# Area of Parallelograms, Triangles, and Trapezoids (pages )

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1 Area of Parallelograms, Triangles, and Trapezoids (pages 34 38) Any side of a parallelogram or triangle can be used as a base. The altitude of a parallelogram is a line segment perpendicular to the base with endpoints on the base and the side opposite the base. The altitude of a triangle is a line segment perpendicular to the base from the opposite vertex. The length of the altitude is called the height. A trapezoid is a quadrilateral with exactly one pair of parallel sides, which are its bases. Area of a Parallelogram The area A of a parallelogram is the product of any base b and its height h. A bh h b Area of a Triangle The area A of a triangle is equal to half the product of its base b and height h. A 2 bh h b Area of a Trapezoid The area A of a trapezoid is equal to half the product of the height h and the sum of the bases, b and b 2. A h(b b 2 ) 2 h b b 2 A Find the area of a parallelogram that has b 4 in. and h 5 in. Find the area of a trapezoid with bases of 3 cm and 7 cm and a height of 9 cm. A bh A 2 h(b b 2 ) A (4)(5) Replace b with 4 and h with 5. A 2 (9)(3 7) Replace the variables. A 70 in 2 Multiply. A 35 cm 2 Multiply. Try These Together. Find the area of a triangle that has 2. Find the area of a parallelogram that has a base b 6 yd and h 2 yd. of 0.5 m and a height of m. Find the area of each triangle. Find the area of each trapezoid. base height base (b ) base (b 2 ) height 6 cm 7 cm 6. 4 in. 8 in. 6 in. 3 5 ft 6 ft 20 m 7 m 2 m cm 22 cm 6 yd 5.2 yd 7 yd 9. Standardized Test Practice What is the area of a parallelogram whose base is 5 m and whose height is 6 m? A 5.3 m 2 m 2 C 0.6 m 2 D 6.2 m 2 Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 56 Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 3 2 Answers:. 96 yd m 2 56 cm 2 46 ft cm in 2 68 m 2 43 yd 2 9. D 2

2 Circumference and Area of Circles (pages ) The distance from the center to any point on a circle is the radius (r). The distance across the circle through the center is the diameter (d). The distance around the circle is the circumference (C). The diameter is twice the radius, or d 2r. Circumference of a Circle Area of a Circle The circumference C of a circle is equal to its diameter d times, or 2 times its radius r times. C d or C 2 r d r C 22 7 Use or 4 as an approximate value for. The area A of a circle is equal to times the square of the radius r, or A r 2. A Find C if the diameter is 2 meters. C d C 4(2) C 88 m Replace d with 2 and with Multiply. Find the area of the circle. Round to the nearest tenth. A r 2 A 3 2 r 3 A 9 A 23 yd 2 Use a calculator. 3 yd Try These Together. Find the area of the circle. 2. Find C if the radius is 23 centimeters. Use a calculator. Round to 26 ft Round to the nearest tenth. the nearest tenth. HINT: Use the formula that contains r. HINT: r 3 Find the circumference of each circle. Round to the nearest tenth. Use 2 2 or 4 for. 7 radius, 9.65 cm diameter, 60.2 m 5. diameter,.3 yd 6. radius, 8 in. Find the area of each circle. Use a calculator. Round to the nearest tenth. radius, 6 m diameter, 6 in. 9. radius, 0 ft 0. Standardized Test Practice A pizza has a diameter of 8 inches. If two of the twelve equal pieces are missing, what is the approximate area of the remaining pizza? A 254 in in 2 C 22 in 2 D 424 in 2 Answers: ft cm 24 cm 89.0 m yd in. 802 m in ft 2 0. C Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 57 Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 3 2

3 A Area of Complex Figures (pages ) A complex figure is made up of two or more shapes. To find the area of a complex figure, separate the figure into shapes whose areas you know how to find. Then find the sum of those areas. Find the area of the complex figure. The figure can be separated into a trapezoid and a semicircle. Area of trapezoid Area of semicircle A h(a + b) A 2 r2 2 A 2(3 + 5) 2 A 2 2 A 8 A.6 The area of the figure is about 8.6 or 9.6 square centimeters. 2 cm 3 cm 5 cm Find the area of each figure. Round to the nearest tenth if necessary yd 8 cm 0 cm 4 in. 7 yd 2 yd 6 cm 3 yd 6 in. 5 cm 5 yd in. 2 in. 3 ft 8 in. 2 in. 6 ft 3 ft 4 cm 7 cm 4 cm 4 cm 2 in. in. 2 ft 5 ft What is the area of a figure that is formed with a rectangle with sides 4 inches and 7 inches and a trapezoid with bases 8 inches and 2 inches, and a height of 3 inches? 8 cm Standardized Test Practice What is the area of the figure at the right? A 80 in 2 79 in 2 C 74 in 2 D 32 in 2 in. 4 in. 8 in. in. in. in. 8 in. 4 in. Answers: in cm 2 87 yd 2 48 in ft cm 2 58 in 2 Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 58 Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 3

4 A Three-Dimensional Figures (pages ) Three-dimensional figures are called solids. Prisms are solids that have flat surfaces. The surfaces of a prism are called faces. All prisms have at least one pair of faces that are parallel and congruent. These are called bases, and are used to name the prism. triangular prism rectangular prism triangular pyramid rectangular pyramid Use isometric dot paper to draw a three-dimensional figure that is 3 units high, unit long, and 2 units wide.. Lightly draw the bottom of the prism unit by 2 units. 2. Lightly draw the vertical segments at the vertices of the base. Each segment is three units high. Complete the top of the prism. Go over your light lines. Use dashed lines for the edges of the prism that you cannot see from your perspective, and solid lines for edges you can see. Identify each solid. Name the number and shapes of the faces. Then name the number of edges and vertices.. 2. a. Name the solid at the right. b. What is the height of the solid? c. How many faces does the solid have? d. How many edges does the solid have? e. How many vertices does the solid have? 5. Standardized Test Practice How many vertices does a triangular prism have? A 3 5 C 6 D 8 Answers:. rectangular prism; 6 faces, all rectangles; 2 edges; 8 vertices 2. rectangular pyramid; 5 faces, 4 triangles and rectangle; 8 edges; 5 vertices pentagonal prism; 7 faces, 2 pentagons and 5 rectangles; 5 edges; 0 vertices 4a. rectangular prism 4b. 4 4c. 6 4d. 2 4e C Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 59 Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 3

5 A Volume of Prisms and Cylinders (pages ) Volume is the measure of the space occupied by a solid. It is measured in cubic units. You can use the following formulas to find the volume of prisms and circular cylinders. A circular cylinder has circles for its bases. Volume of a Prism Volume of a Cylinder The volume V of a prism is equal to the area of the base times the height h, or V h. For a rectangular prism, the area of the base equals the length times the width w. The formula V h becomes V ( w)h. The volume V of a cylinder is the area of the base times the height h, or V h. Since the area of the base of a cylinder is the area of a circle, or r 2, the formula for the volume of a cylinder V becomes V r 2 h. A Find the volume of a rectangular prism Find the volume of a cylinder with a with a length of 4 centimeters, a width of radius of 3 inches and a height of 6 centimeters, and a height of 8 centimeters. 2 inches V wh V r 2 h V , w 6, h 8 V r 3, h 2 V 92 cm 3 V 339 in 3 Use a calculator. Find the volume of each solid. Round to the nearest tenth if necessary in. 6 cm 4 cm 3 cm 6 in. 9 mm 9 mm 9 mm ft 5 in. 6 5 ft 2 ft 2 in. 3 in..2 cm 5 cm Standardized Test Practice You just bought a new pot for a plant. The pot is shaped like a cylinder with a diameter of 2 inches and a height of 2 inches. About how much dirt will you need to fill the pot? A 44 in 3 24 in 3 C 5,427 in 3 D,352 in 3 Answers:. 72 cm in mm 3 3 ft in cm 3 D Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 60 Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 3

6 A Volume of Pyramids and Cones (pages ) A cone for ice cream is an example of a geometric solid called a circular cone. A segment that goes from the vertex of the cone to its base and is perpendicular to the base is called the altitude. The height of a cone is measured along its altitude. Volume of a Cone The volume V of a cone equals one-third the area of the base times the height h, or V 3 3 rewritten as V r 2 h. h. Since the base of a cone is a circle, the formula can be Volume of The volume V of a pyramid equals one-third the area of the base times the a Pyramid height h, or V h. 3 A Find the volume of a cone that has a Find the volume of a pyramid that has radius of centimeter and a height an altitude of 0 inches and a square base of 6 centimeters. with sides of 9 inches. V r 2 h V 3 3 h V 2 6 r, h 6 V The area of a square base is s V 6.3 cm 3 Use a calculator. V 270 in 3 Find the volume of each solid. Round to the nearest tenth if necessary in. 0 in. 8 cm 6 cm The height of a rectangular pyramid is 0 meters. The base is 6 meters by 5 meters. a. Find the volume of the pyramid. b. Suppose the height is cut in half and the base remains the same. What is the volume of the new pyramid? 6 cm 6 ft 20 ft 5. Standardized Test Practice You are creating a model of the Egyptian Pyramids for Social Studies class. You make a pyramid with a height of 5 feet and a 2.5-foot by 2.5-foot square base. What is the volume of your pyramid? A ft ft 3 C 6.3 ft 3 D 0.4 ft 3 Answers:. 5 in cm 3,340.4 ft 3 4a. 70 m 3 4b. 85 m 3 5. D Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 6 Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 3

7 A Surface Area of Prisms and Cylinders (pages ) Surface area is the sum of the areas of all faces or surfaces of a solid. Surface Area of a Prism The surface area S of a rectangular prism with length, width w, and height h is the sum of the areas of the faces. S 2 w 2 h 2wh h w Surface Area of a Cylinder The surface area of a cylinder equals two times the area of the circular bases (2 r 2 ) plus the area of the curved surface (2 rh). S 2 r 2 2 rh A Find the surface area of a cube that has a side length of 8 centimeters. A cube has six sides, or faces, that are squares. The area of one side is 8 2, or 64 cm 2. Since there are 6 sides, multiply the area of one side by 6. So, The surface area of a cube with a side length of 8 cm is 384 square centimeters. Find the surface area of a cylinder with a radius of 2 centimeters and a height of 20 centimeters. Round to the nearest tenth. S 2 r 2 2 rh S 2 (2 2 ) 2 (2)(20) r 2, h 20 S cm 2 Use a calculator. Try These Together. Find the surface area, to the nearest tenth 2. of a cylinder with a radius of 3 inches and a height of 5 inches. 6 in. 2 in. 0 in. HINT: Find the surface area of each face, then add. Find the surface area of each cylinder. Round to the nearest tenth if necessary. 6 cm in cm 24 in. 9 cm 24 cm 6. Standardized Test Practice Selma is wrapping a gift for her friend s birthday. She uses a rectangular box that is 20 inches long, 3 inches high, and 9 inches deep. Find the surface area of the box so she can buy enough wrapping paper. A 267 in in 2 C 540 in 2 D 32 in 2 Answers: in in cm 2 70 in 2 5.,866. cm 2 6. Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 62 Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 3

8 A Surface Area of Pyramids and Cones (pages ) Surface Area of a Pyramid The triangular sides of a pyramid are called lateral faces. The altitude or height of each lateral face is called the slant height. The sum of the areas of the lateral faces is the lateral area. The surface area of a pyramid is the lateral area plus the area of the base. Model of Square Pyramid lateral face slant height base Surface Area of a Cone The surface area of a cone with radius r and slant height is given by S r r 2. Model of Cone slant height ( ) radius (r) Find the surface area of the pyramid. Area of each lateral face A 2 bh (3)(4) 2 4 cm 2 There are 3 faces, so the lateral area is 3(2) or 63 square 3 cm centimeters. The area of the base is given as 9 square centimeters. The surface area of the pyramid is the sum of the lateral area and the area of the base, or 66.9 square centimeters. 3 cm 3 cm 9 cm 2 Find the surface area of each solid. Round to the nearest tenth if necessary mm 5.5 cm 7 mm 6.9 cm 7 mm 8 cm 8 cm 6.7 in. 2 in mm mm 6. ft 7 ft 7 ft 9 ft 6 in. in. cone: radius 6.4 in.; slant height, 2 in. triangular pyramid: base area, 0.8 m 2 ; base length, 5 m; slant height, 2.5 m 9. square pyramid: base side length, 2 ft; slant height 4 ft 3 in. 0. Standardized Test Practice Find the surface area of the complex solid at the right. A in 2 82 in 2 C in 2 D in in. 6 in. 6 in. 0.4 in. Answers:. 96 cm mm 2 57 in mm ft in in m ft 2 0. D Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 63 Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 3

9 A Precision and Significant Digits (pages ) The precision of a measurement is the exactness to which a measurement is made. Precision depends upon the smallest unit of measure being used, or the precision unit. The digits you record are significant digits. These digits indicate the precision of the measurement. When adding, subtracting, multiplying, or dividing measurements, the result should have the same precision as the least precise measurement. There are special rules for determining significant digits in a given measurement. Numbers are analyzed for significant digits by counting digits from left to right, starting with the first nonzero digit. Number Number of Significant Digits Rule All nonzero digits are significant Zeros between two significant digits are significant Zeros used to show place value of the decimal are not significant. In a number with a decimal point, all zeros to the right of a nonzero digit are significant. In a number without a decimal point, any zeros to the right of the last nonzero digit are not significant. A Determine the number of significant digits in 2.08 cm. The zero is between two significant digits, and nonzero digits are significant, so there are 4 significant digits in 2.08 cm. Find 36.5 g 2.24 g using the correct number of significant digits has the least number of significant digits, Round the quotient so that it has 3 significant digits. The result is 2.98 g. Determine the number of significant digits in each measure Find each sum or difference using the correct precision. 425 ft 5 ft 5. 8 cm 205 cm yd 0.95 yd Find each product or quotient using the correct number of significant digits. 24 lb 0.75 lb.6 mi 2.08 mi m 5.36 m 0. Standardized Test Practice Television ratings are based on the number of viewers. A game show had 6 million viewers in one evening. How many significant digits are used in this number? A 8 5 C 3 D 2 Answers: ft cm yd 3 lb 3 mi m 0. C Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 64 Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 3

10 Chapter 7 Review Cut-It-Out! To do this activity, you will need a ruler, scissors, pencil, clear tape, and a piece of poster board or other thick paper or thin cardboard. Complete the activity with a parent. To find the surface area of a prism, you must find the area of each face of the prism, and then add the areas. Use the materials above to draw and cut out each face of the prisms below. Once you have cut out the faces, label them with their individual surface areas. Tape the pieces together to form the prism. Then add the surface areas from the labels to find the total surface area of the prism in. 6 in. 2 in. 4 in. 4 in. 6 in. 8 in. in. 5 in. 2 in. Which prism requires the most paper or cardboard to make? Answers are located on page 09. Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 65 Mathematics: Applications and Concepts, Course 3

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