# Line Segments, Rays, and Lines

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1 HOME LINK Line Segments, Rays, and Lines Family Note Help your child match each name below with the correct drawing of a line, ray, or line segment. Then observe as your child uses a straightedge to draw and label figures. Pages 100 and 101 in the Student Reference Book discuss these figures. Please return this Home Link to school tomorrow This line segment can be named A B or B A. Each of these rays can be named YZ. A Y Z Z Y B This line can be named AB, BA, AC, CA, BC, or CB. A B C 1. Match each drawing below with one of the names. b R S a. T S R S b. RS R S c. TS S T d. SR R S T Follow the directions carefully. Use a straightedge. 2. Mark points B and C. Draw a line segment, B C. e. RS 3. Draw a ray,to. Practice Write these problems on the back of this page. Solve = = 167

2 Geoboard Designs 1. Use 3 rubber bands to make a shape or a design on a geoboard. Use a straightedge to record your design. 2. Use 6 rubber bands to make a shape or a design on a geoboard. Use a straightedge to record your design. 3. Use 8 rubber bands to make a shape or a design on a geoboard. Use a straightedge to record your design. 4. Make up your own. I used rubber bands. Record your design. 168

3 Diagonals of Polygons 1. Use the information from the polygons on Math Journal 1, page 128 to fill in the first three columns. Talk about the patterns you see with a partner. number of points number of line segments Can you guess the number of line segments in a 6-sided figure? line segments 3. Check your guess. Label 6 points. Draw line segments between each pair of points. How many line segments did you draw? Fill in the table. 4. Try it with 7 points. Try it with 8 points. 169

4 ſ Pattern-Block Template Shapes Use your Pattern-Block Template to trace the shapes that have exactly 4 sides and 4 corners. Write their names. Describe your shapes to a partner. 170

5 HOME LINK ſ More Line Segments, Rays, and Lines Family Note Refer to the following notations to help your child draw and label line segments, rays, and lines. line segment AB ray BA line AB A B BA A A AB A B B B Please return this Home Link to school tomorrow Use a straightedge and a sharp pencil to draw the following. Be sure to mark points and label the line segments, rays, and lines. 1. Draw line segment YZ, that is parallel to AB. 2. Draw a ray, CD, that intersects EF. A B E F 3. Draw two parallel rays, IS and NO. 4. Draw two intersecting lines, MY and AN. 5. Draw a line segment PO intersecting ray LA. 6. Draw line PU, parallel to ray RA. 171

6 ſ Parallel Possibilities Each problem set tells you how many line segments to use and how many points of intersection to make. Use chenille sticks to figure out how to solve the problems. Record your solutions in the boxes provided. Example: 2 Line Segments 3 Line Segments None One None One Two Three Try This 4 Line Segments (Hint: One of these is not possible!) None One Two Three 172 Four Five Six Seven

7 HOME LINK ȶ Right Angles Family Note Our class has been studying intersecting lines including lines that intersect at right angles. Help your child look for objects that have square corners or right angles tables, pictures, the kitchen counter, a book, and so on. Please return this Home Link to school tomorrow. Find 4 things at home that have right angles (square corners). Below, describe or draw a picture of each of these things. Bring your descriptions or your pictures to school to add to your Geometry Hunt. 173

8 HOME LINK Triangles Family Note Your child has been learning about the properties of triangles. Watch as your child completes the page For each problem, use a straightedge to connect the three points with three line segments. Show someone at home that the triangles match their descriptions. To measure triangles 1 3, cut out and use the ruler at the right. To find the right angle in triangle 4, use the square corner of a piece of paper. 1. equilateral triangle All sides and angles are equal. B 3. scalene triangle No sides are equal. I A G C H 2. isosceles triangle Two sides are equal. F 4. right triangle The triangle has a right angle ( 1 4 turn). J D K E L CENTIMETERS Practice Solve the following problems on the back of this page

9 Counting Triangles Look at the large triangle below. How many small triangles make up the large triangle? How many triangles can you find all together? (Hint: Look for different-size triangles that are made from smaller triangles.) You might want to trace every triangle you find with a different color. (You don t have to trace the small ones or the largest one.) You can keep count by seeing how many colors you use. 175

10 Geoboard Triangles Work with a partner or a small group. Materials geoboard rubber bands geoboard dot paper (Math Masters, p. 429) Directions 1. How many different-looking triangles can you make on your geoboard? Each partner or person in your group should try to find out. 2. Draw your triangles on geoboard dot paper. 3. Make the largest triangle you can on your geoboard. Use more rubber bands to split the triangle into 2 triangles. Then split it into 3 triangles. Now split it into 4 triangles. Can you make more than 4 triangles? Try. 4. Draw your triangles on geoboard dot paper. Follow-Up Look at the triangles you and your partner drew. 5. List how the triangles are alike. 6. List how the triangles are different. 176

11 HOME LINK Quadrangles Family Note Help your child complete the statements. A right angle is a square corner. Parallel sides are the same distance apart and will never meet. Opposite sides are directly across from each other. Adjacent sides meet at a vertex (corner). Please return this Home Link to school tomorrow Fill in the blanks using the following terms: equal parallel right angles 1. Rectangle (Squares are special rectangles.) All angles are. Pairs of opposite sides are in length and to each other. 2. Rhombus (Squares are also rhombuses.) All sides are Opposite sides are in length. to each other. 3. Parallelogram (Squares and rhombuses are also parallelograms.) Opposite sides are Opposite sides are 4. Kite Opposite sides are not in length. to each other. in length. Practice Solve

12 HOME LINK Naming Polygons Family Note Our class has been naming polygons. Help your child think of names with different numbers of letters, so that he or she can draw and name several different polygons. Please return this Home Link to school tomorrow Think of names that have different letters. Use the letters to name points on each circle. Then use a pencil and a straightedge to connect the points to make a polygon. Count the number of sides. Name the polygon. Example: I C This polygon has sides. M This polygon is a heptagon. H Its name is MICHA EL. L E A This polygon has This polygon is a. Its name is. sides. This polygon has This polygon is a. Its name is. sides. 3. Draw more circles and polygons on the back of this paper. Why do you think each letter in a polygon s name can be used only once? 178

13 Sorting Geometry Vocabulary Draw a picture for the word on each card. Cut out the cards and sort them into groups. trapezoid triangle vertex (vertices) side angle kite rhombus quadrangle parallel sides square rectangle adjacent sides right triangle equilateral triangle regular polygon polygons 179

14 Geoboard Polygons Work in a small group. Materials geoboard rubber bands ruler Directions Each person uses a geoboard to make the following polygons. Copy each polygon below. 1. Make a triangle in which each 2. Make a quadrangle in which each side touches exactly 3 pins. side touches exactly 4 pins. 3. Make a pentagon that 4. Make a hexagon whose sides touches at least 5 pins. touch exactly 6 pins in all. 5. Compare your polygons with those of others in your group. Talk about how the polygons are alike and different. Use your ruler to check which of the polygons have sides that are equal in length. 180

15 HOME LINK Turns Family Note If your child needs help with the following problems, consider putting up signs in a room in your home to indicate the directions north, south, east, and west. Do the turns with your child. Please return this Home Link to school tomorrow. left turn counterclockwise right turn clockwise Make the turns described below. Show which way you face after each turn. Draw a dot on the circle. Label the dot with a letter. North Example: Face north. Do a 1 2 turn counterclockwise. On the circle, mark the direction you are facing with the letter A. West You A South East 1. Face north. Do a 1 4 turn clockwise. Mark the direction you are facing with the letter B. 2. Face north. Do a 3 4 turn clockwise. Mark the direction you are facing with the letter C. 3. Face east. Do a 1 4 turn counterclockwise. Mark the direction you are facing with the letter D. 5. Face north. Make a clockwise turn that is more than a 1 2 turn, but less than a 3 4 turn. Mark the direction you are facing with the letter F. 4. Face west. Make less than a 1 4 turn clockwise. Mark the direction you are facing with the letter E. 6. Face north. Make a counterclockwise turn that is less than a 1 2 turn, but more than a 1 4 turn. Mark the direction you are facing with the letter G. 181

16 HOME LINK Degree Measures Family Note Our class has been learning about turns, angles, and angle measures. A full turn can be represented by an angle of 360, a 1 2 turn by an angle of 180, a 1 turn by an angle of 90, 4 and so on. Help your child match the measures below with the angles pictured. (It is not necessary to measure the angles with a protractor.) Please return this Home Link to school tomorrow. Tell which angle has the given measure. 1. about 180 angle 2. about 90 angle 3. about 270 angle 4. between 0 and 90 angle 5. between 90 and 180 angle Rotation Degrees 1 turn turn turn full turn 360 B A C D E 182

17 Clock Angles 1. How many minutes does the minute hand take to move... from 10:00 to 11:00? from 4:00 to 4:30? from 6:00 to 6:15? from 9:00 to 9:05? Through how many degrees does the minute hand move... from 10:00 to 11:00? from 4:00 to 4:30? from 6:00 to 6:15? from 9:00 to 9:05? 3. Through how many degrees does the hour hand move... in 3 hours? in 2 hours? in 1 hour? Make up your own clock-angle problems. 4. Through how many degrees does the hand move... in? in? 183

18 Modeling Angles on a Clock Face Connect 2 straws with a twist-tie. Model the movement of the minute hand as suggested in each problem on Math Masters, page 183. Refer to your angle measurer to help you figure out the measurements in Problems 2 and

19 Mirror Image B A C E D G F I J H 185

20 HOME LINK Symmetric Shapes Family Note Our class has been studying lines of symmetry lines that divide figures into mirror images. Help your child look for symmetric shapes in books, newspapers, and magazines, and in objects around the house, such as windows, pieces of furniture, dishes, and so on. Please return this Home Link and your cutouts to school tomorrow Fold a sheet of paper in half. Cut off the folded corner, as shown. Before you unfold the cutoff piece, guess its shape. a. Unfold the cutoff piece. What shape is it? b. How many sides of the cutoff piece are the same length? c. How many angles are the same size? d. The fold is a line of symmetry. Does the cutoff piece have any other lines of symmetry? 2. Fold another sheet of paper in half. Fold it in half again. Make a mark on both folded edges 2 inches from the folded corner. Cut off the folded corner. Before you unfold the cutoff piece, guess its shape. a. Unfold the cutoff piece. What shape is it? b. Are there any other lines of symmetry besides the fold lines? c. On the back of this paper, draw a picture of the cutoff shape. Draw all of its lines of symmetry. 2 in. 2 in. 186

21 Pattern-Block Symmetry Riddles Use your Pattern-Block Template to record your solution to each problem on another piece of paper. Check that each solution works for all the clues in the problem. 1. Build a symmetrical shape using these clues: Use exactly 2 red trapezoids and put them together to make a hexagon. Use exactly 6 green triangles around the outside of the hexagon. Use exactly 8 blocks. 2. Build a symmetrical shape using these clues: Use exactly 2 red trapezoids. Use exactly 5 tan rhombuses. Use exactly 7 blocks. 3. Build a symmetrical shape using these clues: Build a large triangle. Use a yellow hexagon in the center at the bottom of the large triangle. Use at least 3 different colors of blocks. Try This 4. Build a shape that has more than 1 line of symmetry using these clues: Use exactly 2 red trapezoids. Do not use yellow hexagons. The longer sides of the red trapezoids touch and line up together. Use a green triangle at the top and at the bottom of the shape. Use exactly 10 blocks. 187

22 Congruent Shapes Exploration A: You need: Math Masters, p. 189 Scissors and tape Construction paper 1 trapezoid and 2 triangle pattern blocks Pattern-Block Template Unlined paper 1. Carefully cut out the shapes on Math Masters, page Match the congruent shapes to make 3 sets of shapes. They may be turned or flipped. 3. Tape the shapes in sets onto a piece of construction paper. 4. Use 1 trapezoid and 2 triangle pattern blocks. Place the blocks onto one of the congruent shapes. Use your template or trace around the blocks to show what you did. 5. Use the same pattern blocks in different arrangements to cover each of the remaining shapes, one at a time. Use your template or trace around the blocks to show what you did each time. Example: 6. For each congruent set, make as many different arrangements with the 3 pattern blocks as you can. 7. Trace the blocks onto blank paper. Cut out the shapes and tape them in the set where they belong on your construction paper. 188

23 Congruent Shapes continued Exploration A: 189

24 An 8-Point Design Exploration B: A H E D B G C F 190

25 An 8-Point Design continued Exploration B: Materials straightedge and crayons or coloring pencils Math Masters, page 190 Directions 1. Look at Math Masters, page 190. Use your straightedge to draw a line segment from point A to each of the other points. How many line segments did you draw? 2. Draw a line segment from point B to each of the other points.you have already drawn the line segment that connects points A and B. 3. Draw line segments from points C and D to each of the other points. Some segments have already been drawn. 4. Count the number of line segments that meet at points A, B, C, and D. There should be 7 line segments that meet at each of these points. Count the number of line segments that meet at points E, F, G, and H. There should be 4 line segments that meet at each of these points. 5. Draw a line segment from point E to each of the other points. Some of these segments have already been drawn. Then draw line segments from points F, G, and H to each of the other points. 6. Count the number of line segments that meet at each of the points E, F, G, and H. There should be 7 line segments that meet at each of these points. 7. Make a design by coloring the pattern you made. Use several different colors. 191

26 HOME LINK Congruent Figures Family Note If your child has difficulty determining the congruent shapes just by looking, encourage her or him to cut out the first shape. Your child can then rotate or flip the shape to find a congruent shape. Please return this Home Link to school tomorrow Two figures that are exactly the same size and shape are called congruent figures. In each of the following, circle the shape or shapes that are congruent to the first shape. Explain to someone at home why the other shape or shapes are not congruent to the first

27 Congruent Figures Math Message: Look at the examples of pairs of figures that are congruent and those pairs that are not congruent. Talk to a partner about the meaning of congruent. congruent not congruent congruent not congruent congruent not congruent congruent not congruent Draw a pair of congruent squares. 193

28 Constructing a Square Pyramid Cut on the dashed lines. Fold on the dotted lines. Tape or glue each inside or outside the pyramid. 194

29 Constructing a Triangular Prism Cut on the dashed lines. Fold on the dotted lines. Tape or glue each inside or outside the prism. 195

30 HOME LINK 3-Dimensional Shapes Family Note Have your child identify 3-dimensional shapes. Then help search for 3-D objects (or pictures of objects) around your home for your child to bring to school. Pages in the Student Reference Book discuss 3-D shapes. Please return this Home Link to school tomorrow Identify the pictures of the 3-dimensional shapes below. Use these words: cone, prism, pyramid, cylinder, and sphere. 2. Look around your home for objects or pictures of objects that are shaped like cones, prisms, pyramids, cylinders, and spheres. Ask someone at home if you may bring some of the objects or pictures to school to share with the class. Draw the shapes you find or write the names. 3. Explain to someone the differences between 2-dimensional (2-D) and 3-dimensional (3-D) shapes. Practice 2-D 3-D 2-D 3-D Write the problems on the back of this page. Solve

31 Polygons Use straws and twist-ties to make the following polygons. Draw the polygons. Then record the number of sides, vertices, and angles for each polygon. 1. Make a square. Number of sides Number of vertices Number of angles 2. Make a triangle. Number of sides Number of vertices Number of angles 3. Make a hexagon. Number of sides Number of vertices Number of angles 4. Make a polygon of your choice. Number of sides Number of vertices Number of angles 197

32 Faces on a Cube Ingrid built a large cube from cm cubes. The large cube had 3 small cm cubes along each edge. She painted the 6 faces of the large cube. Then she took it apart so it was broken up into small cm cubes again. Answer the questions about Ingrid s cubes. Use cm cubes and draw pictures to help. How many cm cubes had no paint on them? How many cm cubes had paint on 1 side? How many cm cubes had paint on 2 sides? How many cm cubes had paint on 3 sides? Try This Build a cube like Ingrid s that has 5 cm cubes on each edge. How many cm cubes would have no paint on them? How many cm cubes would have paint on 1 side? How many cm cubes would have paint on 2 sides? How many cm cubes would have paint on 3 sides? 198

33 HOME LINK ſ Making a Solid Shape Family Note Our class has been exploring the characteristics and parts of various 3-dimensional shapes especially prisms. The pattern on this page can be used to make one type of prism. Prisms are named for the shapes of their bases. Please return this Home Link to school tomorrow. 117 Cut on the dashed lines. Fold on the dotted lines. Tape or paste each inside or outside the shape. Discuss the following questions with someone at home: 1. What is this 3-D shape called? 2. What is the shape of the bases? 3. What is the shape of the other faces? 4. How many edges does the shape have? 5. How many vertices does the shape have? 199

34 ſ Geometry Riddles 1. Work in teams of 2 to Cut out the Geometry Riddles cards from Math Masters, page 201 and place them facedown on the playing surface The team of readers chooses a card and silently reads all the clues. They write the answer to the riddle on a slate without showing it to the other team, the guessers. Then they read only the first clue aloud to the guessers. The guessers discuss the clue and guess the shape. If their guess is correct, the turn is over. If it is not correct, the readers read the second clue. Continue until the guessers name the shape on the card. Then switch roles. 4. Readers assign one tally mark for every clue needed. Record the tallies on the chart below. 5. If teams disagree on an answer to a riddle, they may use the Student Reference Book section on Geometric Solids, pages Teams switch roles. The game ends when all the cards have been used. The team with the fewest tally marks wins. Team 1: Names of Team Members Points Team 2: 200

35 ſ Geometry Riddles Cards 1. I am a geometric solid. 2. I have 2 surfaces. 3. My base is formed by a circle. 4. I have a point at the top. What am I? 1. I am a geometric solid. 2. I have only 1 surface. 3. My 1 surface is curved. 4. I have no base. What am I? 1. I am a polyhedron. 2. I have 2 triangular bases. 3. I have 3 other faces. 4. My other faces are rectangles. What am I? 1. I am a polyhedron. 2. I have the fewest number of faces of all the polyhedrons. 3. All of my faces are triangles. 4. I come to a point at the top. What am I? 1. I am a polyhedron. 2. I have 5 faces. 3. Four of my faces are triangles. 4. My base is a square. What am I? 1. I am a polyhedron. 2. I have 6 faces. 3. All of my faces are congruent. 4. All of my faces are squares. What am I? 201

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