X-RAY TUBE SELECTION CRITERIA FOR BGA / CSP X-RAY INSPECTION

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "X-RAY TUBE SELECTION CRITERIA FOR BGA / CSP X-RAY INSPECTION"

Transcription

1 X-RAY TUBE SELECTION CRITERIA FOR BGA / CSP X-RAY INSPECTION David Bernard Dage Precision Industries Inc. Fremont, California ABSTRACT The x-ray inspection of PCB assembly processes is becoming ever more important to undertake as the benefits of using area array packages / chip scale packages / flip chips are applied to more and more products. This is because automated optical inspection (AOI) cannot be used on these devices as their solder contacts are hidden from view. Achieving the best x-ray inspection for a particular application depends on selecting the appropriate x-ray inspection system. Whichever system is considered, from whatever manufacturer, at the heart of them all is the x-ray tube. The limitations of traditional closed x-ray tubes, in terms of achievable resolution and magnification, encourages the use of single-staged or double-staged, open (or demountable) x-ray tubes for today s x-ray analysis, particularly as component and board sizes continue to shrink. This paper will: Review the basics of x-ray tube type and operation Discuss the relative advantages and disadvantages of the various tube types including cost of ownership implications Suggest which tube type is most appropriate for current and future applications Key words: x-ray, inspection, BGA, CSP, resolution BACKGROUND X-ray inspection has traditionally been used for development and field-failure analysis applications within the printed circuit board (PCB) and semiconductor industries. More recently, the advantages of the technique have become ever more important for both production quality and production process control applications as well. In particular, the increasing use of area array packages / chip scale packages / flip chips within ever more products, further drives the need for x-ray examination because AOI cannot be used on these devices as their solder contacts are hidden from view. Therefore, x-ray examination becomes an important method of validating production processes at an earlier, rather than at a later and more expensive, stage in the manufacturing timeline. When an x-ray inspection system is being considered for acquisition, AOI attributes can be assumed to apply. However, x-ray inspection is a very different technique to AOI and needs to be considered in a completely separate light. To this end, this paper will concentrate on 2- dimensional, or 2-D, x-ray inspection and attempt to indicate the key factors that should be considered so as to provide the best analysis for a particular analytical application. 3-dimensional, or laminography, x-ray systems will not be considered. Figure 1: Basic 2-D x-ray system configuration A 2-D x-ray system captures x-rays that have passed through a sample and converts them into images that the operator views. Any object within the analysed sample that has material of higher density than the surroundings will absorb more of the x-ray beam and so cast a shadow on the detector (see figure 1). In this way, solder and copper tracks appear dark compared with the laminated circuit board in a PCB, for example. Achieving the best x-ray inspection for a particular application, therefore, depends on selecting the appropriate x-ray inspection system. OPEN AND CLOSED X-RAY TUBES Whichever system is considered, from whatever manufacturer, at the heart of them all is an x-ray tube. An x- ray tube is the device that produces the x-ray radiation for the analysis system. In essence, an x-ray tube is an evacuated cylinder within which electrons are produced, accelerated by an applied voltage and driven to strike a metal target. The effect of the electrons hitting the target is to produce the x-rays. The vacuum is required within the tube so that the electrons can travel down to the target without being absorbed by atmospheric contamination. Traditionally, x-ray systems have used what are called closed x-ray tubes (figure 2) where the vacuum is produced

2 during manufacture and the tube sealed allowing no access to the components within. In recent years, open, or demountable, x-ray tubes (figure 3) have become more popular for PCB and semiconductor x-ray inspection because of their opportunity to provide higher magnification, better resolution and serviceability (by allowing access to the consumable items of target and filament). In contrast, evacuation of the open tubes is achieved through the use of vacuum pumps supplied with the x-ray system. Figure2: Closed x-ray tube with reflective target FEATURES OF X-RAY TUBES The key features that define the capabilities of any x-ray tube are (see figure 3): Figure 3: Open single-stage x-ray tube with transmissive target The filament, or other device, that produces electrons within the tube, sometimes called the electron gun. This is often from thermionic emission from a hot wire. The more electrons produced by the filament, as defined by the current passing through it, then the brighter the x- ray image can become. The focussing electronics electro-magnetic, or other, components within the tube that squeeze the accelerated electrons into as small a spot as possible on the target. This point on the target is called the focal spot. The smaller the focal spot that can be produced then the better the resolution that can be achieved for the final image. The target type transmissive or reflective. Transmissive targets require that the x-rays, once produced at the focal spot, must pass through the thickness of the target to exit the tube and irradiate the sample (figure 3). Reflective targets have the x-rays reflect off the surface of the target before exiting the tube, see figure 2. The type of target used within a tube directly affects the magnification that is available within an x-ray system. Note how the minimum distance that a sample can be placed in relation to the focal spot location differs dramatically in the two target types mm or less for transmissive targets typically used in open tubes and ~ 15 mm for reflective targets most commonly used in closed tubes. The target material and the thickness of that material. This is particularly important for transmission targets as a trade off needs to be made to provide good x-ray flux for commercial applications (i.e. long lifetimes) whilst at the same time not self-absorbing too much of the x- rays as they pass through. Furthermore, as transmissive targets become thicker then there is more opportunity for the incoming electrons to broaden out the focal spot as primary, and secondary, excitation effects produce x- rays from within the thickness of the target. Tungsten is the most commonly used target material. The available accelerating voltage for the electrons discussed in terms of kilovolts, or kv. The greater the kv then the more penetrating are the produced x-rays. This means that higher kvs need to be used to image dense, or thick but relatively less dense, objects. At lower kvs, only thin and less dense samples can be inspected. Otherwise, the x-rays have insufficient penetrating power to travel through the sample and strike the detector, so creating the image. The tube power measured in watts. The higher the power then the greater the x-ray flux and so the brighter the final image. The vacuum window. In all x-ray tubes, the x-rays must have some way of escaping the evacuated tube without disturbing the vacuum. The most common method is to have a beryllium metal disk as the vacuum seal, and exit, for the x-ray beam. Beryllium is transparent to x-rays of the penetrating power used for x-ray inspection and is often called the beryllium window. However, thin light metals can also be used, such as aluminium in place of the beryllium, but some of the produced x-rays will be filtered by this material and so modify the energy spectrum of the produced beam.

3 COMPARING X-RAY TUBE FEATURES When comparing x-ray tubes, and systems, from different manufacturers, the features described above will vary and result in implications for the final x-ray image quality. As such, the following differences should be noted so that the best tube, and system, for a particular application can be selected. However, the selection should also consider that the best tube/system combination must also be reliable and fit for purpose. As will be seen, there are techniques to enable ultimate x-ray resolution but at the price of only being able to operate with special types of samples under special conditions. Such solutions may be appropriate for specific laboratory applications but may be entirely inappropriate for the vast majority of PCB applications, for example. When comparing x-ray tubes/system features, the first choice is between having an open or closed x-ray tube. Minimum feature recognition Most manufacturers use the term minimum detectable feature size instead of focal spot size when defining the specifications possible for their systems. This is used as it also takes into account the effects of the rest of the imaging chain in the system and relates it to objects that can be seen. Figure 4: effect on image quality as focal spot increases in size. However, for both open and closed tubes, the smaller the focal spot the electrons can make on the target then the better the resolution of the x-ray tube. Ideally, an x-ray tube would produce an infinitesimally small focal spot. This would then produce perfectly sharp images. In reality, the focal spot in an x-ray tube has a finite dimension. The larger the spot then the more that edge blurring occurs on the image, thus limiting final image resolution. This effect occurs, as shown in figure 4, by the edge in question being imaged from either side of the focal spot onto the detector. The result is unsharpness shown in the final image. Tube power For open and closed tubes, as the focal spot is reduced in size, so the energy density at the target rapidly increases. For example, if a tube produces 1W of power into a 1- micron spot then to achieve the same energy density with a 20-micron spot requires 400W. Although small sounding in value, such large energy densities at small focal spot sizes produces heat, which must be removed from the system. This energy deposition modifies / ablates the target surface, requiring target replenishment over time. If the target is thin, such as in a transmissive target, then the surface modification will remove the active layer and necessitate the ability to service the target. Even if the target is thick, such as in a reflective target, surface modification will occur but over a longer time period than with a transmissive target, and so will also need replacing. The commonly used closed tubes are unable to be serviced and require the whole tube to be replaced upon failure of the target or filament. The energy density into the target is also one of the main reasons why closed tube focal spots are, at best, 5 microns in size (typically 8 20 microns) compared to 1 2 microns, or less, for open tubes. Closed tube manufacturers must consider the trade off between the focal spot size that is achievable and the tube lifetime because of the major replacement cost on tube failure. Therefore, a closed tube with a reflective target continues to degrade from its factory specification from the day of purchase to the time of failure. The factory specification may only apply for a limited period at the beginning, even though the closed tube can continue to be used for an extended period. In contrast, as open tubes permit easy access to the consumable items (filament and target), they can continue to be returned to their factory specification indefinitely. When comparing the specifications for open and closed tubes, the power that a tube offers must be related to the focal spot that it can achieve. In this way, closed tubes often state dramatically higher power values than open tubes, but such power values are only available at the largest spot sizes the tubes can produce. For most semiconductor and PCB applications the smaller spot sizes are always desired because of the size of the components involved. Therefore, the correct tube to use will also depend on the dimensions of the object to be inspected. For example, if a tube produces a 20-micron focal spot and the item to be inspected is 25 microns in diameter, such as gold wire within a package, then this tube would be unacceptable for this purpose. With devices becoming ever smaller, the functionality of x-ray analysis will of a necessity migrate towards smaller spot sizes. Air-cooling is preferred by tube manufacturers for removing the heat generated, to the complexities and additional service requirements, of water-cooling. The operational advantages of air-cooling, however, will limit the spot size and power achievable in all tubes using it, as it is much more limited in the heat dissipation that can be handled compared to water-cooling.

4 Magnification X-ray systems used for inspection are basically shadow microscopes see figure1. The geometric magnification of an x-ray system is the ratio of the distance between the tube focal point and the image capture device and the distance between the tube focal point and the sample. See figures 5 and 6. An image intensifier is the most commonly used image capture device and has replaced the use of film in PCB and semiconductor applications. Figure 5: Geometric magnification Focussing electronics and low kvs Closed tubes traditionally have a single set of focussing electronics to produce the focal spot. Open tubes can have a single (figure 3) or double-stage focussing arrangement. Open tubes with double-stage focussing arrangements, possibly together with added proprietary apertures, or skimmers, within the beam, are sometimes called nanofocus tubes. Nano-focus tubes are able to provide even higher levels of resolution than standard open tubes because the electrons are further constricted and focussed whilst travelling to the target. This provides a narrower focal spot but at the price of more limited operational capability (see operational considerations section below). Whichever focussing arrangement is selected, achieving the smallest focal spot size requires that low accelerating kvs are used. Low kvs are necessary as although the electrons can be focussed to a very small point on the target, once they have arrived they spread out, produce x-rays from over a wider area and so broaden the focal spot (see ref 1). This broadening is reduced in transmissive targets because the depth of the thin tungsten layer itself limits the electron volume spread. Ideally, an infinitely thin target layer would be best for transmissive targets. In reality, a compromise thickness must be used; otherwise target ablation will happen too quickly, so requiring frequent target replenishment. This would make such a tube inconvenient for the majority of applications. It has already been mentioned that the target layer cannot be too thick either for transmissive targets, in case some of the desirable low kv x- rays are self-absorbed by the target before they exit the window. The best compromise for the majority of PCB applications permits reasonable x-ray flux at low kvs together with reasonable target lifetimes, so providing the best operational parameters. Figure 6: Geometric magnification with open and closed tubes The design of closed x-ray tubes requires that the focal point is at a distance from the x-ray exit point from the tube because of the insulation required to handle 10 s of kv potential between the anode and cathode. This causes the closest distance that a sample can approach the focal point with a closed tube x-ray system to be large (typically 15 mm or more see figures 2 & 6) compared to an open tube. In the open, transmissive tube, the sample can be placed on top of the exit window and be mm away from the focal spot (figures 3 & 6). These differences directly affect the available magnification and can be shown though an example. If you were to take a closed tube and open tube and place them in the same x-ray system, the distance between the focal spot and the image capture device would be the same for both tubes, e.g. 350 mm. The maximum geometric magnification for the closed tube system would then be 350/15 or ~23 X. (This assumes the closed tube has a minimum distance from focal spot to sample of 15 mm.) In contrast, the open tube system, with a 0.25 mm minimum focal spot to sample distance, would have a maximum geometric magnification of 350/0.25 or ~ 1400 X. The difference in the available magnification between open and closed tubes can be seen in figures 7 and 8. Figure 7 shows an optical image of a thin PCB with a flip chip of 6.35mm diameter in the middle. Underneath is an x-ray image of the same board. Note how the previously hidden

5 connections become visible on the flip chip and other components. examined with both a closed tube system and an open tube system. Figure 8: Maximum available magnification for the sample shown in figure 7 if a closed tube (left) and open tube (right) were used in the same x-ray system. Both images are Dage x-ray images using an open x-ray tube. The focal spot to sample distance has been set in the left image to emulate the closed tube condition. Figure 7: Optical image above a Dage x-ray image of a PCB with a flip chip shown in the middle. In figure 8, an open tube has been used to produce two images of the flip chip connection seen in figure 7. The sample has been placed on a carrier plate within the x-ray system such that the sample is as close to the focal spot as would be possible with a closed and open tube, i.e. 0.5 mm plus the sample plate thickness for the open tube and ~15 mm plus the sample plate thickness that would occur in a closed tube. The difference in the available magnification is clear. The ball shown has a diameter of 189 µm. Figure 8, does not show the difference in image quality that may be expected with a closed tube. This can be indicated with figures 9 and 10, where the same sample has been Figure 9: Dage x-ray image using open x-ray tube. The closed tube image (figure 10) makes it difficult to see the failure of the gold bond wires when compared to the open tube image (figure 9). The open tube also allows more magnification so the bond wires can be inspected in greater detail to help with the failure analysis (see figure 11). As the geometric magnification relies on the focal spot to image capture device distance; it would appear that increasing this distance would improve a system s specification. Whilst the geometric magnification would increase in value, the compromise that must be made is a rapid decrease in the x-ray flux hitting the image capture device. This is caused by the x-ray flux decreasing as the inverse square with distance. So doubling the focal spot to image capture device distance decreases the amount of x- rays hitting the detector by a factor of 4. Therefore

6 manufacturers have to make a balance between practical equipment sizes that will fit through doors, etc. and the ability to provide good images quickly by not having to wait for sustained signal averaging to overcome the decrease in x-ray flux. Figure 10: Closed x-ray tube image of sample shown in figure 9. Figure 11:Higher magnification Dage x-ray image of sample seen in figure 9. Sometimes, manufacturers state the maximum magnification for their systems as a combination of the geometric magnification and the magnification of the image chain that takes the captured x-ray image and displays it on an operator view screen. This is called the system, or total, magnification. Geometric magnification will give a better comparison between x-ray systems than the total magnification, as displaying the final image onto a larger monitor will increase the value of the total magnification but not provide any better geometric magnification, or, indeed, any additional resolution or image data. Brightness of filament The x-ray tube s design and function is to focus the image of the electron cloud produced at the filament onto the target. The amount of current passing through the filament in an open tube defines the number of electrons being emitted. This, in turn, affects the number of electrons striking the target and so affects the brightness of the final x-ray image. It would be assumed, therefore, that a thick filament could handle high filament currents, provide many electrons and have a very long lifetime. In reality, to maximise the thermionic emission, and to provide a concentrated cloud of electrons that can be accelerated and focussed into the smallest focal spots, the standard design for an open tube filament is of a hairpin shape made of thin wire, usually tungsten. Such an arrangement automatically limits the current that the filament can handle without rapidly being destroyed. Using a thicker wire, and a less sharp hairpin point, would increase the filament current that could be used but at the expense of the focal spot created. OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS Whilst manufacturers strive to reduce focal spot sizes using the techniques described above so as to keep with the pace of component shrinkage, the downside of these approaches is that the improvement always comes at a price. Specifically, the available x-ray flux is dramatically reduced as the focal spots are reduced, making the x-ray image dim and requiring very long exposure times to generate sufficient image quality for analytical purposes. Therefore, if image acquisition takes a long time when using the ultimate available resolution, this may be inappropriate to use in all but highly specialised laboratory applications, where a great deal of care can be taken for each specific measurement. In addition, if images take many minutes, or longer, to acquire then the effects of vibration on the x-ray system may negate the enhanced resolution offered by the tube without specialist arrangements / conditions being applied to the x-ray system. Therefore, the ultimate resolution approach may not be appropriate for production and more general usage within the test and inspection environment. By only using the lowest kvs to achieve the ultimate resolution, the type of sample that can be inspected to this level becomes more limited. Typically, the best resolution for a tube will be available at less than 50kV. As long as the sample is not very dense and/or very thin, then this accelerating voltage will be acceptable for inspection at these conditions. However, typical PCB applications do not fit in to these requirements, as the board itself is likely have sufficient density to absorb most, if not all, of these low energy x-rays. Standard packaging around a device from semiconductor manufacturers may also absorb the x-rays making realistic analysis at these resolutions impossible without specially modifying the sample. Such modifications could include removing the component from the board, removing the packaging, thinning the sample, etc. When this

7 is considered, the use of the highest resolution tubes lends themselves more directly to failure-analysis laboratories, where special care and attention can be applied to individual examinations. The opportunity for production process control and manufacturing quality analysis does not usually lend itself to detailed inspection because of the time pressures involved. Therefore, the correct compromise for tube performance against application must be decided prior to x-ray system acquisition. Some manufacturers consider thinning the target to further reduce the broadening of the focal spot, as well as increase the maximum available geometric magnification The compromise that must be made is that a thinner target will be modified much more quickly by the electron beam and require more frequent replenishment. This may be acceptable within a laboratory environment where special conditions can be maintained but may not be acceptable for manufacturing situations. CONCLUSION The x-ray tubes supplied with commercially available x-ray systems can be of different configurations and the appropriate tube must be selected for a specific application (see table 1). Closed tubes, offer an integrated package that does not allow servicing of the tube components but offers relatively long lifetimes compared to open tubes, but the achievable factory specification may only be available for the initial portion of the tubes life. Closed tubes also offer poorer resolution and less magnification than open tubes in x-ray systems. The cost of eventual replacement of the whole tube when the unit fails is very high compared to the serviceable (consumable) components, filaments and targets, in an open tube. The cost of ownership over the lifetime of an x-ray system would therefore be much higher with a closed tube system. With open tubes, the resolution that is possible can be enhanced by reducing the focal spot on the target using a combination of some, or all, of the techniques mentioned above. The ultimate resolution of an open tube can be more than 5 times that of the highest specified closed tubes (1 micron or less). The price that must be paid is that this resolution is only possible under very specific conditions and, very often, with specially prepared samples. This may not be appropriate for the vast majority of applications. Instead, most open tube manufacturers compromise the performance of their tubes so as to still have 3 4 times the resolution of the closed tube but provide a more robust system that can be used reliably within realistic working environments. Although focal spot size has been the main thrust of this paper, the final image resolution produced by an x-ray system will also be influenced by the resolution of the image capture device and any image processing that may be achieved if the image is captured digitally. References [1] Kerridge, B, Sharpen x-ray images, Test & Measurement Europe, January This article was originally published in The Proceedings of SMTA International Conference, September Property Closed Tube Open Tube Single Focus Open Tube Double Focus Min. feature recognition 5 microns or more 2 microns < 1 micron Max. tube kv 90, , 160 Serviceable No Yes Yes Available magnification Low High High Cost of Medium-High Low Low ownership * Target thickness Large ~ 5 microns 2 3 microns Table1: Features of open and closed tubes * - based on 10,000 hour closed tube lifetime

Comparing Digital and Analogue X-ray Inspection for BGA, Flip Chip and CSP Analysis

Comparing Digital and Analogue X-ray Inspection for BGA, Flip Chip and CSP Analysis Comparing Digital and Analogue X-ray Inspection for BGA, Flip Chip and CSP Analysis David Bernard & Steve Ainsworth Dage Precision Industries Abstract Non-destructive testing during the manufacture of

More information

Radiology Physics. Just take a deep breath. Books to Consider. Why worry about physics? The Game Plan. 1 st Period

Radiology Physics. Just take a deep breath. Books to Consider. Why worry about physics? The Game Plan. 1 st Period Radiology Physics Just take a deep breath OR: I DIDN T SIGN UP TO LEARN THIS STUFF Chris Ober, DVM, PhD, DACVR 7 February 2011 Why worry about physics? Know what the system can give you Know what the system

More information

Lecture 5 Different types of microscopes: UV, dark field, phase contrast, fluorescence and electron microscope.

Lecture 5 Different types of microscopes: UV, dark field, phase contrast, fluorescence and electron microscope. Lecture 5 Different types of microscopes: UV, dark field, phase contrast, fluorescence and electron microscope. Learning objectives: In continuation last class on the principles and basic types of microscopes,

More information

View of ΣIGMA TM (Ref. 1)

View of ΣIGMA TM (Ref. 1) Overview of the FESEM system 1. Electron optical column 2. Specimen chamber 3. EDS detector [Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy] 4. Monitors 5. BSD (Back scatter detector) 6. Personal Computer 7. ON/STANDBY/OFF

More information

HOLE PLATING COPPER FOIL ANNULAR RING. Figure 1 A Section Through a Plated Through Hole in a PCB

HOLE PLATING COPPER FOIL ANNULAR RING. Figure 1 A Section Through a Plated Through Hole in a PCB FAQ #5 For Current Source Newsletter #7 Why Not Route Two Traces Between Pins on a 1 mm Pitch BGA? There are applications notes that describe how to save layers in a PCB by routing two traces between pins

More information

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A DIAGNOSTIC PULSED X-RAY TUBE

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A DIAGNOSTIC PULSED X-RAY TUBE Journal of Al-Nahrain University Vol13 (3), September, 2010, pp51-57 Science DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A DIAGNOSTIC PULSED X-RAY TUBE Mohamed Ibrahim Department of Chemical Engineering, University of

More information

The Basics of Scanning Electron Microscopy

The Basics of Scanning Electron Microscopy The Basics of Scanning Electron Microscopy The small scanning electron microscope is easy to use because almost every variable is pre-set: the acceleration voltage is always 15kV, it has only a single

More information

Why Use Fiber Optics For Lighting?

Why Use Fiber Optics For Lighting? Why Use Fiber Optics For Lighting? Using fiber for remote lighting has many advantages, some of which are more important for special types of applications than others. Heat Free Lighting: Since the light

More information

In the previous presentation, we discussed how x-rays were discovered and how they are generated at the atomic level. Today we will begin the

In the previous presentation, we discussed how x-rays were discovered and how they are generated at the atomic level. Today we will begin the In the previous presentation, we discussed how x-rays were discovered and how they are generated at the atomic level. Today we will begin the discussion on the major components of the x-ray machine. Today

More information

MAX and MAX II Sensitivity to X-ray Radiation

MAX and MAX II Sensitivity to X-ray Radiation MAX and MAX II Sensitivity to X-ray Radiation Introduction: X-ray inspection systems are widely used in the semi-conductor industry as a means to evaluate the integrity of individual IC components as well

More information

OmniBSI TM Technology Backgrounder. Embargoed News: June 22, 2009. OmniVision Technologies, Inc.

OmniBSI TM Technology Backgrounder. Embargoed News: June 22, 2009. OmniVision Technologies, Inc. OmniBSI TM Technology Backgrounder Embargoed News: June 22, 2009 OmniVision Technologies, Inc. At the heart of any digital camera lies the image sensor. The image sensor is an integrated circuit, like

More information

Electron Diffraction

Electron Diffraction 1. Introduction Electron Diffraction Julia Velkovska, Oct 2006 In this experiment you will explore the wave-particle duality. You will do so by observing electron diffraction. The goal will be to test

More information

Brighter and Cooler. Apollo 600. Best Performance/Cost Ratio LED Flip Chip COB Module

Brighter and Cooler. Apollo 600. Best Performance/Cost Ratio LED Flip Chip COB Module Best Performance/Cost Ratio LED Flip Chip COB Module Brighter and Cooler Lower Thermal Resistance & Junction Temperature Apollo 600 Chip on Board is a high-performance LED module based on Flip Chip Opto

More information

X-ray Imaging Systems

X-ray Imaging Systems Principles of Imaging Science I (RAD 119) X-ray Tube & Equipment X-ray Imaging Systems Medical X-ray Equipment Classified by purpose or energy/current levels kvp, ma Radiographic Non-dynamic procedures

More information

Chapter 5 X-ray imaging 5.1 The physics of diagnostic X-rays

Chapter 5 X-ray imaging 5.1 The physics of diagnostic X-rays Chapter 5 X-ray imaging 5.1 The physics of diagnostic X-rays Learning objectives: How are X-rays produced in an X-ray tube? How is the energy of the photons from an X-ray tube controlled? Why are photons

More information

GE Sensing & Inspection Technologies

GE Sensing & Inspection Technologies GE Sensing & Inspection Technologies SOLDER JOINT INSPECTION AND ANALYSIS with phoenix x-ray microfocus and nanofocus X-ray systems FAQs about X-ray source small FOD large FOD object FDD detector high

More information

Ion Beam Sputtering: Practical Applications to Electron Microscopy

Ion Beam Sputtering: Practical Applications to Electron Microscopy Ion Beam Sputtering: Practical Applications to Electron Microscopy Applications Laboratory Report Introduction Electron microscope specimens, both scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM), often require a

More information

New Semiconductor Device Evaluation System for Failure Analysis of Sub-nanometer Areas

New Semiconductor Device Evaluation System for Failure Analysis of Sub-nanometer Areas Hitachi Review Vol. 52 (2003), No. 3 133 New Semiconductor Device Evaluation System for Failure Analysis of Sub-nanometer Areas Takeo Kamino Tsuyoshi Onishi Kaoru Umemura Kyoichiro Asayama Kazutoshi Kaji

More information

Micromachining with UV Laser Markers

Micromachining with UV Laser Markers White Paper Micromachining with UV Laser Markers David Gillen, Blueacre Technology David Gillen, Blueacre Technology Laser Marking technology has come a long way from simply identifying parts with logos

More information

Chapter 16 Physics of Diagnostic X-Rays

Chapter 16 Physics of Diagnostic X-Rays 1895, W. C. Roentgen Discovery of x-ray The first x-ray image: Fig.16.1 Radiology Diagnostic radiology (radiologist) Radiation therapy (therapeutic radiologist) Nuclear medicine 1. Production of X-Ray

More information

X-Rays were discovered accidentally in 1895 by Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen

X-Rays were discovered accidentally in 1895 by Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen X-Rays were discovered accidentally in 1895 by Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen Due to their short wavelength, on the order of magnitude of cells, and their high energy, they can penetrate skin and other soft tissue.

More information

Coating Thickness Measurement with High-performance for Latest Electronic Fine Components of Mobile Devices

Coating Thickness Measurement with High-performance for Latest Electronic Fine Components of Mobile Devices Hitachi Review Vol. 65 (2016), No. 7 267 Featured Articles Coating Thickness Measurement with High-performance for Latest Electronic Fine Components of Mobile Devices FT150 Series Fluorescent X-ray Coating

More information

Lenses and Apertures of A TEM

Lenses and Apertures of A TEM Instructor: Dr. C.Wang EMA 6518 Course Presentation Lenses and Apertures of A TEM Group Member: Anup Kr. Keshri Srikanth Korla Sushma Amruthaluri Venkata Pasumarthi Xudong Chen Outline Electron Optics

More information

Title: Stationary digital breast tomosynthesis with distributed field emission X-ray tube

Title: Stationary digital breast tomosynthesis with distributed field emission X-ray tube Title: Stationary digital breast tomosynthesis with distributed field emission X-ray tube Authors: F. Sprenger a*, X. Calderon b, E. Gidcumb b, J. Lu b, X. Qian b, D. Spronk a, A. Tucker b, G. Yang b,

More information

Production of X-Rays. Yoichi Watanabe, Ph.D. Masonic Memorial Building M10-M (612) MPHY 5170/TRAD 7170, Fall semester

Production of X-Rays. Yoichi Watanabe, Ph.D. Masonic Memorial Building M10-M (612) MPHY 5170/TRAD 7170, Fall semester Production of X-Rays Yoichi Watanabe, Ph.D. Masonic Memorial Building M10-M (612)626-6708 watan016@umn.edu MPHY 5170/TRAD 7170, Fall semester Contents 1) Physics of X-ray production 2) The X-ray tube 3)

More information

An Introduction to the Cathode-Ray Tube

An Introduction to the Cathode-Ray Tube March 7, 2005 An Introduction to the Cathode-Ray Tube Prepared for Ann Holms University of California, Santa Barbara Prepared by Student Name University of California, Santa Barbara Abstract The cathode-ray

More information

AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light

AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light Name: Period: Date: MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Reflection,

More information

Coating Thickness and Composition Analysis by Micro-EDXRF

Coating Thickness and Composition Analysis by Micro-EDXRF Application Note: XRF Coating Thickness and Composition Analysis by Micro-EDXRF www.edax.com Coating Thickness and Composition Analysis by Micro-EDXRF Introduction: The use of coatings in the modern manufacturing

More information

Name: Class: Date: ID: A

Name: Class: Date: ID: A Name: Class: _ Date: _ Practice Quiz 4 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is the wavelength of the longest wavelength light that can

More information

Chapter 1: Machine Vision Systems & Image Processing

Chapter 1: Machine Vision Systems & Image Processing Chapter 1: Machine Vision Systems & Image Processing 1.0 Introduction While other sensors, such as proximity, touch, and force sensing play a significant role in the improvement of intelligent systems,

More information

Cathode Ray Tube. Introduction. Functional principle

Cathode Ray Tube. Introduction. Functional principle Introduction The Cathode Ray Tube or Braun s Tube was invented by the German physicist Karl Ferdinand Braun in 897 and is today used in computer monitors, TV sets and oscilloscope tubes. The path of the

More information

X-ray Imaging Systems

X-ray Imaging Systems Principles of Imaging Science I (RAD 119) X-ray Tube & Equipment X-ray Imaging Systems Medical X-ray Equipment Classified by purpose or energy/current levels kvp, ma Radiographic Non-dynamic procedures

More information

BGA Repair: A Better Understanding can Reduce Fears, Guarantee Process Control and Save Money

BGA Repair: A Better Understanding can Reduce Fears, Guarantee Process Control and Save Money Technical Article : A Better Understanding can Reduce Fears, Guarantee Process Control and Save Money by Mark Cannon Current international studies reinforce the global trend to area array pakkages. BGA,

More information

IMPROVEMENTS IN LOW POWER, END-WINDOW, TRANSMISSION-TARGET X-RAY TUBES

IMPROVEMENTS IN LOW POWER, END-WINDOW, TRANSMISSION-TARGET X-RAY TUBES Copyright JCPDS - International Centre for Diffraction Data 24, Advances in X-ray Analysis, Volume 47. 64 ABSTRACT IMPROVEMENTS IN LOW POWER, END-WINDOW, TRANSMISSION-TARGET X-RAY TUBES Charles Jensen,

More information

Solder joint inspection and analysis

Solder joint inspection and analysis GE Inspection Technologies Solder joint inspection and analysis with GE s phoenix x-ray microfocus and nanofocus X-ray systems FAQs about X-ray source How X-ray inspection small FOD large FOD works object

More information

PROCON X-RAY EXA METROLOGY. Our Exclusive ProCon X-Ray Line-Up. It s not just in our blood; it s in our name! CT-MICRO CT-XPRESS CT-MINI CT-INLINE

PROCON X-RAY EXA METROLOGY. Our Exclusive ProCon X-Ray Line-Up. It s not just in our blood; it s in our name! CT-MICRO CT-XPRESS CT-MINI CT-INLINE PROCON -RAY 3D & CT Scanning Services and Equipment Industrial Computed Tomography (CT) Scanners Our Exclusive ProCon -Ray Line-Up CT-MICRO CT-PRESS CT-MINI CT-COMPACT CT-INLINE CT-ALPHA It s not just

More information

MODERN 2D / 3D X-RAY INSPECTION -- EMPHASIS ON BGA, QFN, 3D PACKAGES, AND COUNTERFEIT COMPONENTS

MODERN 2D / 3D X-RAY INSPECTION -- EMPHASIS ON BGA, QFN, 3D PACKAGES, AND COUNTERFEIT COMPONENTS MODERN 2D / 3D X-RAY INSPECTION -- EMPHASIS ON BGA, QFN, 3D PACKAGES, AND COUNTERFEIT COMPONENTS Evstatin Krastev and David Bernard Nordson DAGE Fremont, CA, USA evstatin.krastev@nordsondage.com; david.bernard@nordsondage.com

More information

Thermal Diffusivity, Specific Heat, and Thermal Conductivity of Aluminum Oxide and Pyroceram 9606

Thermal Diffusivity, Specific Heat, and Thermal Conductivity of Aluminum Oxide and Pyroceram 9606 Report on the Thermal Diffusivity, Specific Heat, and Thermal Conductivity of Aluminum Oxide and Pyroceram 9606 This report presents the results of phenol diffusivity, specific heat and calculated thermal

More information

ADVANCED FE APPLICATIONS COURSE

ADVANCED FE APPLICATIONS COURSE ADVANCED FE APPLICATIONS COURSE Theory of Microscopy Thermionic Emitters» Boil electrons over the top of the energy barrier» The current density depends on work the temperature and the cathode function

More information

The Heat Is On High-Power Surface-Mount Resistors

The Heat Is On High-Power Surface-Mount Resistors VISHAY DALE www.vishay.com Resistors By Darin Glenn SCOPE The heat is on for the passive electronic components industry, as it is seeing an increase in new surface-mount high-power devices, especially

More information

Electrolytic Deposition of Fine Pitch Sn/Cu Solder Bumps for Flip Chip Packaging

Electrolytic Deposition of Fine Pitch Sn/Cu Solder Bumps for Flip Chip Packaging Electrolytic Deposition of Fine Pitch Sn/Cu Solder Bumps for Flip Chip Packaging Stephen Kenny, Kai Matejat, Sven Lamprecht and Olivier Mann Atotech Germany Erasmusstrasse 20, 10553 Berlin Germany +49

More information

Production of X-rays. Radiation Safety Training for Analytical X-Ray Devices Module 9

Production of X-rays. Radiation Safety Training for Analytical X-Ray Devices Module 9 Module 9 This module presents information on what X-rays are and how they are produced. Introduction Module 9, Page 2 X-rays are a type of electromagnetic radiation. Other types of electromagnetic radiation

More information

The Three Heat Transfer Modes in Reflow Soldering

The Three Heat Transfer Modes in Reflow Soldering Section 5: Reflow Oven Heat Transfer The Three Heat Transfer Modes in Reflow Soldering There are three different heating modes involved with most SMT reflow processes: conduction, convection, and infrared

More information

Ball Grid Array (BGA) Technology

Ball Grid Array (BGA) Technology Chapter E: BGA Ball Grid Array (BGA) Technology The information presented in this chapter has been collected from a number of sources describing BGA activities, both nationally at IVF and reported elsewhere

More information

No Brain Too Small PHYSICS ATOMS: PHOTONS AND THE PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT QUESTIONS

No Brain Too Small PHYSICS ATOMS: PHOTONS AND THE PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT QUESTIONS ATOMS: PHOTONS AND THE PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT QUESTIONS SODIUM LAMPS (2012;2) Low pressure sodium lamps are widely used in street lighting. The lamps produce light when an electric current is passed through

More information

Wafer Level Testing Challenges for Flip Chip and Wafer Level Packages

Wafer Level Testing Challenges for Flip Chip and Wafer Level Packages Wafer Level Testing Challenges for Flip Chip and Wafer Level Packages by Lim Kok Hwa and Andy Chee STATS ChipPAC Ltd. 5 Yishun Street 23, Singapore 768442 kokhwa.lim@statschippac.com; kenghwee.chee@statschippac.com

More information

IRDA SMD & BGA Rework Station T862. User Manual

IRDA SMD & BGA Rework Station T862. User Manual Puhui Technology (Taian). CO., LTD. http://www.puhuit.com CONTENT 1. Features.2 2. Technical Parameters..2 3. List of content.... 2 4. Description of the main parts...3 (1) Main body 3 (2) Front panel

More information

DETECTION OF DEFECT ON FBGA SOLDER BALLS USING X-RAY TECHNOLOGY

DETECTION OF DEFECT ON FBGA SOLDER BALLS USING X-RAY TECHNOLOGY DETECTION OF DEFECT ON FBGA SOLDER BALLS USING X-RAY TECHNOLOGY Pavel Řihák Doctoral Degree Programme (2), FEEC BUT E-mail: xrihak02@stud.feec.vutbr.cz Supervised by: Ivan Szendiuch E-mail: szend@feec.vutbr.cz

More information

PCB Land Design and Surface Mount for DFN2x5 Punched Package

PCB Land Design and Surface Mount for DFN2x5 Punched Package Document No. DSMT-0002 Rev. 1 Page: 1/1 PCB Land Design and Surface Mount for DFN2x5 Punched Package Introduction DFN package is a plastic encapsulated package with a copper lead frame substrate. It offers

More information

Thermopile Support: FAQs, Troubleshooting, Care & Maintenance

Thermopile Support: FAQs, Troubleshooting, Care & Maintenance Thermopile Support: FQs, Troubleshooting, Care & Maintenance Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. How long does a thermopile sensor last and how accurate does it remain over time? 3. What are typical causes

More information

Selecting the right infrared temperature sensor

Selecting the right infrared temperature sensor 48 June 1998 InTech Selecting the right infrared temperature sensor By Karen Ackland 10 1000 What is the temperature range of your process? What size is the target? How close to the target can the instrument

More information

Series. X-ray Inspection. www.nordsondage.com

Series. X-ray Inspection. www.nordsondage.com Series X-ray Inspection www.nordsondage.com 2 Nordson DAGE Quadra X-ray Inspection Nordson DAGE Quadra X-ray Inspection 3 Nordson DAGE, the leaders in X-ray inspection for electronics, presents its 4th

More information

Ch 6: Light and Telescope. Wave and Wavelength. Wavelength, Frequency and Speed. v f

Ch 6: Light and Telescope. Wave and Wavelength. Wavelength, Frequency and Speed. v f Ch 6: Light and Telescope Wave and Wavelength..\..\aTeach\PhET\wave-on-a-string_en.jar Wavelength, Frequency and Speed Wave and Wavelength A wave is a disturbance that moves through a medium or through

More information

Nanometer-scale imaging and metrology, nano-fabrication with the Orion Helium Ion Microscope

Nanometer-scale imaging and metrology, nano-fabrication with the Orion Helium Ion Microscope andras@nist.gov Nanometer-scale imaging and metrology, nano-fabrication with the Orion Helium Ion Microscope Bin Ming, András E. Vladár and Michael T. Postek National Institute of Standards and Technology

More information

RESOLUTION, ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES AND BINARY STARS STUDENT NOTES (KS4)

RESOLUTION, ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES AND BINARY STARS STUDENT NOTES (KS4) Resolution Astronomers need to be able to look at objects in the sky with high precision. Resolution, or resolving power, is a measure of how well an eye, or a telescope, can do this. It is measured by

More information

Soldering Process Considerations for Land Grid Array Modules

Soldering Process Considerations for Land Grid Array Modules Soldering Process Considerations for Land Grid Array Modules The reflow process is dependant on many parameters; this application note is presented as a guide to soldering LGA modules. Manufacturers are

More information

Power Dissipation Considerations in High Precision Vishay Sfernice Thin Film Chips Resistors and Arrays (P, PRA etc.) (High Temperature Applications)

Power Dissipation Considerations in High Precision Vishay Sfernice Thin Film Chips Resistors and Arrays (P, PRA etc.) (High Temperature Applications) VISHAY SFERNICE Resistive Products Application Note ABSTRACT On our thin film chips resistors and arrays the main path for the heat, more than 90 %, is conduction through the body of the component, the

More information

PHYS 222 Spring 2012 Final Exam. Closed books, notes, etc. No electronic device except a calculator.

PHYS 222 Spring 2012 Final Exam. Closed books, notes, etc. No electronic device except a calculator. PHYS 222 Spring 2012 Final Exam Closed books, notes, etc. No electronic device except a calculator. NAME: (all questions with equal weight) 1. If the distance between two point charges is tripled, the

More information

Miniaturizing Flexible Circuits for use in Medical Electronics. Nate Kreutter 3M

Miniaturizing Flexible Circuits for use in Medical Electronics. Nate Kreutter 3M Miniaturizing Flexible Circuits for use in Medical Electronics Nate Kreutter 3M Drivers for Medical Miniaturization Market Drivers for Increased use of Medical Electronics Aging Population Early Detection

More information

X-ray Production. Target Interactions. Principles of Imaging Science I (RAD119) X-ray Production & Emission

X-ray Production. Target Interactions. Principles of Imaging Science I (RAD119) X-ray Production & Emission Principles of Imaging Science I (RAD119) X-ray Production & Emission X-ray Production X-rays are produced inside the x-ray tube when high energy projectile electrons from the filament interact with the

More information

Chapter 24. Wave Optics

Chapter 24. Wave Optics Chapter 24 Wave Optics Wave Optics The wave nature of light is needed to explain various phenomena. Interference Diffraction Polarization The particle nature of light was the basis for ray (geometric)

More information

Information about the T9 beam line and experimental facilities

Information about the T9 beam line and experimental facilities Information about the T9 beam line and experimental facilities The incoming proton beam from the PS accelerator impinges on the North target and thus produces the particles for the T9 beam line. The collisions

More information

HSC Physics SAMPLE LECTURE SLIDES

HSC Physics SAMPLE LECTURE SLIDES HSC SAMPLE LECTURE SLIDES HSC Exam Preparation Programs 4October2015 c 2015 Sci School TM.Allrightsreserved. Overview By the 1850 s vacuum pumps had become efficient enough to reduce the pressure inside

More information

Period 14 Activity Solutions: Energy in Nature

Period 14 Activity Solutions: Energy in Nature Period 14 Activity Solutions: Energy in Nature 14.1 The Earth-Sun System 1) Energy from the sun Observe the models of the Earth, Moon, and Sun in the room. a) Imagine that the distance between the Earth

More information

Machine Vision Basics: Optics Part Two

Machine Vision Basics: Optics Part Two Machine Vision Basics: Optics Part Two Webinar Gregory Hollows Director, Machine Vision Solutions Edmund Optics, Inc. Celia Hoyer Product Marketing Vision Systems Cognex Corporation Agenda Quick Review

More information

BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY (SEM)

BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY (SEM) BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY (SEM) Summary The quality and resolution of SEM images are function of three major parameters: (i) instrument performance, (ii) selection of imaging parameters

More information

3D TOPOGRAPHY & IMAGE OVERLAY OF PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD ASSEMBLY

3D TOPOGRAPHY & IMAGE OVERLAY OF PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD ASSEMBLY 3D TOPOGRAPHY & IMAGE OVERLAY OF PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD ASSEMBLY Prepared by Duanjie Li, PhD & Andrea Novitsky 6 Morgan, Ste156, Irvine CA 92618 P: 949.461.9292 F: 949.461.9232 nanovea.com Today's standard

More information

High-Brightness Diode Laser Modules for Optical Pumping of Fiber Lasers

High-Brightness Diode Laser Modules for Optical Pumping of Fiber Lasers High-Brightness Diode Laser Modules for Optical Pumping of Fiber Lasers Dr. Jörg Neukum, DILAS Diodenlaser GmbH Through optimization of semiconductor structures and optical concepts, application specific

More information

Circuit Components Lesson Amplifier Fundamentals The role of a amplifier is to produce an output which is an enlarged reproduction of the

Circuit Components Lesson Amplifier Fundamentals The role of a amplifier is to produce an output which is an enlarged reproduction of the 4.1 Amplifier Fundamentals The role of a amplifier is to produce an output which is an enlarged reproduction of the features of the signal fed into the input. The increase in signal by an amplifier is

More information

Vacuum Evaporation Recap

Vacuum Evaporation Recap Sputtering Vacuum Evaporation Recap Use high temperatures at high vacuum to evaporate (eject) atoms or molecules off a material surface. Use ballistic flow to transport them to a substrate and deposit.

More information

Advancements in High Frequency, High Resolution Acoustic Micro Imaging for Thin Silicon Applications

Advancements in High Frequency, High Resolution Acoustic Micro Imaging for Thin Silicon Applications Advancements in High Frequency, High Resolution Acoustic Micro Imaging for Thin Silicon Applications Janet E. Semmens Sonoscan, Inc. 2149 E. Pratt Boulevard Elk Grove Village, IL 60007 USA Phone: (847)

More information

How to Build a Printed Circuit Board. Advanced Circuits Inc 2004

How to Build a Printed Circuit Board. Advanced Circuits Inc 2004 How to Build a Printed Circuit Board 1 This presentation is a work in progress. As methods and processes change it will be updated accordingly. It is intended only as an introduction to the production

More information

Page: 1 of 6 Page: 1 of 6

Page: 1 of 6 Page: 1 of 6 Page: 1 of 6 Page: 1 of 6 CR Basics and FAQ Overview Computed Radiography is a term used to describe a system that electronically records a radiographic image. Computed Radiographic systems use unique

More information

Fiber Optic for Light

Fiber Optic for Light Fiber Optic for Light M.D. Chathurika Sandamali 07/AS/CI/048 EP 609 Fiber Optic for Light An optical fiber cable is a cable containing one or more optical fibers. The optical fiber elements are typically

More information

Lecture 5: X-ray measurement techniques

Lecture 5: X-ray measurement techniques Lecture 5: X-ray measurement techniques Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Powder photographs 2 2.1 Debye-Scherrer method...................... 2 2.2 Focussing method......................... 4 2.3 Pinhole photographs.......................

More information

Electron Beam and Sputter Deposition Choosing Process Parameters

Electron Beam and Sputter Deposition Choosing Process Parameters Electron Beam and Sputter Deposition Choosing Process Parameters General Introduction The choice of process parameters for any process is determined not only by the physics and/or chemistry of the process,

More information

MODEL 1040. NanoMill TEM Specimen Preparation System. Ultra-low-energy, inert-gas ion source. Concentrated ion beam with scanning capabilities

MODEL 1040. NanoMill TEM Specimen Preparation System. Ultra-low-energy, inert-gas ion source. Concentrated ion beam with scanning capabilities MODEL 1040 NanoMill TEM Specimen Preparation System The NanoMill system uses an ultra-low energy, concentrated ion beam to produce the highest quality specimens for transmission electron microscopy. Ultra-low-energy,

More information

Advantages of CT in 3D Scanning of Industrial Parts

Advantages of CT in 3D Scanning of Industrial Parts Advantages of CT in 3D Scanning of Industrial Parts Julien Noel, North Star Imaging Inc C omputed tomography (CT) has come along way since its public inception in 1972. The rapid improvement of computer

More information

FLASHSOLDERING - A NEW PROCESS FOR REFLOW SOLDERING INSULATED MAGNET WIRE TO ELECTRONIC CONTACTS

FLASHSOLDERING - A NEW PROCESS FOR REFLOW SOLDERING INSULATED MAGNET WIRE TO ELECTRONIC CONTACTS FLASHSOLDERING - A NEW PROCESS FOR REFLOW SOLDERING INSULATED MAGNET WIRE TO ELECTRONIC CONTACTS David W. Steinmeier microjoining Solutions & Mike Becker Teka Interconnection Systems Abstract: Flashing

More information

The Nature of Electromagnetic Radiation

The Nature of Electromagnetic Radiation II The Nature of Electromagnetic Radiation The Sun s energy has traveled across space as electromagnetic radiation, and that is the form in which it arrives on Earth. It is this radiation that determines

More information

Infrared Heaters. Model 5236

Infrared Heaters. Model 5236 Model 5236 High Intensity, short wave, quartz lamp heat source Fast Response Lamps -- yield 90 percent output within three seconds Non-contact Heat source -- does not come in contact with the product being

More information

EFFICIENCY FOR CLOSE GEOMETRIES AND EXTENDED SOURCES OF A P-TYPE GERMANIUM DETECTOR WITH LOW-ENERGY SENSITIVITY.

EFFICIENCY FOR CLOSE GEOMETRIES AND EXTENDED SOURCES OF A P-TYPE GERMANIUM DETECTOR WITH LOW-ENERGY SENSITIVITY. Abstract EFFICIENCY FOR CLOSE GEOMETRIES AND EXTENDED SOURCES OF A P-TYPE GERMANIUM DETECTOR WITH LOW-ENERGY SENSITIVITY R.M. Keyser (1) and T.R. Twomey (1) (1) ORTEC, 801 South Illinois Avenue, Oak Ridge,

More information

Microscopes. Microscope: micro - from Greek meaning small scope from Greek meaning to look or see

Microscopes. Microscope: micro - from Greek meaning small scope from Greek meaning to look or see Microscopes Microscope: micro - from Greek meaning small scope from Greek meaning to look or see By definition a microscope is: 1. An optical instrument consisting of a lens or combination of lenses for

More information

S E C T I O N O N E : I N T R O D U C T I O N

S E C T I O N O N E : I N T R O D U C T I O N S E C T I O N O N E : I N T R O D U C T I O N What you will learn: What electricity is What an electrical current is How electricity is created How electricity is used to perform useful tasks The physical

More information

Ultra Reliable Embedded Computing

Ultra Reliable Embedded Computing A VersaLogic Focus on Reliability White Paper Ultra Reliable Embedded Computing The Clash between IPC Class 3 Requirements and Shrinking Geometries Contents Introduction...1 Case in Point: IPC Class 3

More information

Processing of Semiconducting Materials Prof. Pallab Banerji Material Science Centre Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Processing of Semiconducting Materials Prof. Pallab Banerji Material Science Centre Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Processing of Semiconducting Materials Prof. Pallab Banerji Material Science Centre Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture - 27 Characterization II Let us define the following parameters for

More information

Jetting Dispensing of Fluxes for Flip Chip Attachment and. Measurement Methods for Ensuring Consistent Flux Coatings

Jetting Dispensing of Fluxes for Flip Chip Attachment and. Measurement Methods for Ensuring Consistent Flux Coatings Jetting Dispensing of Fluxes for Flip Chip Attachment and Measurement Methods for Ensuring Consistent Flux Coatings Steven J. Adamson Product Manager Asymtek Sadamson@asymtek.com Stephen Heveron-Smith

More information

Brushless Motors: HOW DO THEY WORK?

Brushless Motors: HOW DO THEY WORK? Brushless Motors: HOW DO THEY WORK? Brushless DC motors are simple enough: magnets attached to a shaft are pushed and pulled by electromagnetic fields that are managed by an electronic speed control. This

More information

Low kv Multispectral Imaging in a Field Emission SEM

Low kv Multispectral Imaging in a Field Emission SEM Low kv Multispectral Imaging in a Field Emission SEM N. Erdman, N. Kikuchi, A. Laudate and V. Robertson JEOL USA Inc., Peabody, MA 01960 enable unmatched imaging and analytical performance, including the

More information

What Should It be - Hand Held or Mounted IR Temperature Sensors?

What Should It be - Hand Held or Mounted IR Temperature Sensors? What Should It be - Hand Held or Mounted IR Temperature Sensors? Ray Biarnes E Instruments Group LLC May-07 IR Thermometers vs Contact Temperature Sensors Fast response time (milliseconds vs seconds) Target

More information

7.3 Resistance. Conductors and insulators. Chapter 7. Why are some materials conductors and some insulators?

7.3 Resistance. Conductors and insulators. Chapter 7. Why are some materials conductors and some insulators? Parts of electrical devices are made up of metals but often have plastic coverings. Why are these materials chosen? How well does current move through these materials? In this section, you will learn about

More information

Design Considerations for Metal Core Printed Circuit Board

Design Considerations for Metal Core Printed Circuit Board The Way Too Cool Design Considerations for Metal Core Printed Circuit Board Designing an aluminium board is similar to a traditional FR-4 board in terms of imaging and wet processing operations. But you

More information

Embedding components within PCB substrates

Embedding components within PCB substrates Embedding components within PCB substrates Max Clemons, Altium - March 19, 2014 Continued pressure for electronic devices that provide greater functionality in ever-smaller formfactors is not only providing

More information

Kalcor University PVD and Vacuum Metallization The Look of Bright Metal

Kalcor University PVD and Vacuum Metallization The Look of Bright Metal Kalcor University PVD and Vacuum Metallization The Look of Bright Metal Call it Bling! Customers love the bright, shiny, metallic look of chrome. From bathroom faucets to car bumpers bright metal finishes

More information

Page 1 of ISSUE 3 EDCR21694

Page 1 of ISSUE 3 EDCR21694 Page 1 of 15 503158 ISSUE 3 EDCR21694 Table of Contents 1 INTRODUCTION... 4 2 SAFETY, WARNINGS AND CAUTIONS... 5 2.1 WARNINGS AND CAUTIONS... 5 2.2 SAFETY FEATURES... 8 2.3 HAZARD AREAS... 8 3 OPERATING

More information

physics 112N interference and diffraction

physics 112N interference and diffraction physics 112N interference and diffraction the limits of ray optics shadow of the point of a pin physics 112N 2 the limits of ray optics physics 112N 3 the limits of ray optics physics 112N 4 this is how

More information

The Next Generation of In-House Prototyping LPKF ProtoLaser S

The Next Generation of In-House Prototyping LPKF ProtoLaser S The Next Generation of In-House Prototyping LPKF ProtoLaser S PCBs at the Press of a Button Getting your hands on prototype PCBs quickly is a crucial advantage in electronics development. This is what

More information

STABLCOR Frequently Asked Questions

STABLCOR Frequently Asked Questions Q.1 What is STABLCOR? STABLCOR is a laminate based thermal management technology for the Printed Circuit Board and Substrate markets. Q.2 What are the benefits of using STABLCOR Technology? There are FOUR

More information

Designing with High-Density BGA Packages for Altera Devices

Designing with High-Density BGA Packages for Altera Devices 2014.12.15 Designing with High-Density BGA Packages for Altera Devices AN-114 Subscribe As programmable logic devices (PLDs) increase in density and I/O pins, the demand for small packages and diverse

More information

Diagnostic X-ray Tube. Producing a radiograph(1) Overview - Equipment found in a general X- ray room

Diagnostic X-ray Tube. Producing a radiograph(1) Overview - Equipment found in a general X- ray room Radiographic Science Basic Overview of diagnostic radiography Marc Griffiths Overview - Equipment found in a general X- ray room Diagnostic X-ray tube Tube support Mechanism Diagnostic Table Upright stands

More information