Sanjeev Choudhary SunEdison Advanced Solutions

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1 Sanjeev Choudhary SunEdison Advanced Solutions

2 Solar Focus 2015 Solar Plus Storage Introduction to SunEdison Topics What makes a viable energy storage market opportunity? SunEdison storage application examples Q & A P. 2 SunEdison Confidential

3 World s Largest Renewable Energy Developer P. 3 SunEdison Confidential

4 Active Across Entire Renewable Energy Value Chain P. 4 SunEdison Confidential

5 Long History Integrating Storage with RE and Grid Wind Plus Storage Solar Plus Storage Residential Commercial BTM Storage Capacity Minigrids/Rural Electrification P. 5 SunEdison Confidential

6 Solar Focus 2015 Solar Plus Storage Introduction to SunEdison Topics What makes a viable energy storage market opportunity? SunEdison storage application examples Q & A P. 6 SunEdison Confidential

7 Energy Storage in the News P. 7 SunEdison Confidential

8 But Risk and Doubt Remain P. 8 SunEdison Confidential

9 Energy Storage Applications Value we can Viable monetize Today What we think Storage Does Everything else Storage Can Do Applications Value we cannot not yet Viable monetize P. 9 SunEdison Confidential

10 Drivers of Viability Typically Multiple Drivers Required However, One Driver May Dominate and Be Sufficient P. 10 SunEdison Confidential

11 Grid Optimization Creates Opportunities for Storage Market Services Electric Energy Time-Shifting Frequency Response Frequency Regulation Up Frequency Regulation Down Ramping Real-Time Energy Balancing Synchronous Reserve (Spin) Non-Synchronous Reserve Black Start Capacity Products System Electric Supply Capacity Local Electric Supply Capacity Resource Adequacy Generation Services Intermittent Resource Integration (Ramping & Voltage Support) Variable Energy Resource Shifting, Voltage Sag, Rapid Demand Support Supply Firming Transmission/Distribution Peak Shaving: Load Shift Transmission Peak Capacity Deferral Transmission Operation Transmission Congestion Relief Distribution Peak Capacity Deferral Distribution Operation (Voltage/VAR Support) Additional Grid Benefits Reduced fossil fuel use Increased renewables Grid Reliability Faster build time Modularity/incremental build Mobility Flexibility of purpose Optionality Locational flexibility Multi-site aggregation Demand charge reduction UPS / Reliability Self-consumption Multiple applications and revenue streams, few can be fully monetized today Monetizeable today P. 11 SunEdison Confidential

12 Global Energy Storage Markets Today Canada UTL Ancillary Service Pilots Europe RSC Self Consumption in FIT Markets UTL - Pilots Korea UTL 250MW Frequency Regulation California 1.3GW Mandate by 2020 DG - Demand Charge Reduction, SGIP $1.90/W PJM DG Backup Power UTL Freq Reg Japan RSC DG & Self Consumption India Rural Electrification Microgrids Resiliency Australia/NZ RSC Self Consumption DG Demand Charge Reduction Chile UTL Ancillary Services, Spinning Reserve Energy Storage Market opportunities emerging globally across multiple markets and applications P. 12 SunEdison Confidential

13 North American Energy Storage Markets CALIFORNIA Application: DCM, BTM Capacity, DR Incentive: SGIP $1.42/W Market Size: AB2514 (1.3GW) outlook: $3.1B MISO: Application: FR, Ramp Control, Deferral/Retirement ONTARIO Application: Grid-scale storage Market Size: 50 MW outlook: $100M NEW YORK: Application: DCM Incentive: $2.1/W outlook: $300M NE-ISO: Application: FR, Capacity firming, DCM outlook: TBD PJM Application: Frequency Regulation Market Size: >500 MW HAWAII Application: Ramp Control Market Size: > 200MW viable market near term market mid-term market TEXAS / ERCOT: Application: Frequency Regulation 5 GW Announcement? outlook: $300M PUERTO RICO: Application: Ramp Control 1 Bloomberg New Energy Finance Energy Storage Forecast P. 13 SunEdison Confidential

14 Solar Focus 2015 Solar Plus Storage Introduction to SunEdison Topics What makes a viable energy storage market opportunity? SunEdison storage application examples Q & A P. 14 SunEdison Confidential

15 Application: DG Solar + Storage in PJM Integrated BTM Solar + Storage system using common inverter Value to host customer and grid P. 15 SunEdison Confidential

16 Application: DG Solar + Storage in California DG Solar reduces customer s energy drawn from grid (kwh) P. 16 SunEdison Confidential

17 Application: DG Solar + Storage in California DG Solar reduces energy charges, but Demand charges increasing Demand vs Consumption charge over time Demand charges have risen significantly for commercial customers 2008 to 2013 As more renewables are added, demand charges are expected to continue to rise P. 17 SunEdison Confidential

18 Load (kw) Application: DG Solar + Storage in California Adding storage reduces demand by peak shaving Customer now saves on energy (kwh) and demand (kw) component of bill 139 kw max 85 kw max Load after Solar Load Solar + Storage 12am 3am 6am 9am 12pm 3pm 6pm 9pm 12am Load with Solar Load with Solar + Storage Total peak demand is reduced Higher value capture for developer Greater savings for customer P. 18 SunEdison Confidential

19 Application: Wind + Storage in Hawaii 72 MW of wind projects on 200MW Maui grid Without storage, 16.5% of total wind generation will be curtailed* 10MW/20MWh Energy Storage Kaheawa Pastures (KWP2) 14 Wind turbines, 21 MW Capacity Factor of ~50% ~10% of 200MW peak capacity on Maui Ramp Rate limits ±2.0 MW/min from 4:00 am to Midnight ± 1.0 MW/min from Midnight to 4:00 am. Battery Storage Facility 10 MW/20 MWh Limits ramp-rate in wind output Mitigates curtailment Multiple values to the grid operator: Up/Down Reserves, Frequency Regulation, Frequency Response *Maui Energy Storage Study, SAND P. 19 SunEdison Confidential

20 Application: BTM Capacity in California Southern California Edison awarded 160 MW of BTM energy storage Advanced Microgrid Solutions awarded 50 MW/200 MWh battery storage SunEdison and Advanced Microgrid deploying these systems through 2018 Projects III/IV 40MW/160MWh COD Q Addressing capacity north of Johanna/Santiago substations Projects I/II 10MW/40MWh COD Q Addressing capacity south of Johanna/Santiago substations *Maui Energy Storage Study, SAND P. 20 SunEdison Confidential

21 Application: BTM Capacity in California Hybrid Electric Buildings provide dispatchable capacity to utility Advanced Microgrid aggregates fleet of buildings Once called, the fleet shifts in real-time from grid to battery to ease demand Meters confirm load drop that correlates to battery discharge P. 21 SunEdison Confidential

22 Thank You! Sanjeev Choudhary

23 Simply More Energy Solar + Storage :: The TenK approach in under 10 minutes

24 How we think about it No question of whether storage, only when What order will storage solutions come to market? Functional (non-economic) I just want backup Regionally/application specific economic managing demand costs Sea change solar+storage costs less than energy off the grid 2

25 Where is the economic crossover? Energy savings From PV+Battery Vs Grid 3

26 PV Electrical Architecture for Storage Eliminate as much cost as possible from additional BOS, install, O&M, etc: All DC storage connection (no special equipment needed for battery) Add battery at any time in future Allow high DC to AC ratios (extra DC can charge battery on sunny days, needs no extra inversion or equipment for charging) 4

27 PV Electrical Architecture for Storage Software control optional but without control, battery s natural behavior is to: Charge at night Discharge during day to supplement PV as needed Charge during day if excess PV energy available (high DC/AC ratio) 5

28 tenk RAIS Low-Voltage, Parallel Architecture Bus voltage automatically managed by embedded PV Electronics < 60VDC Battery With BMS 240/277/480VAC This design allows a 48V battery bank to exist on a common bus DC charging and discharging. No additional BOS needed. Also the Electrical design allows very high DC/AC ratios, to allow simultaneous Battery charging and AC energy export 6

29 System Architecture Simplest BOS for Solar+Storage DC Bus BMS Battery unit with integrated Battery Management System Redundant assembly of inverters, bidirectional capable All embedded into array 7

30 PV + Storage Control Using AC Export Limits Export PV Plus Stored PV Radiation High, AC Export Set High Min < Bus Voltage < Max Result: 100% PV + Storage Import or Export DC Bus Voltage Falling or Rising 8

31 PV + Storage Control Using AC Export Limits Storage Charging Export PV Plus Stored Exporting Stored Only PV Radiation High, AC Export Turned Off Min < Bus Voltage < Max Result: 100% PV Gen, All Stored DC Bus Voltage Rising Storage Full Grid Off PV Radiation High, AC Export Set High Min < Bus Voltage < Max Result: 100% PV + Storage Import or Export DC Bus Voltage Falling or Rising Grid Charging (Night) PV Radiation Low, AC Export Set High Min < Bus Voltage < Max Result: PV + Storage Export DC Bus Voltage Falling Storage Empty PV Radiation High, AC Export Set Low Bus Voltage at Max (i.e., Storage Full) Result: Modules Limit DC Power DC Bus Voltage Stable at Max No PV Radiation, Set to AC Import Min < Bus Voltage < Max Result: Storage Charging DC Bus Voltage Rising PV Radiation Low, AC Export Set High Bus Voltage at Min Result: Inversion Output Self-Limits DC Bus Voltage Stable at Min 9

32 Example: High DC:AC w/ Battery Support (Actual Data) Trial PV off > PV on > Inverter Power PV Power Battery Power System Voltage System Voltage [V] :30:00 11:00:00 11:30:00 12:00:00 12:30:00 13:00:00 13:30:00 14:00:00 Constant Output Power: PV Ripple Eliminated Without Complicated Control Algorithm Time Battery Feeding Inverters/Grid with PV Disconnected PV Back on; Now Feeding Grid and Charging Battery 10

33 Solar + Storage Solutions Solar Focus 2015 November 17, 2015 Betty Watson, Deputy Director Policy & Electricity Markets

34 What is wrong with this picture? Price Demand Supply Quantity SolarCity Confidential Slide 2

35 Optimizing the Demand Side. + + SolarCity Confidential Slide 3

36 SolarCity, the #1 full-service Residential and Commercial solar provider in America* The national leader in solar, SolarCity has**: , Years of experience States currently served Batteries deployed MW installed 1,800+ Commercial projects 12,000+ Employees 260,000+ Customers $9 Billion+ 75+ Facilities Of solar projects financed * According to the Q GTM Research U.S. PV Leaderboard. ** States served data as of 8/10/15; Facilities and Employees data as of 6/30/15; School installations data as of 9/24/14; MW installed and Customers data as of 6/30/15; Commercial projects data as of 4/22/15; Solar projects financed data as of 10/27/15. SolarCity Confidential Slide 4

37 Leader in storage technology. SolarCity has worked with Tesla for 4+ years on batteries Developed suite of battery products + internal software Fully integrated grid scale and distributed storage Over 340 batteries deployed by SolarCity Powerpack 250kW /500 kwh blocks Fully scalable Powerwall 7kWh and 10kWh SolarCity Confidential Slide 5

38 Distributed energy resources can offset system peak load. Johanna and Santiago Load, 2022 SolarCity Confidential Slide 6

39 The value of load shifting. Source: Potomac Economics, 2013 State of the Market for the New York ISO Markets, (May 2014), SolarCity Confidential Slide 7

40 Backup power service. Battery charges from solar panels, even during grid outages During the day, solar energy charges your battery while it powers your home. As the day transitions to night, your battery backup system keeps things running smoothly, so if the grid does down, the essential devices in your home will not. SolarCity Confidential Slide 8

41 The future of solar + storage. For utilities and grid operators, the technology is designed to enable remote-aggregated control of solar battery systems. - Peter Rive, SolarCity Co-Founder and CTO Today Tomorrow SolarCity Confidential Slide 9

42 DemandLogic solar + storage for demand charge reduction. 12 PM Your system is at full production, charging your battery and reducing your need for utility power. 5 PM As solar production decreases, the battery is intelligently discharged to reduce peak demand charges. 10 PM You draw power from the utility company at night at lower offpeak demand rates. SolarCity Confidential Slide 10

43 K-12 Original Load Profile. SCE Ratepayer Example School Original Load Profile SolarCity Confidential Slide 11

44 K-12 Load Profile after DemandLogic. SCE Ratepayer Example School Load Profile After PV + DemandLogic SolarCity Confidential Slide 12

45 K-12 Economic Overview SolarCity Confidential Slide 13

46 Recommendations for encouraging energy storage and DERs. Establish programs to increase penetration and gain experience with storage Identify value of load shifting Value energy capacity (kwh installed) Use declining block incentive programs Proactively streamline interconnection and permitting Clarify the status of solar+storage systems in existing programs, especially net metering Establish programs and markets to capture long-term avoided cost savings Flexible Resource Rates Encourage third-party participation SolarCity Confidential Slide 14

47 State requirements for energy storage. California Energy Storage Mandate 1,325 MW of energy storage to be procured by PG&E, SCE, and SDG&E by 2020 Energy storage procurement equal to 1% of peak load by 2020 for community choice aggregators and electric service providers California Self-Generation Incentive Program Rebate of $1.46/W to customer-sited energy storage projects, with 2-hour minimum runtime requirement Projects count toward utility procurement targets 144 MW of storage projects reserved or in progress Oregon Energy Storage Mandate 5 MWh of energy storage to be procured by electric utilities by 2020 Vermont Energy Transformation Requirement Energy Transformation Projects provide energy-related goods or services, not consisting of the generation of electricity, that result in a net reduction in fossil fuel consumption by customers, including storage of renewable energy. Requires 2% of each retail provider s annual retail electric sales to be met through energy transformation projects beginning in 2017 and reaching 12% in 2032 SolarCity Confidential Slide 15

48 Our Vision To create the most compelling energy company of the 21 st century by delivering cleaner, cheaper power through distributed generation. SolarCity Confidential Slide 16

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