What are the subsystems of the Earth? The 4 spheres

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1 What are the subsystems of the Earth? The 4 spheres

2 Essential Questions What are the 4 spheres of the Earth? How do these spheres interact? What are the major cycles of the Earth? How do humans impact these cycles?

3 What are the 4 spheres of the Earth?

4

5 The Geosphere The Geosphere contains all of the cold, hard solid land of the planet's crust (surface), the semi-solid land underneath the crust, and the liquid land near the center of the planet.

6 The Hydrosphere The hydrosphere contains all the solid, liquid, and gaseous water of the planet. It ranges from 10 to 20 kilometers in thickness. The hydrosphere extends from Earth's surface downward several kilometers into the lithosphere and upward about 12 kilometers into the atmosphere. Ninety-seven percent of Earth's water is salty.

7 The Biosphere The biosphere contains all the planet's living things. This sphere includes all of the microorganisms, plants, and animals of Earth. Within the biosphere, living things form ecological communities based on the physical surroundings of an area. These communities are referred to as biomes. Deserts, grasslands, and tropical rainforests are three of the many types of biomes that exist within the biosphere.

8 The The atmosphere contains all the air in Earth's system. It extends from less than 1 m below the planet's surface to more than 10,000 km above the planet's surface. The upper portion of the atmosphere protects the organisms of the biosphere from the sun's ultraviolet radiation. It also absorbs and emits heat. When air temperature in the lower portion of this sphere changes, weather occurs. As air in the lower atmosphere is heated or cooled, it moves around the planet. The result can be as simple as a breeze or as complex as a tornado.

9 How do the 4 spheres interact?

10 Examples Humans (biosphere) built a dam out of rock materials (geosphere). Water in the lake (hydrosphere) seeps into the cliff walls behind the dam, becoming groundwater (geosphere), or evaporating into the air (atmosphere). Humans (biosphere) harness energy from the water (hydrosphere) by having it spin turbines (geosphere) to produce electricity.

11 With a partner, practice describing interactions in this scene, tracing the movement of materials or energy through all four of Earth's spheres if possible. Add this to your portfolio. Examples.

12 Earth: Matter does not come and go Earth is a closed system to matter So matter is constantly recycled on Earth

13 Some Major Cycles of Matter Water Cycle Rock Cycle Chemical Cycles Carbon Nitrogen Phosphorous Sulfur

14 Water Cycle

15 Water Cycle Transpiration Evaporation Biosphere Precipitation Precipitation Evaporation Surface run-off Hydrosphere Geosphere

16 Biogeochemical Cycles: Biosphere Hydrosphere Geosphere

17 Carbon Cycle Respiration& Decay Photosynthesis Biosphere Hydrosphere Geosphere

18 Carbon Transfer: Biosphere Photosynthesis ( to Biosphere) Carbon Dioxide + Water + Sunlight --> Sugar + Oxygen Respiration (Biosphere to ) Sugar + Oxygen --> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy

19 Carbon Cycle Respiration& Decay Photosynthesis Biosphere Dissolution Exsolution Weathering & Volcanism Burial & Lithification Hydrosphere Photosynthesis Burial & Lithification Geosphere

20 Human Impacts Carbon Cycle Deforestation: Decrease Photosynthesis Increase Respiration Net Effect: Increase in Carbon in Burning fossil fuels: Increased combustion Biosphere Hydrosphere Geosphere

21 Nitrogen Cycle Denitification: bacteria Biosphere Nitrogen fixation: bacteria lightning Absorption Hydrosphere Erosion Waste & Decomposition Geosphere

22 Human Impacts Nitrogen Cycle Net Effect: Increase in Nitrogen in water & soil Nitrogen fixation: industrial (fertilizer) combustion Biosphere Hydrosphere Increased Erosion Geosphere

23 Phosphorous Cycle Never enters the atmosphere Biosphere Absorption Waste & Decomposition Hydrosphere Absorption Sedimentation Weathering & Erosion Geosphere

24 Human Impacts Phosphorous Cycle Net Effect: Increase in phosphorous in water & algal blooms ; Depletion in soils Biosphere Mining, use (fertilizer, detergent, etc.) & increased runoff Hydrosphere More Phos. for organisms Geosphere

25 Sulfur Cycle Bacteria Release Bacteria Absorption Biosphere Precipitation Volcanoes & Weathering Absorption Evaporation Weathering Waste & Decomposition Hydrosphere Absorption Deep Sea Vents Sedimentation Geosphere

26 Human Impacts Sulfur Cycle Net Effect: Increase in atmosphere (health effects) and acid rain Precipitation Acid Rain Burning Fossil Fuels Biosphere Hydrosphere Geosphere

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