Unit 2 Resources Ecology

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1 Unit 2 Resources Ecology

2 Chapter 2 Principles of Ecology Reinforcement and Study Guide Section 2.1 Organisms and Their Environment In your textbook, read about what ecology is and about aspects of ecological study. Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage. ecology biotic factors nonliving environments atmosphere humans organisms soil biosphere abiotic factors Living organisms in our world are connected to other (1) in a variety of ways. The branch of biology called (2) is the scientific study of interactions between organisms and their (3), including relationships between living and (4) things. All living things on Earth can be found in the (5), the portion of Earth that supports life. It extends from high in the (6) to the bottom of the oceans. Many different environments can be found in the biosphere. All living organisms found in an environment are called (7). Nonliving parts of an environment are called (8). For example, whales, trees, and (9) are biotic factors. Ocean currents, temperature, and (10) are abiotic factors. In your textbook, read about levels of organization in ecology. For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B. Column A Column B 11. A group of organisms of one species that interbreed and live in the same place at the same time 12. A collection of interacting populations 13. Interacting populations and abiotic factors in a community 14. Increases when resources are scarce 15. A terrestrial ecosystem a. community b. competition c. forest d. population e. ecosystem UNIT 2 CHAPTER 2 Principles of Ecology 9

3 Chapter 2 Principles of Ecology, continued Reinforcement and Study Guide Section 2.1 Organisms and Their Environment In your textbook, read about organisms in ecosystems. For each statement below, write true or false. 16. A habitat is the role a species plays in a community. 17. Habitats may change. 18. A niche is the place where an organism lives its life. 19. A habitat can include only one niche. 20. A species niche includes how the species meets its needs for food and shelter. 21. The centipedes and worms that live under a certain log occupy the same habitat but have different niches. 22. It is an advantage for two species to share the same niche. 23. Competition between two species is reduced when the species have different niches. Complete the table below by writing the kind of relationship described on the left. Description of Relationship 24. Organisms of different species live together in a close, permanent relationship. 25. One species benefits and the other species is neither benefited nor harmed by the relationship. 26. One species benefits from the relationship at the expense of the other species. 27. Both species benefit from the relationship. Relationships Among Organisms Kind of Relationship 10 CHAPTER 2 Principles of Ecology UNIT 2

4 Chapter 2 Principles of Ecology, continued Reinforcement and Study Guide Section 2.2 Nutrition and Energy Flow In your textbook, read about how organisms obtain energy and about matter and energy flow in ecosystems. Answer the questions below. Use the diagram of a food web to answer questions 1 7. Snake Bird Frog Insect 1. How many food chains make up the food web? Plant 2. Which organism is an herbivore? 3. Which organism is an autotroph? 4. Which organism is a third-order heterotroph? To what trophic level does that organism belong? 5. Which organism is an omnivore? 6. Which organisms belong to more than one food chain? 7. Which organism belongs to more than one trophic level? 8. What are decomposers? Where would decomposers appear in this food web? 9. What does a pyramid of energy show about the amount of energy available at different trophic levels of a food chain? 10. Why do different trophic levels have different amounts of energy? UNIT 2 CHAPTER 2 Principles of Ecology 11

5 Chapter 2 Principles of Ecology, continued Reinforcement and Study Guide Section 2.2 Nutrition and Energy Flow In your textbook, read about cycles in nature. Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 11. Energy that is lost at each trophic level of an ecosystem is replenished by a. heat. b. nutrients. c. sunlight. d. organisms. 12. Besides energy, what moves through the organisms at each trophic level of an ecosystem? a. organisms b. nutrients c. sunlight d. cycles 13. Evaporation and condensation a part of the a. carbon cycle. b. nitrogen cycle. c. phosphorus cycle. d. water cycle. 14. Plants lose water to the air through a. condensation. b. photosynthesis. c. their roots. d. evaporation. 15. Animals lose water when they a. breathe in. b. urinate. c. breathe out. d. both b and c. 16. The major process by which water in the atmosphere is returned to the earth is a. precipitation. b. evaporation. c. photosynthesis. d. decomposition. 17. Autotrophs and heterotrophs use carbon-containing molecules for energy and for a. photosynthesis. b. growth. c. decomposition. d. both a and b. 18. What do plants use in photosynthesis to make carbon-containing molecules? a. carbon dioxide b. carbohydrates c. fertilizer d. oxygen 19. Heterotrophs get carbon-containing molecules by a. making the molecules themselves. b. feeding on other organisms. c. decaying. d. growing. 20. When decomposers break down the carbon-containing molecules in dead organisms, a. the dead organisms are converted to coal. b. oxygen is released. c. carbon dioxide is released. d. carbon dioxide is converted to energy-rich carbon-containing molecules. 21. Fertilizers provide plants with a. nitrogen. b. carbon. c. water. d. oxygen. 22. Which of the following convert(s) nitrogen from air into a form plants can use? a. bacteria b. lightning c. sunlight d. both a and b 23. Plants use nitrogen to make a. carbohydrates. b. nitrogen gas. c. amino acids d. both b and c. 24. An animal returns nitrogen to the environment when it a. breathes. b. decomposes. c. urinates. d. both b and c. 25. Animals get phosphorus from a. the air. b. eating plants. c. water. d. the soil. 26. Phosphorus in the soil comes from a. rocks. b. decaying organisms. c. the air. d. both a and b. 12 CHAPTER 2 Principles of Ecology UNIT 2

6 Chapter 2 Principles of Ecology Concept Mapping Use with Chapter 2, Section 2.2 Food Needs in a Community Complete the concept map on food needs in a community. Use these words or phrases once: heterotrophs, decomposers, do not make own food, absorb nutrients from dead organisms, eat autotrophs, eat other heterotrophs, herbivores, photosynthesis, autotrophs, carnivores. In a community organisms may be which which make own food in a process called are called may 6. are called are called 10. UNIT 2 CHAPTER 2 Principles of Ecology 17

7 Chapter 2 Principles of Ecology Problem Solving Use with Chapter 2, Section 2.1 How the Cowbird Affects Songbird Populations Since the early 1980s, ornithologists have noticed a steady decline in migratory songbird populations in North America. Some of this decline has been attributed to reduction in feeding and nesting habitats, due to the decrease in forest and wetland areas. Others think that a major cause of the decline and even disappearance of some songbird populations is the brown-headed cowbird. No Nest of Its Own Cowbirds never build nests, incubate their eggs, or feed their young. Even so, their populations are growing at alarming rates. The cowbird lets other birds rear its young. It does so by laying its eggs in the nests of vireos, flycatchers, warblers, and other birds that build open, cup-shaped nests. The female cowbird may even remove eggs or small young from the host s nests before laying her own egg there. The cowbird egg will hatch in ten or eleven days, usually earlier than any remaining eggs of the host bird. Even if the host species hatches, the young cowbird will grow larger and demand most or all of the food brought to the nest by the parents. The cowbird outcompetes its nest mates. To learn more about the effect of cowbirds on songbird populations, answer the following questions. 1. A female cowbird lays ten to twelve eggs each breeding season, one egg per host nest. The undisturbed nests of host species usually contain three or four eggs. During one breeding season, one cowbird female might be responsible for the displacement of how many native songbirds? 2. At a Christmas Day Bird Count in Louisiana in 1984, more than 30 million cowbirds were observed. If half that population is composed of females, how many songbirds might the cowbird population displace in a single breeding season in that area? 3. In California, the cowbird has been responsible for the disappearance of at least three kinds of songbirds the willow flycatcher, yellow-breasted chat, and Bell s vireo. What actions might be taken to halt the increase in cowbird populations and perhaps even reduce their numbers? What kind of information would you want to have before you could come up with the best possible solution to this problem? 4. Would you advocate eliminating the brown-headed cowbird from North America? Why or why not? 18 CHAPTER 2 Principles of Ecology UNIT 2

8 Master 4 Interactions Within Ecosystems Section Focus Use with Chapter 2, Section How do these organisms interact with one another and with the nonliving parts of the environment? 2 What might happen if the zebras were removed? UNIT 2 CHAPTER 2 Principles of Ecology 19

9 Master 5 Section Focus Energy Pathways Use with Chapter 2, Section What is the source of all energy in this ecosystem? 2 What path does this energy take to get to the hawk? 20 CHAPTER 2 Principles of Ecology UNIT 2

10 Master 1 A Food Web Basic Concepts Use with Chapter 2, Section 2.2 Rabbits Grass Mountain lions Snakes Mice Seed-eating birds Shrubs Hawks Second-order heterotrophs Deer First-order heterotrophs Autotrophs Trees Decomposers UNIT 2 CHAPTER 2 Principles of Ecology 21

11 Worksheet 1 A Food Web Basic Concepts Use with Chapter 2, Section At which level of the food web is the supply of energy the greatest? Explain. 2. Which feeding relationship do first order heterotrophs have in common? 3. Which feeding relationship do second order heterotrophs have in common? 4. Explain why plants are called autotrophs. 5. Food webs and food chains both involve multiple trophic levels. How do they differ? 6. Use the transparency to describe a food chain that includes a mountain lion and a shrub. 7. How might the organisms pictured in the food web be affected if most of the mouse population was destroyed by disease? 22 CHAPTER 2 Principles of Ecology UNIT 2

12 Master 2 Ecological Pyramids Basic Concepts Use with Chapter 2, Section 2.2 Pyramid of Energy Top carnivores Carnivores Herbivores Producers Pyramid of Numbers Hawk 1 Robins 90 Grasshoppers 200 Grass 1500 Pyramid of Biomass Carnivores Herbivores Producers UNIT 2 CHAPTER 2 Principles of Ecology 23

13 Worksheet 2 Ecological Pyramids Basic Concepts Use with Chapter 2, Section What is the source of energy for all of the ecological pyramids shown in the transparency? 2. In general, what kind of organism makes up the base of the pyramid of energy? Provide some specific examples. 3. Examine the pyramid of energy shown in the transparency. Explain why only about 10% of the energy available at one trophic level is transferred to the next higher trophic level. 4. How is the energy loss from one trophic level to the next reflected in the pyramid of numbers shown in the transparency? 5. Suppose an ecosystem has a greater number of individual herbivores than individual producers. How would this affect the shape of the ecosystem s pyramid of numbers? 6. What quantity does a pyramid of biomass express? 7. Explain how biomass is calculated. 24 CHAPTER 2 Principles of Ecology UNIT 2

14 Master 1 The Carbon Cycle Reteaching Skills Use with Chapter 2, Section 2.2 Precipitation CO 2 in atmosphere Photosynthesis Respiration Diffusion CO 2 dissolved in water Photosynthesis Calcium carbonates in rocks and shells Death, decomposition Burning of fossil fuels Industry and agriculture Death, decomposition Carbon compounds converted to fossil fuels UNIT 2 CHAPTER 2 Principles of Ecology 25

15 Worksheet 1 The Carbon Cycle Reteaching Skills Use with Chapter 2, Section What is the process by which plants convert carbon dioxide into energy-rich carbon compounds? 2. Explain what can happen over millions of years to the carbon compounds in organisms that die and decompose. 3. What processes in the transparency release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere? 4. Identify the two major reservoirs of carbon dioxide on Earth. 5. What are the forms in which carbon is found in the oceans? 6. How do plants and animals help to maintain a balance of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere? 7. Atmospheric carbon dioxide might produce a so-called greenhouse effect by trapping heat near Earth s surface. What human activities might tend to increase the greenhouse effect? 26 CHAPTER 2 Principles of Ecology UNIT 2

16 Master 2 The Nitrogen Cycle Reteaching Skills Use with Chapter 2, Section 2.2 Nitrogen gas Plants and animals die. Decomposers break down their nitrogencontaining molecules to ammonia. Bacteria in nodules on some plant roots change nitrogen gas to ammonia. Bacteria change ammonia to nitrates. Plants use nitrates. Bacteria change nitrates to nitrogen gas. UNIT 2 CHAPTER 2 Principles of Ecology 27

17 Worksheet 2 The Nitrogen Cycle Reteaching Skills Use with Chapter 2, Section What percent of the air consists of nitrogen gas? 2. Bacteria in root nodules change nitrogen gas into what form? 3. What is the role of decomposers in the nitrogen cycle? 4. How do plants obtain the nitrogen they need? 5. How do herbivores obtain the nitrogen they need? 6. How do other animals obtain the nitrogen they need? 7. According to the transparency, how is nitrogen returned to the atmosphere? 8. What would be the impact on the nitrogen cycle if there were a decrease in decomposition in a given ecosystem? 28 CHAPTER 2 Principles of Ecology UNIT 2

18 Master 3 Trophic Levels Reteaching Skills Use with Chapter 2, Section 2.2 UNIT 2 CHAPTER 2 Principles of Ecology 29

19 Worksheet 3 Trophic Levels Reteaching Skills Use with Chapter 2, Section 2.2 Define each type of organism listed in the chart and write the name of a representative organism shown in the transparency. Type of Organism Definition Representative Organism 1. autotroph 2. heterotroph 3. herbivore 4. carnivore 5. omnivore 6. What are decomposers? At which trophic level(s) do they work? 7. Explain why a food chain can have no more than three or four links. 8. Explain the difference between a food chain and a food web. 9. In Africa, Nile crocodiles can often be seen lying in the sun, their jaws held open. Small white egrets perch on the crocodiles backs or hop in and out of their mouths. The birds also peck at the crocodiles teeth, feeding upon the scraps of food embedded there. Although crocodiles do eat some birds, they do not eat the egrets. a. What is the term for the relationship between the crocodiles and the egrets? b. Explain this relationship. 30 CHAPTER 2 Principles of Ecology UNIT 2

20 Chapter 3 Communities and Biomes Reinforcement and Study Guide Section 3.1 Communities In your textbook, read about living in a community. If the statement is true, write true on the line. If it is not true, rewrite the italicized part to make it true. 1. The interactions of abiotic and biotic factors result in conditions that are suitable for some organisms but not for others. 2. Food availability and temperature can be biotic factors for a particular organism. 3. A limiting factor is any biotic or abiotic factor that promotes the existence, numbers, reproduction, or distribution of organisms. 4. At high elevations where the soil is thin, vegetation is limited to large, deep-rooted trees. 5. Factors that limit one population in a community may also have an indirect effect on another population. 6. Tolerance is the ability of an organism to withstand fluctuations in biotic and abiotic environmental factors. 7. A population of deer would become larger as conditions move away from optimal toward either extreme of the deer s range of tolerance. 8. Different species may have different ranges of tolerance. In your textbook, read about succession: changes over time. Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage. climax primary decades succeed pioneer succession species slows down The natural changes and (9) replacements that take place in the communities of ecosystems are know as (10). It can take (11) or even centuries for one community to (12), or replace, another. When new sites of land are formed, as in a lava flow, the first organisms to colonize the new area are (13) species. This colonization is called (14) succession. The species inhabiting the area gradually change. Eventually, succession (15) and the community becomes more stable. Finally, a mature community that undergoes little or no change, called a (16) community, develops. UNIT 2 CHAPTER 3 Communities and Biomes 45

21 Chapter 3 Communities and Biomes, continued Reinforcement and Study Guide Section 3.1 Communities For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B. Column A 17. Sequence of community changes where soil is formed, allowing small, weedy plants to inhabit the area 18. Sequence of community changes occurring as a result of a natural disaster, such as a forest fire 19. A stable, mature community with little or no succession occurring 20. An example of a biotic limiting factor affecting a community of organisms 21. An example of an abiotic limiting factor affecting a community of organisms Column B a. a severe drought b. primary succession c. amount of plant growth d. secondary succession e. climax community The statements below describe the secondary succession that occurred within an area of Yellowstone National Park. Number the events in the order in which they occurred or will occur. 22. Grasses, ferns, and pine seedlings inhabited the area. 23. Annual wildflowers grew from the bare soil. 24. A fire burned thousands of acres of land. 25. A climax community of lodgepole pines developed. 26. Bare soil covered the area. 46 CHAPTER 3 Communities and Biomes UNIT 2

22 Chapter 3 Communities and Biomes, continued Reinforcement and Study Guide Section 3.2 Biomes In your textbook, read about aquatic biomes: life in the water. Complete each statement. 1. A large group of ecosystems sharing the same type of is called a. 2. Biomes located in bodies of, such as oceans, lakes, and rivers, are called. 3. The water in marine biomes is. 4. Oceans contain the largest amount of, or living material, of any biome on Earth. Yet, many of the organisms are so that they cannot be seen without magnification. 5. The is that part of marine biomes shallow enough to be penetrated by sunlight. 6. Deep-water regions of marine biomes receiving no sunlight make up the. Circle the letter of the response that best completes the statement. 7. Many rivers eventually flow into a. a lake. b. a stream. c. an ocean or a sea. d. a swamp. 8. The body of water where freshwater from a river mixes with salt water is called a. an estuary. b. a shoreline. c. a sandbar. d. a sea. 9. Organisms living in intertidal zones have structural adaptations that protect them from a. the dark. b. sunlight. c. wave action. d. temperature. 10. Life is abundant in photic zones because a. there are no waves. b. the water is cold. c. the water is clean. d. there are many nutrients. 11. The greatest number of organisms living in the photic zone of a marine biome are a. dolphins. b. plankton. c. plants. d. sharks. 12. Fewer organisms live at the bottom of a deep lake than at the top because of the lack of a. sunlight. b. space. c. niches. d. bacteria. UNIT 2 CHAPTER 3 Communities and Biomes 47

23 Chapter 3 Communities and Biomes, continued Reinforcement and Study Guide Section 3.2 Biomes In your textbook, read about terrestrial biomes. Answer the following questions. 13. Which two abiotic factors generally determine the type of climax community that will develop in a particular part of the world? 14. In which terrestrial biome is the ground permanently frozen? 15. What are some adaptations that desert plants have developed? 16. Describe the three layers of a tropical rain forest, including organisms that live in each layer. Write the name of each major terrestrial biome next to its description. 17. Arid land with sparse, drought-resistant plants, minimal rainfall 18. Largest terrestrial biome that supports small plants and grasses, but few trees 19. Treeless land where ground remains frozen except for top few centimeters 20. Warm, highly humid land that supports many species of organisms; extensive annual rainfall 21. Land with coniferous forests, peat swamps, and long, harsh winters 22. Land populated with broad-leaved hardwood trees that lose their leaves annually 48 CHAPTER 3 Communities and Biomes UNIT 2

24 Chapter 3 Communities and Biomes Concept Mapping Use with Chapter 3, Section 3.1 Natural Changes in Communities Complete the concept map on natural changes in communities. Use these words or phrases one or more times: colonization of new sites, primary succession, pioneer species, climax community, soil, disruption, natural disaster, human action, secondary succession, larger plants, rocks. Succession may be of two kinds begun by occurs after by caused by which grow on 8. leads to invasion by 9. and help to form 10. followed by growth of in which will grow leading to a stable leading to a stable UNIT 2 CHAPTER 3 Communities and Biomes 53

25 Chapter 3 Communities and Biomes Critical Thinking Use with Chapter 3, Section 3.2 Where Am I? Use the following excerpts from students letters to determine in which biome each student is living. Write the name of the biome in the space provided. You will write the names of some biomes twice. 1. Much of the northern part of the northern hemisphere is like it is here treeless. Soon, the short growing season will be over. I tried to dig in the frozen ground a few days ago, but I could only dig a few centimeters down. While I was digging, I saw an arctic fox. 2. I live near the equator. We get a lot of rain here last year we had about 450 centimeters of rain. There are many kinds of plants here. We have many trees that are about 45 meters tall. We have ferns and climbing plants. There are also many animals. Every day I see many kinds of birds, reptiles, and insects. 3. All I can see for miles and miles is grass. There are only a few small trees and some shrubs to break the monotony. There really aren t too many different kinds of plants. But we have some interesting animals that live here, for example, zebras and elephants. Last year during the dry season, we had several small fires. 4. It rained yesterday. We get more rain during some times of the year than others. Last evening I heard a meadowlark sing. This morning I tried to dig in the ground to see how long the roots of the sod are. Would you believe that the roots are about one to two meters long? I couldn t dig that deep! 5. We live between the tropic of Cancer and the equator. There is usually a wide range of temperature between day and night. The soil is very sandy and there are few plants. It s hard to grow many plants here, since we get very little rain. I see many reptiles, though. Most of them are nocturnal. 6. We have four seasons. It is warm during the summer and cold during the winter. Most of the trees lose their leaves in the fall. Many birds migrate to a warmer climate just before winter comes. I like to be outside, though, and watch the animals. I like watching squirrels, raccoons, and deer the best. 7. Our house is between 50 N and 60 N latitude. The winters are very cold. Sometimes it is as cold as 70 C! For this reason, most of the precipitation that we get is snow. The trees are shaped like cones, so the snow falls off them and does not damage them. I like the summer. Too bad it s so short. 8. The plants here are quite different from those I am familiar with. Leaf surfaces are small; some are only spines. The stems and branches are thick in order to store water. The roots of the plants spread over a large area and do not grow deep into the soil. After a rainfall, areas that were barren suddenly are covered with flowering plants. 54 CHAPTER 3 Communities and Biomes UNIT 2

26 Master 6 Surviving Environmental Changes Section Focus Use with Chapter 3, Section 3.1 Organism A Organism B Number of organisms Number of organisms Water temperature ( C) Water temperature ( C) 1 What do the graphs tell about each type of organism? 2 Which type of organism would be more likely to survive if the water temperature dropped from 20 C to 15 C over a period of time? UNIT 2 CHAPTER 3 Communities and Biomes 55

27 Master 7 Organisms from Different Places Section Focus Use with Chapter 3, Section 3.2 Group A Group B 1 How do the organisms in Group A differ from the organisms in Group B? 2 What do you think are some of the characteristics of the places in which each group lives? 56 CHAPTER 3 Communities and Biomes UNIT 2

28 Master 3 Primary Succession Basic Concepts Use with Chapter 3, Section 3.1 Pines Mosses Lichens Ferns, shrubs, and grasses Soil Rock Beeches and maples UNIT 2 CHAPTER 3 Communities and Biomes 57

29 Worksheet 3 Primary Succession Basic Concepts Use with Chapter 3, Section What do ecologists mean by the term succession? 2. Explain the process of primary succession as illustrated in the transparency. 3. What is a climax community, and which organisms in the transparency represent this type of community? 4. How is secondary succession different from primary succession? 5. Based on the transparency, if you hiked through a patch of land that contained a pine forest into an area that contained only ferns, shrubs, and grasses, would you be moving from an older to a younger community or vice versa? 6. Which parts of the ecosystem had to be established before the primary succession shown in the transparency could occur? 58 CHAPTER 3 Communities and Biomes UNIT 2

30 Master 4 Secondary Succession Reteaching Skills Use with Chapter 3, Section 3.1 UNIT 2 CHAPTER 3 Communities and Biomes 59

31 Worksheet 4 Secondary Succession Reteaching Skills Use with Chapter 3, Section 3.1 As you work on this exercise, remember that plants compete for sunlight, nutrients, and water. The transparency shows what biologists predict will happen at Yellowstone National Park in the years following the most extensive forest fire in its history. About 45 percent of the park burned. 1. a. After the fire, what resources remained in Yellowstone? b. How are these resources different from those found in an area such as a lava flow, where no life existed before? 2. In the first stage of secondary succession, grasses and wildflowers abound. Why do these plants flourish where there used to be forest? 3. Why will shrubs grow before trees? 4. For a time, the major plants in Yellowstone will be yellow pines, which will ultimately be replaced by lodgepole pines. What does this tell you about yellow pines and lodgepole pines? Explain your hypothesis. 5. Once lodgepole pines are established, the forests of Yellowstone Park will not change radically again. What is the term for the lodgepole pine community? 6. a. Elk, large herbivores that live in the Yellowstone area, eat mainly grasses. In winter, they eat twigs and needles from small trees and shrubs. Explain what may happen to the elk population during the first 10 years after the fire. b. What may happen to the elk population during the following 15 years? 60 CHAPTER 3 Communities and Biomes UNIT 2

32 Master 5 Terrestrial Biomes Reteaching Skills Use with Chapter 3, Section Tropical rain forest Temperate rain forest Tropical seasonal forest Temperate forest Thorn forest Savanna Thorn scrub Desert Woodland Taiga Grassland Shrubland Tundra Annual average temperature ( C) Annual precipitation (cm) UNIT 2 CHAPTER 3 Communities and Biomes 61

33 Worksheet 5 Terrestrial Biomes Reteaching Skills Use with Chapter 3, Section The transparency shows two abiotic factors that influence the kind of climax community that will develop in a particular part of the world average temperature and annual precipitation. Predict which climax community would result in an area that has an annual precipitation of 50 cm and an annual average temperature of 10 C. 2. Which climax community would result in an area that has an annual precipitation of 250 cm and an annual average temperature of 10 C? 3. Which climax communities can be found at different points within the following range of temperatures and precipitation: 10 cm to 200 cm annual precipitation and 5 C to 15 C annual average temperature? 4. Which climax communities require an average annual temperature of 20 C to 30 C? 5. Which climax community is a little warmer and wetter than the tundra? What is its approximate range of annual average temperature and annual precipitation? 6. Which climax community can exist within the broadest range of temperature? 7. Which climax community do you think would be found at an area near the equator that gets a lot of rain? 8. Which climax community would you expect to find in an area that has an annual average temperature of about 5 C and a little less rainfall than would be needed to support a forest? 62 CHAPTER 3 Communities and Biomes UNIT 2

34 Chapter 4 Population Biology Reinforcement and Study Guide Section 4.1 Population Dynamics In your textbook, read about the principles of population growth. Refer to Graphs A and B below. Answer the following questions. Graph A Graph B Size of Population Size of Population Time Time 1. What type of population growth is shown in Graph A? Explain this type of growth. 2. Which graph shows the most likely growth of a squirrel population living in a forest? 3. Which graph shows a population s growth under ideal conditions? 4. Why don t populations of organisms grow indefinitely? Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage. grows carrying capacity below births above under deaths exceed The number of organisms of one species that an environment can support is called its (5). If the number of organisms in a population is (6) the environment s carrying capacity, births (7) deaths and the population (8). If the number of organisms rises (9) the carrying capacity of the environment, (10) will exceed (11). This pattern will continue until the population is once again at or (12) the carrying capacity. UNIT 2 CHAPTER 4 Population Biology 77

35 Chapter 4 Population Biology, continued Reinforcement and Study Guide Section 4.1 Population Dynamics Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement. 13. The most important factor that determines population growth is the organism s a. social pattern. b. carrying capacity. c. reproductive pattern. d. feeding pattern. 14. Organisms that follow a rapid life-history pattern a. have short life spans. b. have small bodies. c. reproduce early. d. all of the above 15. Organisms that follow a slow life-history pattern a. have small bodies. b. mature rapidly. c. reproduce slowly. d. all of the above 16. A limiting factor that has an increasing effect as population size increases is a. temperature. b. habitat disruption. c. drought. d. competition. In your textbook, read about how organism interactions limit population size. Answer the following. 17. The snowshoe hare is a primary source of food for the Canadian lynx. Explain how the lynx population size changes when the hare population increases. 18. Explain how the change in the lynx population size affects the hare population. 19. What is the relationship between the lynx and the hare called? 20. When does competition decrease the size of a population? 21. What can cause an organism to exhibit stress, and what symptoms of stress can lead to a decrease in population size? 78 CHAPTER 4 Population Biology UNIT 2

36 Chapter 4 Population Biology, continued Reinforcement and Study Guide Section 4.2 Human Population In your textbook, read about demographic trends. Determine if the statement is true. If it is not, rewrite the italicized part to make it true. 1. Looking at past population trends is a good way to predict the future of human populations. 2. Demography is the study of population health characteristics. 3. Worldwide human populations have decreased exponentially over the past few centuries. 4. Humans are able to increase environmental effects on the human population through controlling disease, eliminating competing organisms, and increasing food production. 5. To tell whether a population is growing, you must know the difference between the birthrate and the death rate. 6. An age structure graph shows the proportions of a population at different age levels. 7. A country with high doubling rate will double in size faster than one with a low doubling rate. 8. Birthrates and death rates of countries around the world are basically the same. 9. If a country has a high death rate, it may also have a high birthrate. 10. If a country has a low death rate and a high birthrate, it will grow slowly, if at all. UNIT 2 CHAPTER 4 Population Biology 79

37 Chapter 4 Population Biology, continued Reinforcement and Study Guide Section 4.2 Human Population For each statement in Column A, write the letter of the item in Column B that completes the statement correctly. Column A 11. Population growth will change if the largest of a population is in its post-reproductive years. 12. The proportions of a population that are at different make up its age structure. 13. If you know a population has a large group of individuals in their pre-reproductive years, you would predict that the population s growth will be. 14. If the proportions of a population at different age levels are fairly equal, the population will be. 15. The population growth of a country depends on its birthrate, death rate, and rate. 16. To make predictions about the growth of a population, demographers must know its. Column B a. age structure b. stable c. proportion d. fertility e. rapid f. age levels Complete each statement using the following choices: world, emigration, immigration, a country s 17. is the movement of humans into a population. 18. is the movement of humans from a population. 19. Immigration and emigration of people have no effect on total population. 20. Immigration and emigration of people affect population growth rates. 80 CHAPTER 4 Population Biology UNIT 2

38 Chapter 4 Population Biology Concept Mapping Use with Chapter 4, Section 4.1 Population Control Complete the concept map on factors that control the sizes of populations. Use these words or phrases once: temperature, density-dependent, disease, food supply, limiting factors, more intense as population increases, habitat disruption, parasitism, predation, same regardless of population size. Populations controlled by 1. may be may be densityindependent 2. effect is effect is examples natural disasters examples competition UNIT 2 CHAPTER 4 Population Biology 85

39 Chapter 4 Population Biology Critical Thinking Use with Chapter 4, Section 4.1 The Effect of Predators on Prey Populations C arrying capacity the number of individuals of a species an area can support is usually determined during the least favorable time of year, when cold weather or other factors reduce the availability of food and shelter. Field studies have shown that predators also help keep the size of a prey population within the carrying capacity of an area. Dwindling Populations Early in the twentieth century, biologists and nature enthusiasts became concerned about dwindling populations of game animals in North America. In 1906, the acre Kaibab Plateau in northern Arizona was set aside as a wildlife refuge. Deer hunting was forbidden. Predators wolves, pumas, and coyotes were trapped, hunted, and poisoned to reduce their numbers. Use data from the graph to answer the following questions. Deer Population (in thousands) Years 1. Between the years 1907 and 1923, 11 wolves, 674 pumas, and 3000 coyotes were removed from the Kaibab Plateau. a. What was the increase in the deer population during that period? b. What factors may have contributed to the increase? What was the percentage decrease in deer population a. between the years 1923 and 1926? b. between 1923 and 1931? c. between 1923 and 1939? 3. By 1926, there were no more wolves on the Kaibab Plateau. Between 1923 and 1939, hunters continued to remove pumas and coyotes from the area. The rapid decline in the deer population during the 1920s was due to massive starvation during winter. The plateau had supplied enough food to support the growth of the deer population to Why, then, did so many deer suddenly starve? 4. Biologists estimated that a deer population of about would not have exceeded the carrying capacity of the Kaibab Plateau. Assuming the estimate is correct, why did the actual deer population decline below during the 1930s? 86 CHAPTER 4 Population Biology UNIT 2

40 Master 8 Section Focus Predator-Prey Relationships Use with Chapter 4, Section How is the number of sea urchins in this community affected by the number of sea otters? 2 How is the number of sea otters affected by the number of sea urchins? UNIT 2 CHAPTER 4 Population Biology 87

41 Master 9 Birthrates and Death Rates Section Focus Use with Chapter 4, Section hours 6 hours 6 hours 6 hours 1 Assuming the birthrate remains constant, how many paramecia would be produced in 30 hours? 2 What would be the population size of the paramecia in 24 hours if one paramecium died during each six-hour period? 88 CHAPTER 4 Population Biology UNIT 2

42 Master 6 Linear Versus Exponential Growth Linear Growth Reteaching Skills Use with Chapter 4, Section 4.1 $200 Money earned $150 $100 $80 $50 $40 $ Time in hours Population size Exponential Growth 100 Time UNIT 2 CHAPTER 4 Population Biology 89

43 Worksheet 6 Linear Versus Exponential Growth Reteaching Skills Use with Chapter 4, Section What is the difference between linear growth and exponential growth as plotted on a graph? 2. Explain the graph of linear growth shown in the transparency. 3. Explain the graph of exponential growth. 4. Why don t populations of organisms grow indefinitely? 5. What is the relationship of births to deaths in a population before the population reaches the environment s carrying capacity? What happens when the population exceeds the carrying capacity? 6. What are some limiting factors that can curb population growth? 7. Compare the population-growth patterns of mosquitoes and elephants. 90 CHAPTER 4 Population Biology UNIT 2

44 Chapter 5 A Future Zoo Solutions to complex human problems, such as supplying food and housing for a growing human population and conserving critical resources, often result in changes to the environment. Animals that cannot adapt to changes may face endangerment (very few animals left) or extinction (no animals left). Historically, zoos have served as preservation sites. Today, many zoos are taking a more active role in bringing back reintroducing endangered species. Reintroduction, the repopulating of a species, has several stages. First, the number of animals in a zoo is increased through captive breeding programs that often result in higher birth and infant survival rates. ( Family trees are kept for many zoo animals. Mates are selected so the gene pool is not reduced.) Second, the animals are trained to live in the wild. Third, the animals are released into an environment that can support them. Reintroduction programs promote the natural Real World BioApplications interaction and integration of former zoo inhabitants with individuals of the same species in the existing environment. Reintroduction has positive and negative effects. A suitable habitat must be found or created for reintroduction to be successful. Animals raised in captivity have special problems due to lack of wild role models. Often, they do not fear humans or animal predators and may have to be trained to find or capture food. Many critics of reintroduction think that it is unacceptable to reintroduce animals viewed as predators or pests. Most programs have concentrated on mammals and birds. It is much harder to apply reintroduction programs to aquatic animals and insects. In preserving the environments of mammals, however, other species may also be saved. The area of reintroduction is an important consideration for future zoologists, forestry technicians, and parks and recreation specialists. Part A: Examining Two Reintroduction Programs The following tells of two successful reintroduction programs. The California Condor In 1985, when only nine California condors remained in the wild, they were captured and put into a captive breeding program. In 1991, the first condors were reintroduced. An artificial habitat was placed in the wild for the birds. Seed was provided, and meat was placed nearby so the condors could learn to scavenge. The birds did not fear humans, however, and also liked to perch on power lines. Now, condors are taught to avoid power lines by using a mild electrical shock during training and are also taught to avoid humans. The Golden Lion Tamarin The golden lion tamarin normally lives in the jungles of Brazil. Due to rain forest destruction and the capture of these animals for the pet trade, they became endangered. At first, zoo-raised tamarins did not know how to live in the wild. One even got stuck in a tree while trying to eat. The tamarins were then trained on zoo grounds to learn how to adapt to changing conditions in the wild. Many tamarins have been released on a biological reserve where they have raised offspring. A fire, however, nearly destroyed the reserve. If the reserve had been destroyed, the tamarins would have had trouble finding a new place to live. 1. How did humans affect the environments of the California condor and the golden lion tamarin? 2. What problems did zoos solve when reintroducing the animals? UNIT 2 CHAPTER 5 Biological Diversity and Conservation 109

45 Chapter 5 A Future Zoo, continued Real World BioApplications Part B: Examining Positive and Negative Results of a Reintroduction Program One way to examine the positive and negative results of a plan is to make a decision map. This map lists the pros and cons of each decision, helping you study the major effects of a reintroduction program. Decision Figure 1 The decision map above puts a decision in the center oval. Each oval connected to the center with a solid line tells of a positive consequence of the decision. Each oval connected with a dashed line tells of a negative consequence. You can continue this logic by adding additional ovals, each telling the consequence of a previous consequence. In your science journal, create a similar map for the decision, Our zoo will start a reintroduction program. Fill in as many ovals as you can, although you do not have to fill them all. Use logic and thought when completing the decision map there are no right or wrong answers. Create the decision map in your science journal. Now plan a reintroduction program for an animal you know about. (The species itself does not have to be endangered.) Write the plan in your science journal. Be sure to write about how you will train the animals to live in the wild and how you will find or create a suitable habitat. ANALYZE AND CONCLUDE 1. How did making a decision map help you organize your thoughts? 2. Review your decision map and what you learned when planning your program. Write a short paragraph in support of your reintroduction program. Include a response to any possible negative consequences of the program. 110 CHAPTER 5 Biological Diversity and Conservation UNIT 2

46 Chapter 5 Biological Diversity and Conservation In your textbook, read about biological diversity. Reinforcement and Study Guide Section 5.1 Vanishing Species Use the terms below just once to complete the passage. You will not use all the terms. niches variety greater space species biological diversity equator less decrease increase (1) refers to the (2) of life in an area. Another word for biological diversity is biodiversity. The simplest measure of biodiversity is the number of (3) that live in a certain area. The more species there are, the (4) is the biodiversity of the area. Biodiversity on land tends to (5) as you move toward the (6). Biodiversity is greater on large islands than on small islands because large islands have more (7) and a greater variety of (8). In your textbook, read about the importance of biodiversity. For each statement below, write true or false. 9. Biodiversity provides our world with beauty. 10. The loss of a species from an ecosystem usually has no effect because of the presence of other species in the ecosystem. 11. Biodiversity decreases the stability of ecosystems because more species are competing with each other. 12. Increasing the biodiversity of an ecosystem may result in more niches. 13. Diseases are more likely to spread in an ecosystem with high biodiversity than in an ecosystem with low biodiversity. 14. A decrease in Earth s biodiversity may affect people s diets. 15. Preserving diverse plant species may lead to the discovery of new drugs in the future. UNIT 2 CHAPTER 5 Biological Diversity and Conservation 111

47 Chapter 5 Biological Diversity and Conservation, continued Reinforcement and Study Guide Section 5.1 Vanishing Species In your textbook, read about the loss of biodiversity. For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B. Column A 16. The number of members of a species is so low that there is a possibility of extinction. 17. This animal is an example of an endangered species. 18. The population of a species begins declining rapidly. 19. This animal is an example of an extinct species. 20. All members of a species have died, so the species no longer exists. 21. This animal is an example of a threatened species. Column B a. passenger pigeon b. threatened species c. black rhinoceros d. African elephant e. extinct species f. endangered species In your textbook, read about threats to biodiversity. Complete the table by checking the most appropriate column for each statement. Statement Habitat Habitat Habitat Loss Fragmentation Degradation 22. Animals have no migratory route. 23. A rain forest is burned. 24. A highway divides a forest. 25. Acid precipitation leaches nutrients from the soil. 26. Detergents and other chemicals pollute bodies of water. 27. Coral is mined for building materials. 28. The reduction of the ozone layer causes more ultraviolet radiation to reach Earth s surface. 112 CHAPTER 5 Biological Diversity and Conservation UNIT 2

48 Chapter 5 Biological Diversity and Conservation, continued Reinforcement and Study Guide Section 5.1 Vanishing Species Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement. 29. When species lose their habitats, they may a. lack food. b. lack shelter. c. be in danger of becoming extinct. d. all of the above. 30. Habitat fragmentation often leads to a. increased species diversity b. larger habitats for species. within an area. c. decreased species diversity d. an increased food supply for species. within an area. 31. Conditions where the boundaries of two ecosystems meet are called a. habitat fragmentation. b. edge effect. c. habitat loss. d. canopy effect. 32. A great source of air pollution is a. volcanic eruptions. b. forest fires. c. burning fossil fuels. d. all of the above. 33. Acid precipitation a. may decrease biodiversity on land. b. has no effect on biodiversity. c. may increase biodiversity in water. d. both a and c. 34. The reduction of the ozone layer is caused by a. burning fossil fuels. b. acid precipitation. c. heavy metals. d. CFCs. 35. Algal blooms in lakes a. are caused by acid precipitation. b. decrease the amount of oxygen in the lake when they decay. c. clog the gills of fish. d. both a and b. 36. When exotic species are introduced into an area, their populations may grow exponentially because the species a. are large. b. are predators. c. lack competitors and predators. d. are small. UNIT 2 CHAPTER 5 Biological Diversity and Conservation 113

49 Chapter 5 Biological Diversity and Conservation, continued Reinforcement and Study Guide Section 5.2 Conservation of Biodiversity In your textbook, read about strategies of conservation biology. Answer the following questions. 1. What is conservation biology? 2. How does the U.S. Endangered Species Act protect biodiversity? 3. How do nature preserves help protect biodiversity? 4. Why is it usually better to preserve one large area of land instead of a few smaller areas of land? 5. Why are habitat corridors used to connect different protected areas? 6. What caused the steady decline of the black-footed ferret population in Wyoming? 7. What efforts were made to increase the size of the black-footed ferret population? 8. How are seed banks useful in protecting biodiversity? 9. What are some problems of keeping endangered animals in captivity before reintroducing them to their original habitats? 114 CHAPTER 5 Biological Diversity and Conservation UNIT 2

50 Chapter 5 Biological Diversity Biological Diversity and Conservation Concept Mapping Use with Chapter 5, Section 5.1 Complete the concept map on biological diversity. Use these words or phrases once: pollution, nature, large predators, trash, variety of foods, native species, habitat degradation, people, chemicals in runoff, medicines, food webs, introduction of exotic species, habitat fragmentation, stability of ecosystems. Biodiversity is important to is threatened by because it provides because it contributes to is a problem for is caused by because they replace migratory 9. organisms acid precipitation examples UNIT 2 CHAPTER 5 Biological Diversity and Conservation 119

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