1 GE Inspection Technologies Solder joint inspection and analysis with GE s phoenix x-ray microfocus and nanofocus X-ray systems
2 FAQs about X-ray source How X-ray inspection small FOD large FOD works object detector high magnification FDD low magnification X-ray starts with a sample being irradiated by an X-ray source and projected onto a detector. The geometric magnification M of the image is the ratio of focus-detector distance (FDD), Focus-object distance (FOD): M=FDD/FOD. The smaller the focal spot, the greater the resolution. With the nanofocus technology an unique detail detectability down to 0.2 microns can be achieved. phoenix x-ray systems reach geometric magnifications over 2,000x resulting in total magnifications beyond 24,000x. insulator cathode (filament) grid anode deflection unit magnetic lens target electron beam X-ray beam For ultimate protection of your sample, all phoenix x-ray systems come standard with a password-protected anti-collision feature. But when inspecting certain samples, it might become necessary to deactivate the collision protection, as for example with 25 µm bond wires, which, even for magnifications of just 500x, need to be as close as 4 mm to the tube head. phoenix x-ray has come up with a solution to give the user maximum flexibility when dealing with very small samples: Unlike with conventional systems, the X-ray tube is located above the sample tray allowing the user to move the sample as close to the tube head as needed. UG UACC Why can the collision protection be deactivated? UH FOD = 4 mm: 500 x How X-ray tubes work The heart of the X-ray machine is an electrode pair consisting of a cathode, the filament, and an anode, that is located inside a vacuum tube. Current is passed through the filament heating it up, causing the filament to emit electrons. The positively charged anode draws the electrons across the tube. Unlike with conventional X-ray tubes, the electrons pass through the anode into a specifically designed set-up of electromagnetic lenses, where they are bundled and directed onto a small spot on the target, a flat metal disc covered by a layer of tungsten. When the electrons collide with the target, they interact with the ions in the tungsten, causing X-rays to be emitted. Key to sharp, crisp X-ray images at micron or even submicron resolutions is the size of the focal spot, meaning the ability to focus the electron beam in such way that the area on the target where the electrons hit be as small as possible an obstacle yet to be overcome by conventional X-ray machines. However, phoenix x-ray has mastered this challenge with its unique nanofocus tube providing detail detectabilities as low as 200 nanometers (0.2 microns). Sample touching the tube: Maximum magnification What makes an excellent X-ray? One of phoenix x-ray s key technology competencies are tube and generator design and manufacturing ensuring reliable results and highest up-time. GE s unique 180 kv high power nanofocus X-ray tube High power nanofocus X-ray tubes up to 180 kv and unipolar microfocus X-ray tubes up to 300 kv maximum voltage. Down to 200 nm (0.2 microns) detail detectability. Anti-arcing: dedicated surface treatment during fabrication and automated warmup procedures prevent discharges. Self adjustment: all tube adjustments are performed automatically during warm-up to achieve optimum results. Plug-in cathodes: pre-adjusted spare cathodes prevent malfunction due to wrong filament adjustment and minimize downtime to less than 20 min. long-life filament: ensuring high emission current CT with up to 10 times increased filament lifetime of directional target tubes. diamond window: high output of up to max. 20 W power with high-resolution. Target check: target condition is checked automatically; automatic target wear is indicated.
3 The View Inside Why to inspect solder joints with X-ray? The reliability of electronic assemblies strongly depends on solder joint quality. Acceptability criteria are mainly based on shape and dimension of the solder joints. As quality demands and technology for assembly process for new package types increase, many solder joints are no longer directly visible. Fortunately, they can easily be inspected by advanced microfocus and nanofocus X-ray systems. phoenix x-ray offers dedicated analysis and automatic inspection solutions for any type of solder joint: BGA type solder joints such as PBGA, CBGA, CGA, etc. BGA BGA: warpage BGA: solder bridge Scheme of a BGA solder joint, X-ray image of a BGA solder joint (top-down view) All dimensions and features of the solder joint are imaged: diameter, thickness (grey value), lands and contact areas (darker and brighter circles), voids (bright spots). All defects that have any influence on the solder joint's shape are detectable: Bridges, opens, missing joints, warpage, popcorning, component tilt, voids, diameter deviations, roundness, shape deviations (roundness), fuzzy edges (insufficient reflow), misregistration. BGA: voiding BGA: insufficient reflow Gull Wing and flat ribbon solder joints such as QFP, SOT, PLCC, Chip devices etc. Lead QFP: weak heel fillet SOT: defective paste print Scheme of a Gull Wing (QFP) solder joint, X-ray image of a QFP solder joint (top-down view) In addition to toe and side fillets the X-ray image reveals hidden features of the interconnection: the heel fillet which is most important for the reliability of the solder joint and voids. Detectable defects: Bridges (in particular under the component), opens, defective paste print, insufficient co-planarity, incomplete fillets, de-wetting, insufficient reflow, mis-registration, cracks. SMD: crack MLF: two open joints
4 The Third Dimension Just look from the side ovhm - oblique views at highest magnification Some acceptability criteria refer to a side view and many defects can be seen best from the side, in other words, some information about the vertical dimension is required. phoenix x-ray systems provide this information by oblique view up to 70 degrees at highest magnification. As an example, this enables the user to see open BGA solder joints directly instead of interpreting signatures. 70 BGA 0 45 Scheme of non-wetted BGA land and its detection by ovhm: the land is empty ovhm: oblique views give excellent information in the vertical direction. At 70 degrees the profile of these CSP solder joints is fully displayed and even the void position can be clearly determined. In contrast to 45 degrees, at 70 degrees the component and board pads are completely separated and can be inspected without any interference. BGA Scheme of non-wetted BGA ball and its detection by ovhm: paste solder and ball are separated X-ray tube detector Leads Scheme of THT solder joints and their inspection by ovhm: one through-hole is not filled and the hole plating is not wetted by the solder 0-70 Conventional tilting vs. ovhm ovhm: Oblique views at highest magnifications Conventional tilt techniques generate oblique views by simply tilting the sample to the side, which involves moving one part of the sample further away from the X-ray tube resulting in a decrease in magnification. The ovhm module was specifically designed to enable oblique views of up to 70 degrees and 0 to 360 degree rotations without a decrease in magnification. Magnification remains the same because the distance between focus and sample does not change while the detector is being tilted.
5 Automated Inspection The efficient way of process control and rework Efficient soldering process control requires the acquisition of statistical data on the solder joints of a larger number of samples. phoenix x-ray offers a range of plug-in software modules for the automated evaluation of standard solder joints like BGA, QFP, QFN, or PTH. For non-typical interconnections, appropriate modules can quickly be customised with the XE² (X-ray image Evaluation Environment) software. Together with the high precision CNC manipulation which comes standard with phoenix x-ray systems these modules enable the automated X-ray inspection (AXI) of solder joints at minimum set-up time, due to teach-in programming and auto-setup routines. An additional software package quality review is the perfect connection to rework. phoenix x-ray's inspection modules can also easily be activated during manual inspection as a quick inspection aid. phoenix x act µaxi Fully automated CAD based high-resolution X-ray inspection for extremely high defect coverage As a solution for µaxi with high magnification and repeatability, GE provides calibrated high precision offline µaxi systems including the unique phoenix x act software package for fast and easy offline CAD programming. Small views with a resolution of up to a few micrometers, 360 rotation and oblique viewing up to 70 ensure to meet highest quality standards. Besides the automated X-ray inspection, the μaxi system can be used for manual failure analysis or 3D computed tomography as well. Fast and easy programming: just assign the inspection strategies and let x act generate the automated inspection program Visualization of board distortion Live CAD overlay in ovhm with inspection results Efficient CAD programming minimized setup time Import of CAD-data Easy pad-based offline programming Optimized inspection strategies for different pad types Fully automated generation of inspection program even in oblique view and multiple angular positions per component Full program portability for all compatible phoenix x-ray inspection systems with x act 3D auto-referencing optimized positioning accuracy Automated measurement and compensation of height differences and distortions: phoenix x-ray inspection systems equipped with x act operator or pro come standard with high precision CNC manipulation Local 3D height and distortion referencing by X-ray Highest precision through use of multiple fiducials Automated correction of image chain distortion Extremely high positioning accuracy even at oblique viewing and rotation Live 3D CAD overlay highest magnification in oblique view Perfect orientation through live overlay of CAD-data and test results even in rotated oblieque views Pad ID available at any time Inspection results and images include correct pad numbering for easy rework Easy pad identification even in manual inspection Inline or offline inspection? With common inline AXI, the inspection depth is normally determined by the throughput of the SMT line. Principally, X-ray inspection takes much more time than AOI. The higher the defect coverage, the more inspection time is required. For zero defect production inspection with small fields of view with micrometer resolution, 360 rotation and oblique viewing up to 70 is essential. To ensure these higher defect coverage requirements, μaxi has to be performed beside the production line.
6 Anticipating the Future Inspecting the smallest and finest nanofocus and digital imaging 40 micron solder bumps at nanofocus resolution Miniaturization and new assembly techniques demand resolution in the submicron range and also highest contrast resolution. With the nanofocus tube technology together with digital image chains or fully digital detector arrays, phoenix x-ray provides proven detail detectability down to 200 nm (0.2 microns) combined with superior contrast resolution. In this way fine details and slight variations in thickness, such as those caused by tiny voids in microscopic Flip Chip solder joints are detected. High-resolution 3D-imaging nanoct The combination of phoenix x-ray's high-power nanofocus X-ray tube and optimized reconstruction software enables unprecedented nanoct image resolution and quality. This technology allows the inspection and 3-dimensional visualization of the internal details of smaller specimens with submicrometer voxel resolution. 40 micron solder bumps at microfocus resolution High dynamic digital detectors Active temperature stabilization nanoct of a BGA ball with cracks of 1-8 µm The image quality is essential for an optimal defect coverage of all 2D and 3D inspection tasks. Due to its high dynamic, the new active temperature stabilized GE DXR digital detector arrays ensure a very low noise fast and detailed live inspection with up to 30 frames per second at full resolution. This makes it possible to run a 3D CT scan within only 10 seconds. Open BGA with head-in-pillow-effect; metallic dendrites visible in the eutectic matrix phoenix x-ray systems help you meet the standards The phoenix x-ray solder joint inspection software modules include all X-ray accessible criteria mentioned in the commonly applied standards for acceptability of assemblies, namely: IPC-A-610 Revision E IPC 7095 The modules are continuously updated to adapt them to revisions of the standards. What is the difference between nanofocus and microfocus tubes? Although the source focal spot of object microfocus tubes is as small as 3 microns, it is still large enough detector to cause a half shadow, known microfocus system nanofocus system as the penumbra effect. This results in a residual unsharpness and can be avoided by using nanofocus technology. Nanofocus provides focal spots well below one micron while maintaining the highest intensity needed.
7 Systems GE s phoenix x-ray business offers a wide range of systems and system configurations dedicated to various 2D and 3D inspection tasks in printed circuit board assembly: phoenix nanome x the ultimate nanofocus X-ray solution This automated X-ray system with superior specifications satisfies even the highest demands: The 180 kv / 15 W high-power nanofocus tube (4-in-1) covers the full range from submicron resolution to high intensity applications. Due to the easy view configuration the X-ray image displays the sample exactly as the operator sees it through the radiation protection window. The digital realtime image chain with 4 MPixel camera provides an excellent contrast resolution and enables oblique views up to 70 degrees and magnifications well above 24,000 x. For samples of poor contrast the system may be equipped with a high dynamic fully digital DXR detector array as supplement to the image chain, offering unique performance and versatility as well as live imaging with up to 30 fps. Optionally, the nanome x may be equipped with nanoct capability. The tube makes the difference: phoenix nanome x / microme x phoenix nanotom s and m outstanding spatial and contrast resolution on a wide sample range Both versions of the nanotom come standard with a 180 kv / 15 W ultra high-performance nanofocus X-ray tube and precision mechanics for extremely high stability. With voxel resolution as low as < 500 (s) or even <300 (m) nanometer and below, the nanotom is the inspection solution of choice for 3D nanoct applications in a wide range of fields. Equipped with its unique high dynamic temperature stabilized 3,072 x 2,400 pixels GE DXR detector, the nanotom m scans samples up to 240 mm in diameter. With its small footprint, the nanotom is suitable for even the smallest labs. For many research applications, the nanotom offers even a viable alternative to synchrotron-based computed tomography. phoenix microme x automated solder joint inspection The phoenix microme x is a high-resolution automated X-ray inspection (AXI) system that is suitable for failure analysis in the semiconductor and electronics industry. The microme x combines proven highresolution 2D and 3D X-ray technology in one system. This system comes standard with an ultra high-performance 180 kv / 20 W X-ray tube for sub-micron feature recognition 0.5 µm and a high-resolution 2 MPixel digital image chain. The microme x provides a total optical magnification of up to 23,320 x and oblique angle views of up to 70 degrees. Optionally, it may be equipped with GE s DXR digital detector array for brilliant live imaging and the capability for high-resolution CT for advanced 3D failure analysis. phoenix x aminer strong entry-level inspection system With it s 160 kv / 20 W microfocus X-ray tube, GE s phoenix x aminer meets the requirements for high-resolution X-ray inspection of electronic assemblies, components and A. The phoenix x act base software package offers ease of use allowing manual as well as automated solder joint inspection. What does easy and intuitive use mean? Due to the Easy View Configuration the X-ray image shows the object exactly as the operator sees it through the radiation protection window Precise and easy operation by using the mouse, joystick or key board phoenix x-ray systems can be operated in either sitting or standing position Programming is possible in different layers of complexity, each of them supported by an intuitive graphically oriented or CAD based user interface Closed tube or open tube? Closed tubes: All tube components are contained in a sealed vacuum vessel container. Closed tubes are maintenance-free and are completely replaced at the end of their lifetime. Open tubes: All components and wear-out parts are accessible and replaceable, the tube is continuously evacuated by a turbomolecular pump. Open tubes yield higher resolution and magnification and are not limited in lifetime.
8 Regional Contact Information Europe, Asia, Africa, South America GE Sensing & Inspection Technologies Niels-Bohr-Str Wunstorf P.O. Box Wunstorf Germany Tel.: Fax: Americas GE Inspection Technologies, LP 50 Industrial Park Rd Lewistown, PA USA Tel.: +1 (717) Fax: +1 (717) General Electric Company. All Rights Reserved. Specifications subject to change without prior notice. nanotom and nanoct are registered trademarks of General Electric Company. Other company or product names mentioned in this document may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies, which are not affiliated with GE. GEIT-31101EN (11/11)
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