TECHNOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF PV-DIESEL HYBRID SOLUTIONS VERSUS OTHER TECHNOLOGIES

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1 TECHNOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF PV-DIESEL HYBRID SOLUTIONS VERSUS OTHER TECHNOLOGIES Alexander Schies Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE PEP Information Workshop: PV- Hybrid Systems in Indonesia Berlin, 3 rd June

2 AGENDA Introduction Technological and economic assessment Diesel dominated grids Diesel PV Hybrid PV Hydro Summary and outlook 2

3 Introduction Business Model Load Profile Transition from SHS to Mini-grids Operation & Maintenance Energy Efficiency 3

4 Source: Fraunhofer ISE Source: IEA Introduction 225 kwp PV & 3 diesel Kings Canyon 8 kwp PV seawater desalination 4

5 Diesel Dominated Mini Grids Diesel > 50 kw: consider operation of multiple gensets of different sizes Diesel < 200 kw: avoid low load factors (< 40 %)! 5

6 Diesel Dominated Mini Grids Low Penetration renewable energy sources (RES) Instantaneous renewable penetration = P renewable P load Restrictions of low penetration: 6 If (el. load ren. power > min. rating of diesel) then: Speed and voltage regulation can coop with: Spinning reserve and active / reactive power regulation Lower generator degradation Manufacturers recommended min. ratings of diesel generators are 30% to 50% of rated power

7 Diesel Dominated Mini Grids Low Penetration RES Araras, Amazonas, Brazil 3*54 kw diesel 12.5kW PV Night load 20kW Day load av. 20 kw to 45kW 224 MWh consumption 8.3 % PV energy share per year Extreme remote place 3268 l diesel saving 261,45 l/kwp diesel saving 5.50 % fuel saved 7

8 Diesel Dominated Mini Grids Medium Penetration RES 50% to 100% instantaneous RES penetration If load < minimum load rating of diesel, control action is needed: Control of renewable generators Dispatchable loads Dump loads Storage Diesel control for low-load No avoidance of O&M cost because diesel is always running 8

9 Diesel Dominated Mini Grids Medium Penetration RES Nemiah Valley, Canada 3*90 kw diesel 1*30 kw diesel 28 kw PV 18,6 kw dump load Dayload 10 kw - 50 kw Good correlation load & PV Consumption 270 MWh/year 11% PV energy share per year ~ l diesel saving 357 l/kwp diesel saving 13,3% fuel saved 9

10 Diesel Dominated Mini Grids High Penetration RES 100% to 400% instantaneous RES penetration RES only mode shut down diesel Control of power quality and spinning reserve: Synchronous condensors Load banks Dispatchable loads / DSM Power converters Storages (short term) Examples: Marble Bar and Nullagine, Australia 10

11 PV-Diesel-Hybrid Mini-Grids PV Generator Charge Controller DC Consumers Wind Turbine Battery Charger Battery Bank Inverter AC Consumers Diesel Engine Battery Charge 11

12 PV-Diesel-Hybrid Mini-Grids PV Generator Inverter AC Consumers Wind Turbine Bidirectional Inverter Diesel Generator Battery 12

13 PV-Diesel-Hybrid Mini-Grids Location PV array capacity 30 kwp 70.8 kwp PV panels and support structure 56, ,700 Inverters 42,700 93,600 Battery bank 29, ,600 Genset 21,400 84,600 BOS (including civil works)* 24,000 98,400 Total 174, ,900 Total / kwp PV 5,820 7,640 *Cost does not include any MV or LV grid.sources: GIZ, IED 13

14 PV-Diesel-Hybrid Mini-Grids Energy data Solar resource Energy demand Peak load Fuel cost (1) Fuel cost (2) Costs of components Genset (30 kva) PV system (60 kwp) Battery Converter Lifespan Genset Battery 6 kwh/m2/day 266 kwh/day 26 kw 0,7 USD/litre 1,5 USD/litre 400 USD/kW 2822 USD/kWp 225 USD/kWh 1445 USD/kW hours 8 years 14

15 Development of a communication standard: CANopen specification CiA 454 Superordinate energy management system Intelligent components Generators Battery management Loads Communication: CANopen specification CiA 454 LEV Modular, flexible und expandable 15 15

16 A first reference implementation Water treatment system in Egypt Demand-side management 16 16

17 PV Solutions PV-Desalination/PV-Pumping/PV-Cooling Autonomous operation and/or mini grid operation Small or no battery Variable operation depending on PV power Energy efficiency Smart mini grid integration Communication via CANopen DSM ready to cope with EMS Ice storage 17

18 PV Soloutions PV-Desalination Capacity 0,3 to 5m³ per day ~ 8 kwp (in Cyprus test station) Small battery ~ 30 min operation Flushing Save operation of membranes 5 kwh Storage Energy Recovery Unit 2,6m Specific energy consumption (SEC) < 4,6 m³/kwh Smart mini grid integration Possibility of DSM desalination 6,1m filtration 2,5m 18

19 Hydro Mini Grids The IMIREN Project Renewable based interconnected mini-grids demonstration project in Nepal Funding from Sustainable Energy Project Supports (SEPS), Wisions initiative of Wuppertal Institute In co-operation with Alternative Energy Promotion Center (AEPC) and GIZ- Energising Development project 19

20 HOMER Simulation ( IMIREN Project case) Peak Load 79 kw Diesel Generator 80 kw Diesel Price 1.18 $/L Irradiation 5.03 kwh/m 2 /d PV (kwp) 0 0 0,00 50,00 100,00 150,00 200,00 250,00 300,00 350,00 400, Fuel Saved (L) Generator use (hrs) 20

21 HOMER Simulation ( IMIREN Project case) Micro-hydro Cost Size Designed flow Head Initial Cost Operating LCOE 85 kw 675 L/s 21.2 m 1719 $/kw 2000 $/ year $/kwh Renewable fraction 21

22 Summary Hybridization of Diesel mini-grids with PV economic viable Advanced solutions for hybrid PV systems on the market of close to market entry Standardization of communication enables easy combination of components of different manufacturers: Power electronics (inverters, charge controllers) Battery systems with integrated battery management Energy management systems Additional power generators Loads Energy management: Increase of direct used PV power by integrating an intelligent demand-side management PV solutions with communication and DSM possibility 22

23 Thank you for your attention! Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE 23

24 List of references To slide 2 and 19 to 21: 24 B. P. Koirala, A. Schies, B. Ortiz, T. K. Limbu, B. Shakya, Interconnected mini-grids for rural energy transition in Nepal, Micro perspectives for decentralized energy supply, Berlin Germany To slide 5 to 10: L. Arribas, I. Cruz, W. Meike, High-power PV-Hybrid systems: Is their time now?, 6 th European Conference on PV-Hybrids and Mini-Grids, Chambery, France L.A.C. Lopes, F. Katiraei, K. Mauch, M. Vandenbergh, L. Arribas, PV Hybrid Mini-Grids: Applicable Control Methods for Various Situations, IEA PVPS Task 11, Subtask 20, Activity 21, Report IEA-PVPS T11-07:2012, 2012 H.G. Beyer, R. Rüther, S.H.F. Oliveira, Adding PV-Generator without storage to medium size stand allone diesel generator sets to support rural electrification in Brazil, 2003 A. Swingler, Offgrid in the Nemiah Valley: Two Canadian PV Hybrid Power Station Examples, To slide 15 to 16: A. Schies, J. Wachtel, B.P. Koirala, L. Yang, M. Vetter, J. Wüllner, A. Gombert, F. Abulfotuh, The NACIR project: CPV island system for water pumping and irrigation in Egypt energy management strategy and field results, 6 th European Conference on PV-Hybrids and Mini-Grids, Chambery, France Rural electrification with hybrid systems Overview and recommendations for further deployment, IEA-PVPS Task 9 Club ER, Rural electrifiction with hybrid systems Nov 2012, Draft paper.

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