Math, Geometry, Motion Geometry...or, Drag n Flip 2

15 MOTION GEOMETRY A transformation moves a figure without changing its size or shape. Transformations Translation A translation moves a figure along a straight line. Reflection A reflection flips a figure across a line. A reflection makes a mirror image. Rotation A rotation moves a figure by turning it around a point. All the points on the figure move in a circle. Some points move farther than others, depending on how far from the center of rotation they are. Write translation, reflection, or rotation to describe how each figure was moved. [rotation] [translation] Draw a translation, reflection, and rotation of the triangle shown on the grid. Label each transformation. [reflection] [reflection] [Check students drawings.] Discovering Math, Geometry, Motion Geometry...or, Drag n Flip 3

16 LINES AND ANGLES Lines, line segments, and rays are straight paths. Line A line goes on without end in two directions. Line Segment A line segment has two endpoints. Ray A ray has one endpoint and goes on without end in one direction. Special Types of Lines Intersecting Intersecting lines are lines that cross at one point. Perpendicular Perpendicular lines cross at right angles. Parallel Parallel lines are lines in one plane that never cross. Name each figure. [ray] [perpendicular lines] Which statement is always true? Explain. (a) Intersecting lines are always perpendicular. (b) Perpendicular lines always intersect. [parallel lines] [line segment] [(b) is always true because perpendicular lines intersect at right angles. Intersecting lines do not always cross at right angles.] Discovering Math, Geometry, Lines and Angles...or, Coming Together 1

17 LINES AND ANGLES Lines, line segments, and rays are straight paths. Line A line is a straight path that goes on without end in two directions. Line Segment A line segment is a part of a line. It has two endpoints. Ray A ray is a part of a line. It has one endpoint and goes on without end in one direction. A B C D J K line AB Intersecting Lines Intersecting lines are lines that cross at one point. A D E C line AB and line CD intersect at point E B line segment CD Perpendicular Lines Perpendicular lines intersect at right angles. E G line EF is perpendicular to line GH F H ray JK Parallel Lines Parallel lines are lines in one plane that never intersect. M Q N line MN is parallel to line QR R Name each figure. H Q C B G K X P A D J Y [ray PQ] [perpendicular lines [parallel lines GH and JK] [line XY] AB and CD] Draw and label a diagram to illustrate each of the following: [Check students drawings.] line GH parallel to line LM line RS and line XZ intersecting at point P Discovering Math, Geometry, Lines and Angles...or, Coming Together 2

18 LINES AND ANGLES Line A line is a straight path that goes on without end in two directions. A line AB or AB or line BA or BA Intersecting Lines Intersecting lines are lines that cross at one point. A D AB and CD intersect at point E E B C B Line Segment A line segment is a part of a line. It has two endpoints. C D line segment CD or C D or line segment DC or D C Perpendicular Lines Perpendicular lines intersect at right angles. E G EF GH means F is perpendicular to H Ray A ray is a part of a line. It has one endpoint and goes on without end in one direction. J ray JK or JK K Parallel Lines Parallel lines are lines in one plane that never intersect. M N Q MN QR means is parallel to R Use the figure at the right to name an example of each term. perpendicular lines [Sample answers given] ray line segment intersecting lines 5. parallel lines 6. line Draw and label a figure for each. [Check student s drawings.] 7. line FG 8. PQ ST 9. R S M N Discovering Math, Geometry, Lines and Angles...or, Coming Together 3

19 MAP AND DRAWING SCALES A map is a diagram that shows relationships among places, often including distance information. This map shows some places near Bev s house. The map shows that Bev lives 4 miles from her school. 1 mile 6 miles 3 miles 2 miles 4 miles 1 mile 5 miles Use the map above to answer each question. How many miles is Bev s house from the library? [6 miles] How many miles does Karl live from the mall? [2 miles] Who lives closer to school, Bev or Karl? How much closer? [Bev lives 1 mile closer.] Bev goes from her house, to the library, and then to the post office. At that point, how far did she travel? [9 miles] 5. How many miles is a round trip from Karl s house to school and back? [10 miles] 6. Who lives closer to the library, Bev or Karl? Explain. [Karl lives closer. He can travel either 3 miles or 4 miles to the library. Bev lives 6 miles from the library.] What is the shortest route to the school from the library shown on the map? What is the distance? [Start at the library. Go 1 mile to the mall, 2 miles to Karl s house, then 5 miles to the school. The distance is 8 miles.] Discovering Math, Geometry, Maps and Drawing Scales...or, Scaling Peaks 1

20 MAP AND DRAWING SCALES A map is a diagram that shows distances between different locations. The map below shows some trails in a forest. It is 1 mile between each pair of circle markers shown on the map. So, it is 6 miles from the trailhead to the top of the Trail A. Trailhead Use the map above to answer each question. How far is it from the trailhead to the top of Trail B? [5 miles] How far is it from the trailhead to the top of Trail C? [7 miles] Trail D connects Trails B and C. How long is Trail D? [3 miles] Start at the trailhead and start to follow Trail B. Then go along Trail D to the top of Trail C. How far is it to the top? [7 miles] 5. What is the total roundtrip distance from the trailhead to the top of Trail A and back? [12 miles] 6. What is the shortest total distance of a hike that starts at Trail C, turns onto Trail D and then follows Trail B to the trailhead of Trail B? [10 miles] 7. How much longer is a roundtrip hike from the trailhead to the top of Trail C than a roundtrip hike to the top of Trail A? [2 miles] Suppose the distance between each pair of markers on the map were 5 miles. How far would it be to the top of Trail A? Explain. [30 miles; Possible explanations: 6 5 = 30 or count by 5s between markers.] Discovering Math, Geometry, Maps and Drawing Scales...or, Scaling Peaks 2

21 MAP AND DRAWING SCALES A scale drawing is a drawing that shows a real object enlarged or reduced. The scale is a ratio that compares the size of the object in the drawing to the size of the actual object. The map shows the location of 7 different sites an archaeologist is mapping. What is the actual distance between Site A and Site B? The map uses the scale 1 inch = 12 miles. Use a ruler to measure the distance from Site A to Site B on the map. The distance on the map is or 5 inches Find an equivalent ratio to find the actual distance. actual distance actual distance 1 2 mi? map scale distance 1 in. 2.5 map scale distance Think: 5 12 = mi 30 mi 1 in mi Scale 1 in. = 12 mi The actual distance between the sites is 30 miles. Use the above map and map scale to find each distance. What is the actual distance between Site B and Site C? [36 mi] What is the actual distance between Site C and Site D? [24 mi] What is the actual distance between Site D and Site E? [18 mi] What is the actual distance between Site E and Site F? [12 mi] 5. What is the actual distance between Site F and Site G? [6 mi] Discovering Math, Geometry, Maps and Drawing Scales...or, Scaling Peaks 3

22 SHAPE NAMES Three-Dimensional Figures or Space Figures Rectangular Prism Cylinder Cone Sphere Two-Dimensional Figures or Plane Figures Square Rectangle Triangle Circle Name each shape. [triangle] [cone] [square] [sphere] [rectangular prism] 9. Which figures in the exercises are plane figures? [1, 3, 6, 8] 10. Which figures in the exercises are space figures? [2, 4, 5, 7] [circle] [cylinder] Name a real-life example of a rectangular prism, a cylinder, a cone, and a sphere. [Answers may vary. Possible answers: rectangular prism: cereal box; [rectangle] cylinder: can of soup; cone: ice cream cone; sphere: ball] Discovering Math, Geometry, Shape Names...or, Get in Shape 1

23 SHAPE NAMES Three-Dimensional Figures cube rectangular prism square pyramid sphere cylinder cone Polygons triangle rectangle square pentagon hexagon octagon Name each figure. [square pyramid] 5. [rectangle] 6. [cylinder] [sphere] 7. [pentagon] [hexagon] 8. [triangle] [cone] A polygon with four sides is called a quadrilateral. Draw a quadrilateral that is not a rectangle. Then draw another quadrilateral that is not a parallelogram and not a trapezoid. [Check students drawings.] Discovering Math, Geometry, Shape Names...or, Get in Shape 2

24 SHAPE NAMES Polygons Triangle Quadrilateral Pentagon Hexagon Octagon 3 sides 3 angles 4 sides 4 angles 5 sides 5 angles 6 sides 6 angles 8 sides 8 angles Special Quadrilaterals Trapezoid Parallelogram Rectangle Rhombus Square Only two parallel sides. Opposite sides are parallel and the same length. Parallelogram with 4 right angles. Parallelogram with all sides the same length. Rectangle with all sides the same length. Name each polygon. [pentagon] [octagon] [triangle] [hexagon] Classify each quadrilateral. Some may have more than one name [parallelogram, rhombus] [trapezoid] [parallelogram, rectangle, rhombus, square] Discovering Math, Geometry, Shape Names...or, Get in Shape 3

25 PROPERTIES OF GEOMETRIC FIGURES Angles Right Angle A right angle forms a square corner. Acute Angle An acute angle is less than a right angle. Obtuse Angle An obtuse angle is greater than a right angle. The square in the corner means the angle is a right angle. Tell whether each angle is right, acute, or obtuse. [acute] [right] [obtuse] [acute] Tell whether the angle each arrow points to is right, acute, or obtuse. [acute] [right] [right] [obtuse] Draw a triangle with an obtuse angle. [Check students drawings.] [acute] Discovering Math, Geometry, Properties of Geometric Figures...or, Information in Forms 1

26 PROPERTIES OF GEOMETRIC FIGURES Angles Right Angle A right angle forms a square corner. Acute Angle An acute angle is less than a right angle. Obtuse Angle An obtuse angle is greater than a right angle. An angle can be named in three ways. B or ABC or CBA Read: angle B or angle ABC or angle CBA Tell whether each angle is right, acute, or obtuse. Two rays meet at an endpoint to form an angle. The endpoint is always included in the angle name. [acute] [right] [obtuse] For each figure, tell whether ABC is right, acute, or obtuse [right] [right] [obtuse] [acute] [obtuse] Classify each of the angles of the parallelogram. [angles A and C are acute and angles B and D are obtuse] Discovering Math, Geometry, Properties of Geometric Figures...or, Information in Forms 2

27 PROPERTIES OF GEOMETRIC FIGURES An angle is formed when two rays meet at the same endpoint, or vertex. The angle can be named by three letters or by its vertex: vertex ray Angles are measured in degrees ( ). ray B or ABC or CBA Right Angle A right angle measures 90. Acute Angle An acute angle is greater than 0 and less than 90. Obtuse Angle An obtuse angle is greater than 90 and less than 180. Straight Angle A straight angle measures 180. Use the figure below. Tell whether each angle is right, acute, obtuse, or straight. DCG [right] GDE [straight] CDE CDG Use the figure below. Name as many examples of each type of angle as possible. [obtuse] 5. acute [ QJK or KLS] 7. right [acute] 6. obtuse [ JKR or RKL] 8. straight [ JQR or QRK or [ QRS] KRS or RSL] Discovering Math, Geometry, Properties of Geometric Figures...or, Information in Forms 3

28 ALTERING SHAPES Shapes can be combined to make different shapes. Joining two squares makes a rectangle: Shapes can be divided to make different shapes. Dividing a rectangle along the diagonal makes two triangles: Name the shapes used to make each figure. [square and 2 triangles] [rectangle and 2 triangles] [square and triangle] [2 rectangles and 4 triangles] [6 triangles] [3 rectangles] Make a new shape by combining at least 3 different geometric shapes. [Check students drawings.] Discovering Math, Geometry, Altering Shapes...or, Shape Shifting 1

29 ALTERING SHAPES Polygons can be combined to make different polygons. Joining a square and two triangles makes a trapezoid: Polygons can be divided to make different polygons. Dividing a parallelogram along the diagonal makes two triangles: Name the polygons used to make each figure. Then identify the figure. [rectangle and 2 triangles; hexagon] [triangle and trapezoid; parallelogram] [4 triangles; pentagon] [2 parallelograms; hexagon] [2 trapezoids; hexagon] [trapezoid, 2 rectangles, 2 triangles; octagon] Make a new shape by combining at least 3 different polygons. [Check students drawings.] Discovering Math, Geometry, Altering Shapes...or, Shape Shifting 2

30 ALTERING SHAPES Polygons can be combined to make different polygons. Joining two parallelograms can make a hexagon: Polygons can be divided to make different polygons. A hexagon can be divided into two trapezoids: Name the polygons used to make each figure. Then identify the figure. [5 triangles; pentagon] [trapezoid and 2 triangles; trapezoid] [2 trapezoids and rectangle; octagon] [triangle and trapezoid; pentagon] [Check students drawings. Sample answers shown.] Make a pentagon by joining together 4 triangles. Make a hexagon by joining together 6 triangles. [4 triangles; rhombus] [4 triangles; parallelogram] Discovering Math, Geometry, Altering Shapes...or, Shape Shifting 3

31 CONGRUENT AND SIMILAR SHAPES Congruent Figures Similar Figures These rectangles are congruent. Congruent figures have the same shape and the same size. These rectangles are similar. Similar figures have the same shape but not the same size. Are the figures congruent, similar, or neither? [similar] [congruent] [congruent] [similar] [similar] [neither] [congruent] [neither] Discovering Math, Geometry, Congruent and Similar Shapes...or, Same Difference 1

32 CONGRUENT AND SIMILAR SHAPES Congruent Figures Congruent figures have the same shape and the same size. Similar figures have the same shape but not the same size. Similar Figures The rectangles are similar. The rectangles are congruent. Are the figures congruent, similar, or neither? [congruent] [similar] 5. [similar] [congruent] [congruent] Discovering Math, Geometry, Congruent and Similar Shapes...or, Same Difference 6. [neither] Danny takes a photograph of his house. Then he has the photograph enlarged. Is the house in the enlargement congruent to the house in the original photograph? Is it similar? Explain. [It is not congruent because the enlargement is larger than the original. It is similar since everything should be enlarged by the same ratio.] 2

33 CONGRUENT AND SIMILAR SHAPES Similar figures have the same shape but not the same size. Similar Figures The triangles are similar. The corresponding angles of the triangles are equal. The ratios of corresponding sides are equal. Congruent Figures Congruent figures have the same shape and the same size. The triangles are congruent. Since they are the same shape, the triangles are also similar. The ratios of corresponding sides of the triangles is 1: Are the figures congruent, similar, neither, or both? [similar] [neither] [both] Draw a rectangle on the grid. Then draw a rectangle that is similar but not congruent to your rectangle. [Check students drawings.] Explain how you know the rectangles are similar. [neither] [Answers may vary. Possible answer: I doubled both the length and the width of my original rectangle to draw the similar rectangle.] Discovering Math, Geometry, Congruent and Similar Shapes...or, Same Difference 3

34 MOTION GEOMETRY Translation A translation slides a figure along a straight line left, right, up, or down. Reflection A reflection flips a figure across a line. A reflection makes a mirror image. Rotation A rotation turns a figure around a point. Write translation, reflection, or rotation to describe how each figure was moved. [reflection] [translation] [translation] [rotation] Is the reflection of a figure congruent to the original figure? Explain. [Yes. The figure is still the same size and shape. Only its position has changed.] Discovering Math, Geometry, Motion Geometry...or, Drag n Flip 1

35 MOTION GEOMETRY Translation A translation slides a figure along a straight line left, right, up, or down. Reflection A reflection flips a figure across a line. A reflection makes a mirror image. Rotation A rotation is a turn that moves a figure around a point. Write translation, reflection, or rotation to describe how each figure was moved. [translation] [rotation] 5. [reflection] [rotation] 6. [translation] [reflection] Translations, reflections, and rotations are transformations of a figure. Do these transformations result in a figure congruent to the original figure? Explain. [Yes. For these transformations, the transformed figure is still the same size and shape. Only its position has changed.] Discovering Math, Geometry, Motion Geometry...or, Drag n Flip 2

36 MOTION GEOMETRY A transformation moves a figure without changing its size or shape. Transformations Translation A translation moves a figure along a straight line. Reflection A reflection flips a figure across a line. A reflection makes a mirror image. Rotation A rotation moves a figure by turning it around a point. All the points on the figure move in a circle. Some points move farther than others, depending on how far from the center of rotation they are. Write translation, reflection, or rotation to describe how each figure was moved. [rotation] [translation] Draw a translation, reflection, and rotation of the triangle shown on the grid. Label each transformation. [reflection] [reflection] [Check students drawings.] Discovering Math, Geometry, Motion Geometry...or, Drag n Flip 3

37 LINES AND ANGLES Lines, line segments, and rays are straight paths. Line A line goes on without end in two directions. Line Segment A line segment has two endpoints. Ray A ray has one endpoint and goes on without end in one direction. Special Types of Lines Intersecting Intersecting lines are lines that cross at one point. Perpendicular Perpendicular lines cross at right angles. Parallel Parallel lines are lines in one plane that never cross. Name each figure. [ray] [perpendicular lines] Which statement is always true? Explain. (a) Intersecting lines are always perpendicular. (b) Perpendicular lines always intersect. [parallel lines] [line segment] [(b) is always true because perpendicular lines intersect at right angles. Intersecting lines do not always cross at right angles.] Discovering Math, Geometry, Lines and Angles...or, Coming Together 1

38 LINES AND ANGLES Lines, line segments, and rays are straight paths. Line A line is a straight path that goes on without end in two directions. Line Segment A line segment is a part of a line. It has two endpoints. Ray A ray is a part of a line. It has one endpoint and goes on without end in one direction. A B C D J K line AB Intersecting Lines Intersecting lines are lines that cross at one point. A D E C line AB and line CD intersect at point E B line segment CD Perpendicular Lines Perpendicular lines intersect at right angles. E G line EF is perpendicular to line GH F H ray JK Parallel Lines Parallel lines are lines in one plane that never intersect. M Q N line MN is parallel to line QR R Name each figure. H Q C B G K X P A D J Y [ray PQ] [perpendicular lines [parallel lines GH and JK] [line XY] AB and CD] Draw and label a diagram to illustrate each of the following: [Check students drawings.] line GH parallel to line LM line RS and line XZ intersecting at point P Discovering Math, Geometry, Lines and Angles...or, Coming Together 2

39 LINES AND ANGLES Line A line is a straight path that goes on without end in two directions. A line AB or AB or line BA or BA Intersecting Lines Intersecting lines are lines that cross at one point. A D AB and CD intersect at point E E B C B Line Segment A line segment is a part of a line. It has two endpoints. C D line segment CD or C D or line segment DC or D C Perpendicular Lines Perpendicular lines intersect at right angles. E G EF GH means F is perpendicular to H Ray A ray is a part of a line. It has one endpoint and goes on without end in one direction. J ray JK or JK K Parallel Lines Parallel lines are lines in one plane that never intersect. M N Q MN QR means is parallel to R Use the figure at the right to name an example of each term. [Sample answers given] perpendicular lines [ AC BD ] ray [DE ] line segment [B C ] intersecting lines [AC and CF ] 5. parallel lines [AC DF ] 6. line [CF ] Draw and label a figure for each. [Check student s drawings.] 7. line FG 8. PQ ST 9. R S M N Discovering Math, Geometry, Lines and Angles...or, Coming Together 3

40 MAP AND DRAWING SCALES A map is a diagram that shows relationships among places, often including distance information. This map shows some places near Bev s house. The map shows that Bev lives 4 miles from her school. 1 mile 6 miles 3 miles 2 miles 4 miles 1 mile 5 miles Use the map above to answer each question. How many miles is Bev s house from the library? [6 miles] How many miles does Karl live from the mall? [2 miles] Who lives closer to school, Bev or Karl? How much closer? [Bev lives 1 mile closer.] Bev goes from her house, to the library, and then to the post office. At that point, how far did she travel? [9 miles] 5. How many miles is a round trip from Karl s house to school and back? [10 miles] 6. Who lives closer to the library, Bev or Karl? Explain. [Karl lives closer. He can travel either 3 miles or 4 miles to the library. Bev lives 6 miles from the library.] What is the shortest route to the school from the library shown on the map? What is the distance? [Start at the library. Go 1 mile to the mall, 2 miles to Karl s house, then 5 miles to the school. The distance is 8 miles.] Discovering Math, Geometry, Maps and Drawing Scales...or, Scaling Peaks 1

41 MAP AND DRAWING SCALES A map is a diagram that shows distances between different locations. The map below shows some trails in a forest. It is 1 mile between each pair of circle markers shown on the map. So, it is 6 miles from the trailhead to the top of the Trail A. Trailhead Use the map above to answer each question. How far is it from the trailhead to the top of Trail B? [5 miles] How far is it from the trailhead to the top of Trail C? [7 miles] Trail D connects Trails B and C. How long is Trail D? [3 miles] Start at the trailhead and start to follow Trail B. Then go along Trail D to the top of Trail C. How far is it to the top? [7 miles] 5. What is the total roundtrip distance from the trailhead to the top of Trail A and back? [12 miles] 6. What is the shortest total distance of a hike that starts at Trail C, turns onto Trail D and then follows Trail B to the trailhead of Trail B? [10 miles] 7. How much longer is a roundtrip hike from the trailhead to the top of Trail C than a roundtrip hike to the top of Trail A? [2 miles] Suppose the distance between each pair of markers on the map were 5 miles. How far would it be to the top of Trail A? Explain. [30 miles; Possible explanations: 6 5 = 30 or count by 5s between markers.] Discovering Math, Geometry, Maps and Drawing Scales...or, Scaling Peaks 2

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