Trade in Environmental Goods & Services Solar Energy in Kenya

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1 Trade in Environmental Goods & Services Solar Energy in Kenya Dr. Moses Ikiara Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis WTO Workshop, Geneva, Switzerland September 23 25, 2009

2 Outline Introduction International Outlook: Global Solar Energy Industry Overview of Energy Sector in Kenya Solar Energy in Kenya: Market Outlook and Potential Trade and Production Tariff and Non-Tariff Barriers Policy Recommendations / Options

3 Introduction Presentation looks at Tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade in solar energy goods and services in Kenya Although the country is well endowed with solar energy, only 5% of rural and 51% of urban areas have electricity Thus, great potential for solar energy contribution But, more supportive policies and incentives are required

4 1. Global Solar Energy Industry Global Solar energy industry accounts for only 0.1% of energy demand However, over the past 15 years, global production of solar PV cells has grown at annual average of 25%. Germany has limited solar insolation but is the global Solar PV market leader; with installed capacity of over 5,337 MW in 2008 Leading players in solar thermal power: US, Spain, China, France, Italy, Australia, Egypt, Morocco, South Africa, Mexico Manufacturing of solar PV cells is dominated by 5 companies: Sharp Electronics Corporation, Kyocera Solar, BP Solar, Shell Solar Industries, and Sanyo Electric Company.

5 Global Solar Energy Industry Japan accounts for 50% of the world s s solar-cell production and exports, followed by the USA and the EU; World market for PV modules and systems is currently heavily influenced by government policies, mainly subsidies, exports as aid, directed credit Tied aid distorts competition in favour of the exporter whose products are given preference (OECD, 2005).

6 2. Overview of Energy Sector in Kenya Energy consumption more or less equal to production from all sources. Characterized by heavy reliance on biomass, frequent power outage, low access to modern energy, over-reliance reliance on hydroelectricity and high dependence on imported oil. Renewable energy (RE) considered one of the potential sources. Located astride the Equator, Kenya is endowed with vast RE such as solar, wind, biomass, bio-fuel, geothermal and hydropower among others. Large potential of RE but limited utilization. However, interest growing due to unmet electricity demand, increasing global oil and gas prices & environmental pressure.

7 Overview of Energy Sector in Kenya Modern energy consumption/capita: 84 KgoE Electricity consumption/capita: 128 kwh National electrification level: 9% Rural electrification level: 5% Current Total Electricity Production (Hydro, Thermal, Geothermal, Wind, Solar, Biomass (co-generation): MW Distribution of electricity installed capacity: hydro 57.6%; thermal 31.5%; geothermal 10.9%. Share of RE in total electricity consumption: 70.31% Share of solar energy in total electricity consumption: 0.32%

8 Overview of Energy Sector in Kenya The GoK is promoting RE technologies through a number of policies and programmes (Sessional Paper No. 4 on Energy of 2004 and the Energy Act 2006). Meeting Kenya s s future energy needs requires a clear, long- term policy framework which provides incentives. Technical Potential for Renewable Energy Technologies in Kenya, 2003 Energy Source Potential Installations Wind 3-10m/s (wind speeds) Units (0.55MW) Solar 4-6 kwh/m 2 /day (solar insolation) 3600 kwp Biomass 38.1 million Tons 38MW Small hydro MW 28 MW Geothermal 3000 MW 128 MW

9 3. Solar Energy in Kenya Kenya has the largest private sector dominated solar PV home systems in a developing nation, with annual growth rates of 10-20% in recent years Country is the driver of regional trade in solar energy goods There are players (of which 5 are main players) in trade in solar energy goods and service Main products in the market: Solar PV modules; Solar batteries; solar charge controllers; solar lighting kits (d.c( d.c.. filament and fluorescent lights, torches, rechargeable lanterns); solar powered ed mobile phones; Solar-powered pumps (d.c( d.c.. powered submersible water pumps); Solar-powered fridges; solar cooking ovens 200,000 to 300,000 Solar PV home systems currently in use; Majority are Watts panels for domestic usage Comprise an installed capacity of 4MW and generates 9GWh of electricity annually

10 Solar Energy in Kenya Demand for electricity generated from home-based PV systems is projected to reach 22GWh annually by 2020 Number of solar water heating units currently in use estimated at over 140,000 units (equivalent to 19,000 ToE annually) Projected demand for solar water heating to grow to 400,000 units by 2020 equivalent to 150,000 ToE. Kenya has been able to expand access to poor rural households through unsubsidized, market-based sales. Solar energy is underutilized due to a number of factors relative cost of systems; lack of standards

11 Main Imports and Exports: 4. Trade & Production Solar PV modules; Solar batteries; solar charge controllers; solar lighting kits; Solar-powered water pumps; d.c.-a.c a.c. power converters; Solar cooking ovens Import Sources: Main sources: mainly, India, Taiwan, China, Australia; Others: France, Germany, Hongkong 5 leading importers and distributors of solar energy equipment Export Destinations: Main destinations: The greater East and Central African countries including Southern Sudan, Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, Malawi; minimal exports to Somalia due to insecurity.

12 Trade & Production Mean ( ) Short Description Units Imports Production Exports Consumption Instantaneous or storage water heaters, Non-electric - other [e.g. Solar Water Heaters] Number 2,813-1,321 1,492 Reciprocating positive displacement pumps, n.e.s. [d.c. powered water pumps] Centrifugal displacement pumps, n.e.s. [d.c. powered submersible water pumps] Static converters [e.g. rectifiers and inductors and inverters for converting dc power to ac power] Photovoltaic system controller [charge controller for voltage not exceeding 1000V] Photovoltaic cells, Modules & Panels Other lead-acid accumulators [Deep Discharge (solar) Battery] Number Number Number Number Number Number 54,421-4,585 49,836 64,117-1,003 63, , , ,171-71, , ,322-5, , ,740 >50, , ,015

13 Manufacturing: Trade & Production Solar PV modules not being produced locally yet, due to the high technology and raw materials required Solar water heaters: 3 companies producing for domestic and regional market Solar batteries: mainly produced by one company which also produces an average of 350,000 lead-acid acid batteries for motor vehicle usage Charge controllers produced by a few small and medium enterprises Solar d.c. a.c.. power Inverters: produced by a few small and medium enterprises Lighting kits Assembled by a few small and medium enterprises The Kenya Bureau of Standards has put in place policy guidelines to enhance quality standards In the sector

14 Import Sources and Export Destinations Solar Energy Product Instantaneous or storage water heaters, Non-electric other [e.g., Solar water heaters] Reciprocating positive displacement pumps, n.e.s. [d.c. powered water pumps] Centrifugal displacement pumps, n.e.s. [d.c. powered submersible water pumps] Key Import Sources Australia; China; Germany; India; Israel; South Africa; USA; China; France; Japan China; Germany; India; Italy; Japan; Thailand; UAE; UK; USA China; Denmark; Germany; India; Italy; Japan; Malaysia; Netherlands; South Africa; Taiwan; Thailand; UAE; UK; USA Key Export Destinations Rwanda; Tanzania; Uganda; Burundi Sudan; Tanzania; Uganda Sudan; Tanzania; Uganda Static converters [e.g. rectifiers and inductors and inverters for converting d.c power to a.c power] Australia; Belgium; Canada; China; France; Hong Kong; India; Indonesia; Ireland; Italy; Japan; Netherlands; Norway; Singapore; South Africa; Taiwan; Thailand; UAE; UK; USA Rwanda; Somalia; Sudan; Tanzania; Uganda; UAE; Burundi Photovoltaic system controller [charge controller for voltage not exceeding 1000V] Photovoltaic cells, Modules & Panels Australia; Belgium; Canada; China; Egypt; France; Germany; India; Israel; Italy; Japan; Korea; Malaysia; Netherlands; Taiwan Australia; China; Egypt; France; Germany; Hongkong; India; Israel; Italy; Japan; Korea; Malaysia; Netherlands; Singapore; South Africa; Taiwan; UAE; UK; USA Rwanda; Somalia; Sudan; Tanzania; Uganda Rwanda; Somalia; Tanzania; Uganda; Sudan Other lead-acid accumulators [Deep Discharge (solar) Battery] Belgium; China; Germany; France; Hong Kong; India; Italy; Japan; Korea; Netherlands; South Africa; UAE; UK; USA Somalia; Sudan; Tanzania; Uganda; UAE; Malawi; Burundi

15 5. Tariff and Non-Tariff Barriers In Kenya, Solar PV panels, solar water heaters and solar pumps are a zero-rated rated (0% import duty) but attract a 16% Value Added Tax (VAT) Kenya Revenue Authority: Import Duties as at June 2009 HS Code Solar Energy Product Applicable Tariffs Instantaneous or storage water heaters, Non-electric - other [e.g. Solar Water Heaters] 0% Import Duty; 16% VAT Reciprocating positive displacement pumps, n.e.s. [d.c. powered water pumps] Centrifugal displacement pumps, n.e.s. [d.c. powered submersible water pumps] Static converters [e.g. rectifiers and inductors and inverters for converting dc power to ac power] 0% Import Duty; 16% VAT 0% Import Duty; 16% VAT 0% Import Duty; 16% VAT Photovoltaic system controller [charge controller for voltage not exceeding 1000V] 10% Import Duty; 16% VAT Photovoltaic cells, Modules & Panels 0% Import Duty; 16% VAT Other lead-acid accumulators [Deep Discharge (solar) Battery] 25% Import Duty; 16% VAT

16 Non-Tariff Barriers Lengthy procedures related to valuation of goods at customs Quality of inspection procedures: poor quality solar energy equipments find their way into the market Transiting procedures Business licensing and registration Immigration procedures:- Obstacles to exporting labour/services to the region requires work permit; requirement to hire/subcontract local persons/labour force (e.g., in Uganda); Remuneration for services offered in the countries in the region is subject to taxes in that country; Bureaucracy at point of entry into the country Red-tape

17 Institutional, Policy and Regulatory Challenges Inadequate legislative and planning frameworks governing energy sub-sectors sectors No specific law to regulate the management of renewable energy sub-sectors; sectors; specifically solar energy The Energy Regulatory Commission is still young and is not yet functioning well Inadequate credit and financing mechanisms to facilitate acquisition of solar technology

18 6. Policy Recommendations Introduction of a feed-in tariff (FIT) for Solar Energy; Section 103 of Energy Act No.12 of 2006 provides FIT for Wind, Biomass & Small-hydro generated Electricity only. Elimination of tariffs on PV cells and modules and other solar energy goods; (is in place but NTBs exist). Incentives like reduced VAT. Developed countries could offer financial assistance to purchase renewable energy equipment and to also carry out R&D. Enhancing quality control for imported goods and services As part of the fight against pollution, developed countries could transfer solar technology to countries like Kenya. Double dividend: fight against poverty.

19 Asante Sana Thank You

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