The Basics of Scanning Electron Microscopy

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "The Basics of Scanning Electron Microscopy"

Transcription

1 The Basics of Scanning Electron Microscopy The small scanning electron microscope is easy to use because almost every variable is pre-set: the acceleration voltage is always 15kV, it has only a single type of electron detector, a single aperture, a set working distance, and minimal atmospheric controls (you can let a little air into the scope to control charging, but you can t control the amount). Essentially, all an operator can do is change the magnification, brightness, and contrast. The S-3400N puts control back into the hands of the operator. The advantage is fine control of every parameter and the ability to make sharply-focused, high-resolution images of a wide range of specimens. The disadvantage is that the click and image simplicity of the TM-1000 now becomes a multivariable problem with multiple answers. Not impossible, but more challenging. A couple of words of advice - GO SLOW! Be patient and ask lots of questions. There is a lot to learn here and you don t have to know everything to get started. It is possible to get an image on the S-3400N just as quickly as you did on the small SEM - the main difference being that there is so much more you can do with it. There is a lot of information written below and the good news is you don t have to understand everything the first time you read it. It is meant as a general reference to be utilized over time and as you use and become more familiar with the S3400-N, the information should become more useful in making the images you want to make. Magnification This one is pretty obvious and you will be delighted to learn that all you have to do is spin one knob to magnify an image. (See photo at end of this document.) The SEM is capable of magnifications of up to 300,000x but don t expect to do much work there. Higher magnifications require special specimen preparation and some expensive machinery which I hope to have in the lab someday, but we don t have now. Just like on a light microscope, the lower the magnification the more area you see and the more slowly things happen, so low magnification is the place to begin. Always start out at the lowest magnification possible you when begin imaging. When you see light, but can t get anything into focus, it is probably because you left the magnification at some high setting.

2 Brightness and Contrast The ABCC (Automatic Brightness and Contrast Control) button is your friend - use it. (See photo at end of this document.) As you change settings on the scope you will often be left with a dark or totally whited-out screen. This is normal. Click on the ABCC button and poof - there is your image again. The ABCC button will get you close, but you will still want to manually adjust the brightness and contrast to get the best image. Brightness and contrast are not the same thing, and be aware that as you increase contrast you are also increasing the chances that a specimen will charge or begin to get brighter and brighter until all detail is lost. As you take more and more images, you will develop your own tastes as to what makes a great image. Working Distance Working distance is the distance from the pole piece, the place where the electron beam enters the chamber, to the focal point of the beam. Basically, you can think of this as the distance from the pole piece on the SEM to the specimen. When you set the working distance you are telling the SEM where to expect the specimen to be. As you work with the SEM you will notice that focusing the SEM changes the working distance. This is because you have told the SEM where to focus and now are moving the specimen to meet that distance. This is exactly what you do with a light microscope by moving the stage up and down, the difference being that the focal length of a glass lens is fixed. You can change the focal length (working distance) of the electron microscope. When you mount a specimen in the SEM, you set its highest point to a standard height of 45 mm. The more carefully you set the standard height, the closer the manual Z-axis reading will match the working distance. It will probably never actually match, but it will be close enough for you to be able to see something in focus (at least close to focus). Setting the standard height will also keep you from crashing the specimen into the pole piece something that will break the SEM and cost thousands if not tens of thousands of dollars to fix. (If you want to see me upset, break my SEM!) The working distance you choose is important because working distance is inversely related to resolution. Short working distances = Higher resolutions Longer working distances = Lower resolutions So what is resolution? Resolution is the ability of an optical instrument to show a space between two objects. In other words, it is the ability to tell that you are looking at two different objects instead of one larger object. Think about visible light. The way that you know that there is a space between two objects is when you can see light between them. On an electron microscope the same thing is true of an electron beam. The electron beam has to be small enough to go

3 between two objects before you can tell that they aren t connected. Now back to working distance. The obvious question here is why would you ever want lower resolution? The answer is related to depth of field. Depth of field (or depth of focus) is a term that refers to the depth of the specimen you can have in focus at one time. One of the great advantages of a scanning electron microscope is its tremendous depth of field. The two pictures below are of the same ant. The image on the left was taking with a dissecting scope. Notice that the body of the ant is in focus, but the legs which are below the body and the antenna which are above the body, are out of focus. The image on the right was made with the scanning electron microscope. Notice how almost the entire image is in focus. Image of small ant taken with a light dissecting scope. Notice that the top of the body is in focus, but the legs and antennae are out of focus. Image of the same ant taken with the scanning electron microscope. Notice that almost the entire ant is in focus and you can see much more detail. If, on the other hand, I want to show the surface of an insect wing on high magnification, I am not worried about depth, because the surface of the wing is relatively flat, so I choose a short working distance. When you begin imaging, you will always set the working distance at 10mm. This is not some magic WD or a set rule, it is just a WD that has worked well for me and will maximize your chances of successfully seeing something when you begin imaging. In general a short working distance approaches 6 mm and a long working distance is between 20 and 35 mm. The cool thing is that you get to choose what gives the best image. In the image above you can see that the working distance is set at 9.9 mm, yet the increased depth of field is evident.

4 Working distance is changed by moving the specimen in the Z direction - that means up and down. BIG WARNING! As you move the specimen along the Z axis you MUST watch the TV monitor on the scope so that you do not bump into the pole piece and BSE detector. There is a camera that shows what is happening inside of the SEM that is there just for movement along the Z axis. Why? Because if you crash the specimen into the pole piece of the scope you will destroy the BSE (backscatter electron detector) - a multi-thousand dollar mistake. Don t do it!!! Here is one more not-so-dire warning about that TV monitor. The camera is an infrared camera which means that the inside of the chamber is illuminated with infrared radiation - not visible light. Unfortunately, the BSE detector is sensitive to IR which means that if the camera is on all you will see is a solid white screen. (More on BSE and SE detectors below.) Not a problem for the SEM, but a little frustrating until you remember to turn it off, because no matter what you do all you will see is a solid white screen. (I speak from experience.) Probe Current The next parameter you can control is known as probe current. Think of probe current as the size of the electron beam. The smaller the probe current, the smaller the size of the beam and the greater resolution you can attain. (There are several factors that affect resolution, but it is a good way to think about probe current.) If you want to see more detail get greater resolution you should lower the probe current. There is a trade-off however. Lowering the probe current decreases the signal and increases noise. A noisy image has lots of static or graininess to it. Depending on what you are imaging and what you are trying to see, you may have to live with a grainy image.

5 As an SEM operator, you will be the judge of how much noise to signal you can stand. It may not be the prettiest picture, but if it shows you what you want to see then go with it. When you begin imaging a new specimen set the probe current to 50. Again, this is not written in stone, but is a good initial setting which will maximize your chance of seeing an image. Acceleration Voltage Acceleration voltage is the energy that is coming out of the electron gun. On the S3400-N you can choose almost any acceleration voltage between 300V and 30,000V. The voltage on the SEM is rated in kilovolts (kv). A kilovolt is 1000 volts so on the electron microscope you will see 0.30 kv to 30 kv. From experience I can tell you that, our SEM doesn t work well below 0.50 kv. You are welcome to try it, but if you get a message saying Zero Emission, Check Filament, you need to increase the acceleration voltage. Acceleration voltage is related to electron return. When you scan an object with an electron beam, the atoms of the object absorb that energy and give off their own electrons electron return. The beam of electrons coming from the electron gun is the primary beam and one type of electrons given off by the atoms of the specimen are called secondary electrons. To get the electrons from the electron gun to the specimen, the specimen is mounted on a metal stub. That stub is positively charged. Negatively charged electrons are attracted to the positively charged specimen and move toward it. Electrons that are not absorbed by the specimen ideally should travel to the positively charged mounting stub. To insure that this happens, specimens in the SEM are usually coated with a very thin layer of gold and palladium. Unfortunately, at this time Eastfield does not have a machine that coats specimens. In addition, many of our specimens will be non-conductive. The electrons from the primary beam will not be easily removed and the specimen can become charged. As more and more electrons are added to the specimen, it will not only give off secondary electrons (which we want) but will also give off the electrons from being charged. The result is a specimen that begins to glow brighter and brighter and becomes distorted. Specimen charging is very unwelcome and can even keep you from being able to record an image. (Continues on next page.)

6 Lily pollen showing charging at 50Pa Charging eliminated by increasing atmosphere to 80Pa One way to reduce or eliminate charging is to a lower the acceleration voltage. Fewer electrons in means less charging. Because of charging you will do most of your secondary electron (SE) imaging between 1.0kV and 2.0kV. As with almost everything on an electron microscope, this is not a hard and fast rule. I do a lot of imaging at 0.80kV and even up to 5.0kV. The only way to find out is to try it. Changing voltages takes a minute or so, but it is well worth experimenting until you find that magic kv that gives you the images you want. A second way to eliminate charging is to use the backscatter electron (BSE) detector. When you hit a specimen with the primary beam, not only are secondary electrons produced, but so are backscatter electrons. Backscatter electrons come from deeper within the specimen. These electrons may bounce around inside of the specimen before coming back out to be detected. (Some of them never make it back out and cause the release of X-rays. These X-rays can be used to determine the chemical composition of the specimen using an EDS system. No need to worry, the instrument is shielded to contain the X-rays.) We don t have an EDS system on our SEM, but the cool thing about BSE detectors is that they can work with a little bit of atmosphere inside of the SEM. Our S3400-N is a variable pressure or environmental SEM, meaning you can control the atmospheric pressure inside the specimen chamber. Of most interest to you is the fact that allowing some atmosphere into the chamber allows the electrons that cause charging to be removed. Standard atmospheric pressure on the earth is 101,300 Pascals (Pa). At full vacuum, the chamber of our SEM will be at 1.5 x10-3 Pa ( Pa). That is the vacuum at which the SE detector operates. The S3400-N allows you to operate between 6 and 270 Pa using the BSE detector. The important thing for you to remember is that if charging is a major problem, switch to the BSE detector and add atmosphere. The BSE detector is slower to make an image and a little harder to work with, but the lack of charging outweighs the difficulties. Increasing acceleration voltage increases resolution, but be aware that two problems can occur at higher accelerations voltages.

7 First, there is a lot of energy in the electron beam and it can destroy the specimen. This is called beam damage. Higher the magnification means more energy is focused in each unit of area, so beam damage occurs as you zoom in. If your specimen is charging or causing beam damage, you will see a rectangle on the screen as you decrease magnification. If you see this rectangle, you need to decrease acceleration voltage. Second is edge effect. The electron beam can be diffracted by sharp edges causing a decrease in focus. You may also see some edge blooming bright glowing on the edges of the specimen. It is not intuitive, but I can often get a better image at 10 kv or 12 kv than I can at 20 kv. Aperture When you begin imaging insects, either us 1 kv SE, or 10 kv BSE. The last parameter to consider on the SEM is which aperture to use. The aperture on an electron microscope is a metal strip that has a series of progressively small holes through which the electron beam passes. The smaller the hole, the more coherent the electron beam is the fewer unfocused electrons reach the specimen. This means that the electron return is coming only from the spot we want, so you see it more clearly better resolution. Aperture Setting Size of aperture 0 Aperture removed from electron path 1 m 2 m 3 m 4 m So why not use the smallest aperture all of the time? Again we have a tradeoff between resolution and amount of signal. Yes, you can get better resolution with a higher aperture, but you will also have a dimmer image with more noise. Below 1000x, set the aperture to 0. Above 1000x, use aperture 1, 2, or 3. (Continues on next page)

8 Initial settings and conditions When I first began working with the scanning electron microscope I had many frustrating days. Sometimes I would work for hours and never be able to get a single image. There is no reason for you to repeat my mistakes or replicate by learning curve. I have given you a lot to think about, but have developed a set of initial conditions that will yield an image almost every time. Until you are an independent operator of the SEM I strongly suggest you begin with the following initial conditions. SE Mode (set on Conditions tab on right hand screen) 1. Maximum specimen height set to 45 mm 2. Acceleration voltage = 1 kv 3. Probe current = Aperture = 0 5. Working distance = 10 mm 6. Magnification = Lowest 7. Mechanical stage: x = 30, y = 20, (with camera on) z = 10 BSE Mode (set on Conditions tab on right hand screen) 1. Maximum specimen height set to 45 mm 2. Acceleration voltage = 10 kv 3. Probe current = Aperture = 0 5. Working distance = 10 mm 6. Magnification = Lowest 7. Atmosphere = 40 Pa 8. Mechanical stage: x = 30, y = 20, (with camera on) z = Turn off the camera before turning on the electron beam If you follow the parameters above you will see your specimen on screen. You still have lots to do, but at least you will see something. (Continues on next page)

9 Additional Illustrations: Main computer interface for the SEM Control Panel for SEM

Name: Due: September 21 st 2012. Physics 7230 Laboratory 3: High Resolution SEM Imaging

Name: Due: September 21 st 2012. Physics 7230 Laboratory 3: High Resolution SEM Imaging Name: Due: September 21 st 2012 Physics 7230 Laboratory 3: High Resolution SEM Imaging 1. What is meant by the term resolution? How does this differ from other image variables, such as signal to noise

More information

View of ΣIGMA TM (Ref. 1)

View of ΣIGMA TM (Ref. 1) Overview of the FESEM system 1. Electron optical column 2. Specimen chamber 3. EDS detector [Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy] 4. Monitors 5. BSD (Back scatter detector) 6. Personal Computer 7. ON/STANDBY/OFF

More information

Electron Microscopy 3. SEM. Image formation, detection, resolution, signal to noise ratio, interaction volume, contrasts

Electron Microscopy 3. SEM. Image formation, detection, resolution, signal to noise ratio, interaction volume, contrasts Electron Microscopy 3. SEM Image formation, detection, resolution, signal to noise ratio, interaction volume, contrasts 3-1 SEM is easy! Just focus and shoot "Photo"!!! Please comment this picture... Any

More information

Electromagnetic Lens. Pole Pieces of iron Concentrate lines of Magnetic force

Electromagnetic Lens. Pole Pieces of iron Concentrate lines of Magnetic force Electromagnetic Lens Pole Pieces of iron Concentrate lines of Magnetic force Lens Defects Since the focal length f of a lens is dependent on the strength of the lens, if follows that different wavelengths

More information

BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY (SEM)

BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY (SEM) BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY (SEM) Summary The quality and resolution of SEM images are function of three major parameters: (i) instrument performance, (ii) selection of imaging parameters

More information

Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Do it with electrons!

Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Do it with electrons! Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Do it with electrons! Microscopy Structure determines properties We have discussed crystal structure (x-ray diffraction) But consider now different level of structure

More information

INTRODUCTION TO THE XL30-FEG SEM. 1.1 The mouse. 1.2. The monitor. Figure 1.1 1. THE USER INTERFACE

INTRODUCTION TO THE XL30-FEG SEM. 1.1 The mouse. 1.2. The monitor. Figure 1.1 1. THE USER INTERFACE INTRODUCTION TO THE XL30-FEG SEM All software used to control the microscope runs in the MS-Windows environment. This environment is loaded on the Windows2000 operating system. However, it is not really

More information

Lenses and Apertures of A TEM

Lenses and Apertures of A TEM Instructor: Dr. C.Wang EMA 6518 Course Presentation Lenses and Apertures of A TEM Group Member: Anup Kr. Keshri Srikanth Korla Sushma Amruthaluri Venkata Pasumarthi Xudong Chen Outline Electron Optics

More information

Lecture 5 Different types of microscopes: UV, dark field, phase contrast, fluorescence and electron microscope.

Lecture 5 Different types of microscopes: UV, dark field, phase contrast, fluorescence and electron microscope. Lecture 5 Different types of microscopes: UV, dark field, phase contrast, fluorescence and electron microscope. Learning objectives: In continuation last class on the principles and basic types of microscopes,

More information

TEM: JEOL 100CX-II: Operation Instructions: For Imaging: Abbreviation: RHTP: Right Hand Top Panel RHBP: Right Hand Bottom Panel.

TEM: JEOL 100CX-II: Operation Instructions: For Imaging: Abbreviation: RHTP: Right Hand Top Panel RHBP: Right Hand Bottom Panel. TEM: JEOL 100CX-II: Operation Instructions: For Imaging: Abbreviation: RHTP: Right Hand Top Panel RHBP: Right Hand Bottom Panel. Initial Diagnostics: 1. DP (Diffusion Pump) light is green, HIGH VACUUM

More information

Electron Microscopy Centre

Electron Microscopy Centre Electron Microscopy Centre Title: STANDARD PROCEDURES TO USE THE SPUTTER COATER Equipment: Bio-Rad JBS-PS-3 Sputter Coater Revision: 1.0 Effective Date: 12/12/2005 Author: X. Yang Warning! Before you attempt

More information

The Most Advanced Benchtop SEM

The Most Advanced Benchtop SEM Benchtop SEM The Most Advanced Benchtop SEM A d v a n c e d i t u t i v e o p e High Vacuum or Low Vacuum mode selectable Sample imaging at various angles using a tilt rotation motorized specimen holder*

More information

Preface Light Microscopy X-ray Diffraction Methods

Preface Light Microscopy X-ray Diffraction Methods Preface xi 1 Light Microscopy 1 1.1 Optical Principles 1 1.1.1 Image Formation 1 1.1.2 Resolution 3 1.1.3 Depth of Field 5 1.1.4 Aberrations 6 1.2 Instrumentation 8 1.2.1 Illumination System 9 1.2.2 Objective

More information

TOF FUNDAMENTALS TUTORIAL

TOF FUNDAMENTALS TUTORIAL TOF FUNDAMENTALS TUTORIAL Presented By: JORDAN TOF PRODUCTS, INC. 990 Golden Gate Terrace Grass Valley, CA 95945 530-272-4580 / 530-272-2955 [fax] www.rmjordan.com [web] info@rmjordan.com [e-mail] This

More information

Franceschi Microscopy & Imaging Center Standard Operating Procedure for FEI SEM

Franceschi Microscopy & Imaging Center Standard Operating Procedure for FEI SEM Franceschi Microscopy & Imaging Center Standard Operating Procedure for FEI SEM Purpose: Proper operation of Quanta 200F Scanning Electron Microscope Training Required? YES Do not attempt to use this insturment

More information

USER GUIDE JEOL JSM-6300 SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE

USER GUIDE JEOL JSM-6300 SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE USER GUIDE JEOL JSM-6300 SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE Compiled by Sam Boggs, with Input from John Donovan, Ricky Gasser, and Ben Klusman 1. BASIC SEM UNIT The JSM-6300 basic unit (Fig 1) consists of an

More information

Ion Beam Sputtering: Practical Applications to Electron Microscopy

Ion Beam Sputtering: Practical Applications to Electron Microscopy Ion Beam Sputtering: Practical Applications to Electron Microscopy Applications Laboratory Report Introduction Electron microscope specimens, both scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM), often require a

More information

FEI QUANTA 400 SEM STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES

FEI QUANTA 400 SEM STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES FEI QUANTA 400 SEM STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES Version: 1.0 JAN 2014 UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT ARLINGTON Nanotechnology Research Center TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 INTRODUCTION.... 3 1.1 SCOPE..... 3 1.2 DESCRIPTION.....

More information

SEMTech Solutions. Leaders in Refurbished SEMs. SEMTech Solutions Windows 7 SOFTWARE CONTROL SYSTEM

SEMTech Solutions. Leaders in Refurbished SEMs. SEMTech Solutions Windows 7 SOFTWARE CONTROL SYSTEM SEMTech Solutions Leaders in Refurbished SEMs SEMTech Solutions Windows 7 SOFTWARE CONTROL SYSTEM Recertification Process Our Goal: Value Added Technologies Demo Outgoing Inspection Can Include: New PC

More information

Lab 1: The Microscope

Lab 1: The Microscope Lab 1: The Microscope Microscopes are tools that allow us to see objects or detail too small to be seen with the unaided eye. Two aspects of microscopy determine how clearly we can see small objects: magnification

More information

Hitachi CD SEM/S9380Ⅱ

Hitachi CD SEM/S9380Ⅱ 1. SYSTEM INFORMATION Workstation Model : HF-W2000 O/S :HPUX Software Version : 26.31 2. Specifications 2.1 General Specifications Wafer size Equipment Configuration Hitachi CD SEM/S9380Ⅱ Serial No.: 2194-039380

More information

No Brain Too Small PHYSICS ATOMS: PHOTONS AND THE PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT QUESTIONS

No Brain Too Small PHYSICS ATOMS: PHOTONS AND THE PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT QUESTIONS ATOMS: PHOTONS AND THE PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT QUESTIONS SODIUM LAMPS (2012;2) Low pressure sodium lamps are widely used in street lighting. The lamps produce light when an electric current is passed through

More information

T e c h n i c a l N o t e s

T e c h n i c a l N o t e s What are x-rays and how are they generated? What are x-rays? X-rays are part of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum. This spectrum includes radio waves, microwaves, infrared, the visible spectrum, ultra

More information

CHAPTER - 5 SAMPLE PREPARATION AND TESTING

CHAPTER - 5 SAMPLE PREPARATION AND TESTING 50 CHAPTER - 5 SAMPLE PREPARATION AND TESTING 5.1 Procurement of material 5.2 Assessment of mechanical properties 51 SAMPLE PREPARATION AND TESTING 5.1 PROCUREMENT OF MATERIAL A list of suppliers for Raw

More information

Hitachi Model S-3400N PC-Based Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope

Hitachi Model S-3400N PC-Based Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope Hitachi Model S-3400N PC-Based Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope Guaranteed Resolution: 3.0nm, (SED Image in High Vacuum Mode at 30kV) 4.0nm, (BSED Image in VP Mode at 30kV) Chamber Size:

More information

Physics 441/2: Transmission Electron Microscope

Physics 441/2: Transmission Electron Microscope Physics 441/2: Transmission Electron Microscope Introduction In this experiment we will explore the use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to take us into the world of ultrasmall structures. This

More information

7. advanced SEM. Latest generation of SEM SEM

7. advanced SEM. Latest generation of SEM SEM 7. advanced SEM SEM Low voltage SE imaging Condition of the surface, coatings, plasma cleaning Low voltage BSE imaging Polishing for BSE, EDX and EBSD, effect of ion beam etching/polishing 1 Latest generation

More information

E-beam Characterization: a primer Part 1. Matthew J Kramer 225 Wilhelm October 30,2009

E-beam Characterization: a primer Part 1. Matthew J Kramer 225 Wilhelm October 30,2009 E-beam Characterization: a primer Part 1 Matthew J Kramer 225 Wilhelm mjkramer@ameslab.gov October 30,2009 Why and Which Method E-beam characterization IT IS the only reliable means for microstructural

More information

Microscopy. MICROSCOPY Light Electron Tunnelling Atomic Force RESOLVE: => INCREASE CONTRAST BIODIVERSITY I BIOL1051 MAJOR FUNCTIONS OF MICROSCOPES

Microscopy. MICROSCOPY Light Electron Tunnelling Atomic Force RESOLVE: => INCREASE CONTRAST BIODIVERSITY I BIOL1051 MAJOR FUNCTIONS OF MICROSCOPES BIODIVERSITY I BIOL1051 Microscopy Professor Marc C. Lavoie marc.lavoie@cavehill.uwi.edu MAJOR FUNCTIONS OF MICROSCOPES MAGNIFY RESOLVE: => INCREASE CONTRAST Microscopy 1. Eyepieces 2. Diopter adjustment

More information

Nanometer-scale imaging and metrology, nano-fabrication with the Orion Helium Ion Microscope

Nanometer-scale imaging and metrology, nano-fabrication with the Orion Helium Ion Microscope andras@nist.gov Nanometer-scale imaging and metrology, nano-fabrication with the Orion Helium Ion Microscope Bin Ming, András E. Vladár and Michael T. Postek National Institute of Standards and Technology

More information

Low kv Multispectral Imaging in a Field Emission SEM

Low kv Multispectral Imaging in a Field Emission SEM Low kv Multispectral Imaging in a Field Emission SEM N. Erdman, N. Kikuchi, A. Laudate and V. Robertson JEOL USA Inc., Peabody, MA 01960 enable unmatched imaging and analytical performance, including the

More information

Chapter 4. Microscopy, Staining, and Classification. Lecture prepared by Mindy Miller-Kittrell North Carolina State University

Chapter 4. Microscopy, Staining, and Classification. Lecture prepared by Mindy Miller-Kittrell North Carolina State University Chapter 4 Microscopy, Staining, and Classification 2012 Pearson Education Inc. Lecture prepared by Mindy Miller-Kittrell North Carolina State University Microscopy and Staining 2012 Pearson Education Inc.

More information

Forensic Science: The Basics. Microscopy

Forensic Science: The Basics. Microscopy Forensic Science: The Basics Microscopy Chapter 6 Jay A. Siegel,Ph.D. Power point presentation by Greg Galardi, Peru State College, Peru Nebraska Presentation by Greg Galardi, Peru State College CRC Press,

More information

THERMO NORAN SYSTEM SIX ENERGY DISPERSIVE X- RAY SPECTROMETER. Insert Nickname Here. Operating Instructions

THERMO NORAN SYSTEM SIX ENERGY DISPERSIVE X- RAY SPECTROMETER. Insert Nickname Here. Operating Instructions THERMO NORAN SYSTEM SIX ENERGY DISPERSIVE X- RAY SPECTROMETER Insert Nickname Here Operating Instructions Table of Contents 1 INTRODUCTION Safety 1 Samples 1 2 BACKGROUND Background Information 3 References

More information

Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) for the Hitachi HD NSA Sales Meeting, May

Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) for the Hitachi HD NSA Sales Meeting, May Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) for the Hitachi HD-2000-1 - Outline! Introduction to Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (EELS)! EELS Spectrum Imaging! EELS on the HD-2000-2 - Introduction to EELS!

More information

New Semiconductor Device Evaluation System for Failure Analysis of Sub-nanometer Areas

New Semiconductor Device Evaluation System for Failure Analysis of Sub-nanometer Areas Hitachi Review Vol. 52 (2003), No. 3 133 New Semiconductor Device Evaluation System for Failure Analysis of Sub-nanometer Areas Takeo Kamino Tsuyoshi Onishi Kaoru Umemura Kyoichiro Asayama Kazutoshi Kaji

More information

Chapter 24. Wave Optics

Chapter 24. Wave Optics Chapter 24 Wave Optics Wave Optics The wave nature of light is needed to explain various phenomena. Interference Diffraction Polarization The particle nature of light was the basis for ray (geometric)

More information

What is a DSLR and what is a compact camera? And newer versions of DSLR are now mirrorless

What is a DSLR and what is a compact camera? And newer versions of DSLR are now mirrorless 1 2 What is a DSLR and what is a compact camera? And newer versions of DSLR are now mirrorless 3 The Parts Your camera is made up of many parts, but there are a few in particular that we want to look at

More information

Physics 19. Charge to Mass Ratio of the Electron

Physics 19. Charge to Mass Ratio of the Electron Physics 19 Charge to Mass Ratio of the Electron Revised 9/2012, ABG Theory Elementary particle physics has as its goal to know the properties of the many atomic and subatomic particles (mesons, quarks,

More information

Electron Beam Lithography. By Roberta Kelly Supervisor: Jan Kycia

Electron Beam Lithography. By Roberta Kelly Supervisor: Jan Kycia Electron Beam Lithography By Roberta Kelly Supervisor: Jan Kycia Overview 1. Scanning Electron Microscope Basic 2. Electron beam lithography basics 3. Introduction to the Nanometer Pattern Generation program.

More information

ADVANCED FE APPLICATIONS COURSE

ADVANCED FE APPLICATIONS COURSE ADVANCED FE APPLICATIONS COURSE Theory of Microscopy Thermionic Emitters» Boil electrons over the top of the energy barrier» The current density depends on work the temperature and the cathode function

More information

Analytical Technologies in Biotechnology Dr. Ashwani K. Sharma Department of Biotechnology Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee

Analytical Technologies in Biotechnology Dr. Ashwani K. Sharma Department of Biotechnology Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee Analytical Technologies in Biotechnology Dr. Ashwani K. Sharma Department of Biotechnology Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee Module 1 Microscopy Lecture - 2 Basic concepts in microscopy 2 In this

More information

Measurement Techniques

Measurement Techniques Chapter 3 Measurement Techniques This chapter describes the techniques that were used to measure the contact angles and the surface texture of the prepared surfaces, as well as the high-speed imaging techniques.

More information

VCR Ion Beam Sputter Coater

VCR Ion Beam Sputter Coater VCR Ion Beam Sputter Coater Sputtering Process and Rates 2 Vacuum System 3 Loading the Sputter Chamber 4 Sputter Coating 5 Removing Samples from Chamber 6 Appendix A: VCR High Vacuum Gauge Conditioning

More information

Understanding Exposure for Better Photos Now

Understanding Exposure for Better Photos Now Understanding Exposure for Better Photos Now Beginner Photography Tutorials Created exclusively for Craftsy by Nicholas Donner TABLE OF CONTENTS 01 02 05 07 10 12 Meet the Expert Shutter Speed Aperture

More information

X-RAY TUBE SELECTION CRITERIA FOR BGA / CSP X-RAY INSPECTION

X-RAY TUBE SELECTION CRITERIA FOR BGA / CSP X-RAY INSPECTION X-RAY TUBE SELECTION CRITERIA FOR BGA / CSP X-RAY INSPECTION David Bernard Dage Precision Industries Inc. Fremont, California d.bernard@dage-group.com ABSTRACT The x-ray inspection of PCB assembly processes

More information

3.8W 445nm Laser Diode Component

3.8W 445nm Laser Diode Component 1 3.8W 445nm Laser Diode Component This multi-mode laser diode component is pressed fit mounted in an aluminum housing and has an aluminum mountable heat-sink. The laser is set in the heat sink with thermally

More information

Scanning Electron Microscopy Primer

Scanning Electron Microscopy Primer Scanning Electron Microscopy Primer Bob Hafner This primer is intended as background for the Introductory Scanning Electron Microscopy training offered by the University of Minnesota s Characterization

More information

Purpose of the experiment

Purpose of the experiment Modern Physics Lab Spectroscopy Purpose of the experiment Familiarize you with advanced experimental techniques and equipment. Learn how to identify various elements by their emission spectrum. Background

More information

Laser Beam Alignment Version 0.1, February 9th 2016

Laser Beam Alignment Version 0.1, February 9th 2016 Laser Beam Alignment Version 0.1, February 9th 2016 Precautions Introduction Laser Terminology Simple Alignment Test The principle of alignment Aligning the Mirrors Tube to Mirror 1 Mirror 1 to Mirror

More information

Electron Microscopy SEM and TEM

Electron Microscopy SEM and TEM Electron Microscopy SEM and TEM Content 1. Introduction: Motivation for electron microscopy 2. Interaction with matter 3. SEM: Scanning Electron Microscopy 3.1 Functional Principle 3.2 Examples 3.3 EDX

More information

BIL 151: Mechanisms of Mitosis Proper Use of the Microscope

BIL 151: Mechanisms of Mitosis Proper Use of the Microscope BIL 151: Mechanisms of Mitosis Proper Use of the Microscope You will be using two different types of microscope for this project. Your stereoscope (from the Greek stereo, meaning "solid" and scop, meaning

More information

Detailed Alignment Procedure for the JEOL 2010F Transmission Electron Microscope

Detailed Alignment Procedure for the JEOL 2010F Transmission Electron Microscope Detailed Alignment Procedure for the JEOL 2010F Transmission Electron Microscope by Wendy Sarney ARL-MR-603 December 2004 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. NOTICES Disclaimers The findings

More information

MICROSCOPY. To demonstrate skill in the proper utilization of a light microscope.

MICROSCOPY. To demonstrate skill in the proper utilization of a light microscope. MICROSCOPY I. OBJECTIVES To demonstrate skill in the proper utilization of a light microscope. To demonstrate skill in the use of ocular and stage micrometers for measurements of cell size. To recognize

More information

Study of the Human Eye Working Principle: An impressive high angular resolution system with simple array detectors

Study of the Human Eye Working Principle: An impressive high angular resolution system with simple array detectors Study of the Human Eye Working Principle: An impressive high angular resolution system with simple array detectors Diego Betancourt and Carlos del Río Antenna Group, Public University of Navarra, Campus

More information

Note it they ancients had known Newton s first law, the retrograde motion of the planets would have told them that the Earth was moving.

Note it they ancients had known Newton s first law, the retrograde motion of the planets would have told them that the Earth was moving. 6/24 Discussion of the first law. The first law appears to be contained within the second and it is. Why state it? Newton s laws are not always valid they are not valid in, say, an accelerating automobile.

More information

In the previous presentation, we discussed how x-rays were discovered and how they are generated at the atomic level. Today we will begin the

In the previous presentation, we discussed how x-rays were discovered and how they are generated at the atomic level. Today we will begin the In the previous presentation, we discussed how x-rays were discovered and how they are generated at the atomic level. Today we will begin the discussion on the major components of the x-ray machine. Today

More information

A Beginner's Guide to Simple Photography Concepts: ISO, Aperture, Shutter Speed Depth of Field (DOF) and Exposure Compensation

A Beginner's Guide to Simple Photography Concepts: ISO, Aperture, Shutter Speed Depth of Field (DOF) and Exposure Compensation A Beginner's Guide to Simple Photography Concepts: ISO, Aperture, Shutter Speed Depth of Field (DOF) and Exposure Compensation There are 3 things that affect your image quality in photography; ISO, Aperture

More information

CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY TUTORIAL

CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY TUTORIAL CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY TUTORIAL Robert Bagnell 2006 This tutorial covers the following CLSM topics: 1) What is the optical principal behind CLSM? 2) What is the spatial resolution in X, Y,

More information

HITACHI 4700 FE-SEM Updated 12/19/13

HITACHI 4700 FE-SEM Updated 12/19/13 HITACHI 4700 FE-SEM Updated 12/19/13 COLD FIELD EMISSION 2 STARTING CONDITIONS 3-4 SPECIMEN LOADING 5 SAMPLE INSERTION 6-7 SAMPLE WITHDRAWAL 7 SET IMAGE PARAMETERS 8-10 OBTAINING AN IMAGE 11 ALIGNMENT

More information

Hitachi S-4700 Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope

Hitachi S-4700 Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope Institute for Research in Materials (IRM) Dalhousie University Dr. Paul Bishop (902) 494-1520 Paul.Bishop@dal.ca Pat Scallion (902) 494-1258 pscallio@dal.ca

More information

PHYS 222 Spring 2012 Final Exam. Closed books, notes, etc. No electronic device except a calculator.

PHYS 222 Spring 2012 Final Exam. Closed books, notes, etc. No electronic device except a calculator. PHYS 222 Spring 2012 Final Exam Closed books, notes, etc. No electronic device except a calculator. NAME: (all questions with equal weight) 1. If the distance between two point charges is tripled, the

More information

Eighth Grade Electromagnetic Radiation and Light Assessment

Eighth Grade Electromagnetic Radiation and Light Assessment Eighth Grade Electromagnetic Radiation and Light Assessment 1a. Light waves are the only waves that can travel through. a. space b. solids 1b. Electromagnetic waves, such as light, are the only kind of

More information

PHOTOGRAPHY 101 (or how I think about it, anyway)

PHOTOGRAPHY 101 (or how I think about it, anyway) PHOTOGRAPHY 101 (or how I think about it, anyway) 1 Part I Three Simple Rules 2 Rule 1 Learn Kind of like knowing photoshop, understanding how your camera works is a technical skill. It is essential to

More information

Micro-CT for SEM Non-destructive Measurement and Volume Visualization of Specimens Internal Microstructure in SEM Micro-CT Innovation with Integrity

Micro-CT for SEM Non-destructive Measurement and Volume Visualization of Specimens Internal Microstructure in SEM Micro-CT Innovation with Integrity Micro-CT for SEM Non-destructive Measurement and Volume Visualization of Specimens Internal Microstructure in SEM Innovation with Integrity Micro-CT 3D Microscopy Using Micro-CT for SEM Micro-CT for SEM

More information

BUEHLER MICROMET 5103 MICROINDENTATION HARDNESS TESTER. The Punk. Operating Instructions

BUEHLER MICROMET 5103 MICROINDENTATION HARDNESS TESTER. The Punk. Operating Instructions The Punk Operating Instructions Table of Contents Introduction 1 1 SAFETY AND SAMPLE PREPARATION Safety Hazards and Precautions 1 Sample Preparation 1 2 BACKGROUND Background Information 2 The Vickers

More information

Ch 6: Light and Telescope. Wave and Wavelength. Wavelength, Frequency and Speed. v f

Ch 6: Light and Telescope. Wave and Wavelength. Wavelength, Frequency and Speed. v f Ch 6: Light and Telescope Wave and Wavelength..\..\aTeach\PhET\wave-on-a-string_en.jar Wavelength, Frequency and Speed Wave and Wavelength A wave is a disturbance that moves through a medium or through

More information

CSCI 4974 / 6974 Hardware Reverse Engineering. Lecture 8: Microscopy and Imaging

CSCI 4974 / 6974 Hardware Reverse Engineering. Lecture 8: Microscopy and Imaging CSCI 4974 / 6974 Hardware Reverse Engineering Lecture 8: Microscopy and Imaging Data Acquisition for RE Microscopy Imaging Registration and stitching Microscopy Optical Electron Scanning Transmission Scanning

More information

Electron Source (Gun)

Electron Source (Gun) Electron Optics The SEM uses a highly focused electron beam to strike and interact with a sample which is contained in a high vacuum environment to form a high resolution image. Different types of images

More information

Optics. Determining the velocity of light by means of the rotating-mirror method according to Foucault and Michelson. LD Physics Leaflets P5.6.1.

Optics. Determining the velocity of light by means of the rotating-mirror method according to Foucault and Michelson. LD Physics Leaflets P5.6.1. Optics Velocity of light Measurement according to Foucault/Michelson LD Physics Leaflets P5.6.1.1 Determining the velocity of light by means of the rotating-mirror method according to Foucault and Michelson

More information

Thin Lenses. Physics 102 Workshop #7. General Instructions

Thin Lenses. Physics 102 Workshop #7. General Instructions Thin Lenses Physics 102 Workshop #7 Name: Lab Partner(s): Instructor: Time of Workshop: General Instructions Workshop exercises are to be carried out in groups of three. One report per group is due by

More information

MICROSCOPE TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

MICROSCOPE TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS MICROSCOPE TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS Abbe Condenser A lens that is specially designed to mount under the stage and which, typically, moves in a vertical direction. An adjustable iris controls the diameter

More information

Introduction to Phenom

Introduction to Phenom Introduction to Phenom Phenomproducts Sample holders G2 Pure ProSuite applications G2 Pro prox PhenomSpecifications G2Pure G2 Pro prox Light optical: 20x, B/W 17 touch screen Electron optics: 70-17.000x

More information

INTRODUCTION TO THE TELESCOPE

INTRODUCTION TO THE TELESCOPE AST 113/114 Fall 2014 / Spring 2016 NAME: INTRODUCTION TO THE TELESCOPE What will you learn in this Lab? For a few of the labs this semester, you will be using an 8-inch Celestron telescope to take observations.

More information

Cathode Ray Tube. Introduction. Functional principle

Cathode Ray Tube. Introduction. Functional principle Introduction The Cathode Ray Tube or Braun s Tube was invented by the German physicist Karl Ferdinand Braun in 897 and is today used in computer monitors, TV sets and oscilloscope tubes. The path of the

More information

Optics and Image formation

Optics and Image formation Optics and Image formation Pascal Chartrand chercheur-agrégé Département de Biochimie email: p.chartrand@umontreal.ca The Light Microscope Four centuries of history Vibrant current development One of the

More information

Digital SLR Basics 1

Digital SLR Basics 1 Digital SLR Basics 1 When you re not using flash, there are three main components that make up your exposure. Aperture, Shutter Speed and ISO setting. It s called the exposure triangle. Aperture Shutter

More information

Rodenstock Photo Optics

Rodenstock Photo Optics Rogonar Rogonar-S Rodagon Apo-Rodagon N Rodagon-WA Apo-Rodagon-D Accessories: Modular-Focus Lenses for Enlarging, CCD Photos and Video To reproduce analog photographs as pictures on paper requires two

More information

Camera Lenses and Focal Length

Camera Lenses and Focal Length Camera Lenses and Focal Length In Photography, your lens is often your most important purchase. This photography tutorial outlines some important qualities of different lenses, and how each performs in

More information

BIOLOGY 163 LABORATORY USE OF THE COMPOUND LIGHT MICROSCOPE (Revised Fall 2012)

BIOLOGY 163 LABORATORY USE OF THE COMPOUND LIGHT MICROSCOPE (Revised Fall 2012) BIOLOGY 163 LABORATORY USE OF THE COMPOUND LIGHT MICROSCOPE (Revised Fall 2012) Microscopes in various forms are important tools for biologists. Two types of microscopes that you will use frequently are

More information

Microscope Activity. The Lab

Microscope Activity. The Lab Microscope Activity On the following pages you will find a copy of a microscope lab I do with my Bio 100 honors students. There have been a few, but not many modifications in this version I have given

More information

3-1. True or False: Different colors of light are waves with different amplitudes. a.) True b.) False X

3-1. True or False: Different colors of light are waves with different amplitudes. a.) True b.) False X 3-1. True or False: Different colors of light are waves with different amplitudes. a.) True b.) False X 3-2. True or False: Different colors of light are waves with different wavelengths. a.) True X b.)

More information

APPENDIX B: MATERIAL SETTINGS

APPENDIX B: MATERIAL SETTINGS APPENDIX B: MATERIAL SETTINGS Material DPI/Freq. 30 watt 40 watt 50 watt 60 watt 75 watt 120 watt Acrylic Photo Engraving 300 DPI 90s 60p 90s 55p 90s 50p 90s 45p 90s 40p 90s 30p Text/Clipart Engraving

More information

Machine Vision Basics: Optics Part Two

Machine Vision Basics: Optics Part Two Machine Vision Basics: Optics Part Two Webinar Gregory Hollows Director, Machine Vision Solutions Edmund Optics, Inc. Celia Hoyer Product Marketing Vision Systems Cognex Corporation Agenda Quick Review

More information

Scanning Electron Microscopy

Scanning Electron Microscopy L A SI G M A Microscopy Workshop Scanning Electron Microscopy Alfred Gunasekaran Scanning Electron Microscopy Image Quality Optical Microscope SE M SE M is very useful for examining objects at a wide range

More information

How an electronic shutter works in a CMOS camera. First, let s review how shutters work in film cameras.

How an electronic shutter works in a CMOS camera. First, let s review how shutters work in film cameras. How an electronic shutter works in a CMOS camera I have been asked many times how an electronic shutter works in a CMOS camera and how it affects the camera s performance. Here s a description of the way

More information

Types of Microscope. Microscope and Microscopy. Body of Microscope. Focusing Knobs. Design of Compound Microscope

Types of Microscope. Microscope and Microscopy. Body of Microscope. Focusing Knobs. Design of Compound Microscope Types of Microscope Microscope and Microscopy Anatomy and Physiology Text and Laboratory Workbook, Stephen G. Davenport, Copyright 2006, All Rights Reserved, no part of this publication can be used for

More information

Creating Drop Shadows with Photoshop CS6

Creating Drop Shadows with Photoshop CS6 518 442-3608 Creating Drop Shadows with Photoshop CS6 The drop shadow (sometimes called a box shadow ) is an effect often found in catalog photographs, advertising images, and Web pages. It is created

More information

Microscopes. Microscope: micro - from Greek meaning small scope from Greek meaning to look or see

Microscopes. Microscope: micro - from Greek meaning small scope from Greek meaning to look or see Microscopes Microscope: micro - from Greek meaning small scope from Greek meaning to look or see By definition a microscope is: 1. An optical instrument consisting of a lens or combination of lenses for

More information

Blackbody Radiation References INTRODUCTION

Blackbody Radiation References INTRODUCTION Blackbody Radiation References 1) R.A. Serway, R.J. Beichner: Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics, 5 th Edition, Vol. 2, Ch.40, Saunders College Publishing (A Division of Harcourt

More information

Standard Test Method for Classification of Film Systems for Industrial Radiography 1

Standard Test Method for Classification of Film Systems for Industrial Radiography 1 Designation: E 1815 96 (Reapproved 2001) Standard Test Method for Classification of Film Systems for Industrial Radiography 1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation E 1815; the number immediately

More information

Start Up. On the right screen, click on the following icon in order to launch the program for EDS analysis.

Start Up. On the right screen, click on the following icon in order to launch the program for EDS analysis. Start Up On the right screen, click on the following icon in order to launch the program for EDS analysis. You must start up SEM application before starting EDS application. Don t forget to switch off

More information

Care and Use of the Compound Microscope

Care and Use of the Compound Microscope Revised Fall 2011 Care and Use of the Compound Microscope Objectives After completing this lab students should be able to 1. properly clean and carry a compound and dissecting microscope. 2. focus a specimen

More information

Build Your Own Michelson Interferometer

Build Your Own Michelson Interferometer Build Your Own Michelson Interferometer Subject Area: Scientific processes and physical science Grade Level: 9-12 OVERVIEW Build your own Michelson interferometer for under $150. The Michelson interferometer

More information

Introduction to the Scanning Electron Microscope

Introduction to the Scanning Electron Microscope Introduction to the Scanning Electron Microscope Theory, Practice, & Procedures Prepared by Michael Dunlap & Dr. J. E. Adaskaveg Presented by the FACILITY FOR ADVANCED INSTRUMENTATION, U. C. Davis 1997

More information

Practical aspects of Microscopy

Practical aspects of Microscopy Practical aspects of Microscopy 1 Basic Conventional Optical Microscopy Scanning Electron Microscopy Related techniques Some slides borrowed from Prof. Ashish Garg s lecture on Structure and Characterization

More information

Understanding Infrared Camera Thermal Image Quality

Understanding Infrared Camera Thermal Image Quality Electrophysics Resource Center White Paper Noise{ Clean Signal Understanding Infared Camera Electrophysics Resource Center: Abstract You ve no doubt purchased a digital camera sometime over the past few

More information

Rigaku XRD-System Instruction Manual v4/19/03. The Krishnan Group/Wilcox 132, University of Washington

Rigaku XRD-System Instruction Manual v4/19/03. The Krishnan Group/Wilcox 132, University of Washington Rigaku XRD-System Instruction Manual v4/19/03 The Krishnan Group/Wilcox 132, University of Washington Contents: - General information - Safety - How to turn on the X-rays - How to turn off the X-rays -

More information

The World s Easiest Equatorial Mount Instruction Manual for Reflector Telescopes (QVC # E3495)

The World s Easiest Equatorial Mount Instruction Manual for Reflector Telescopes (QVC # E3495) The World s Easiest Equatorial Mount Instruction Manual for Reflector Telescopes 78-4502 (QVC # E3495) Before you get started, you ll need to know that your telescope is a Reflector telescope. That means

More information

MITOSIS IN ONION ROOT TIP CELLS: AN INTRODUCTION TO LIGHT MICROSCOPY

MITOSIS IN ONION ROOT TIP CELLS: AN INTRODUCTION TO LIGHT MICROSCOPY MITOSIS IN ONION ROOT TIP CELLS: AN INTRODUCTION TO LIGHT MICROSCOPY Adapted from Foundations of Biology I; Lab 6 Introduction to Microscopy Dr. John Robertson, Westminster College Biology Department,

More information