UNIVERSITY OF AGRONOMIC SCIENCES AND VETERINARY MEDICINE BUCHAREST DOCTORATE THESIS

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1 UNIVERSITY OF AGRONOMIC SCIENCES AND VETERINARY MEDICINE BUCHAREST 2014 DOCTORATE THESIS COMPARATIVE RESEARCH ON APPENDICEAL MORPHOLOGY SEGMENTS IN THE DOMESTIC SWINE (SUS SCROFA DOMESTICA) AND WILD BOAR (SUS SCROFA FERUS) SCIENTIFIC: P. D. Gabriel PREDOI PHD: Ion ISCRU KEYWORDS: domestic swine, wild boar, appendiceal segments, morphology. SUMARRY Since ancient times, swine growth in our countrywas an important concern of people, especially people in rural areas. This activity has always beena source of food and raw materialfor farmers, for their family needs, but also for trade. Swine growth, in the conditions of our country, is an important economic sector, characterized by production intensity, starting with the production of piglets and ending with the continuous rhythmic and constantdelivery of the fattened pigs for slaughter. Regarding boar, by thousands of years this is a hunting animal.currently boar is one of the most affordable big game speciesdue to a large number of specimens in the field, spread to the large and diverse areas, due to reduced price of permits for hunting etc. In accordance with the requirements for authors of postdoctoral school, thesis was divided into two main parts: - First part, named Bibliographic study includes a detailed presentation of the systematics and evolution of swinebased on the latesttaxonomic research and current data on the process of domestication. Also in this part are presentedas compared phylogeneticallyappendiceal segments in tetrapods; - Second part, named Personal research, based on modern methods of study, shows the detailed morphology of appendiceal segments in swine, i

2 starting from the base of the bone anatomy, continuing with the description of muscle and vascular and nerve formations. Thesis is specifically aimed to clarify some conflicting data in the literature, their completion and presentation of the differences between the two species. First chapter named Systematic and evolution of swine updated taxonomic classification of the species Sus scrofa, showing changes made in systematic Zoo. It is mentioned the species in a new order created Cetartiodactyla, which now includes Artiodactyla and Cetaceea orders. In the two subsections : Taxonomy and phylogenesis of Suidaefamily and Taxonomy of the genus Sus are presented updated scientific names of the species they belong to, data on the origin of species and especially some morphological characterson which these species can be identified.description is accompanied by photographs. Chapter 2 named Domestic aspects of pigs presents the main points in the transformation of wild species in the domestic pig and getting numerous selections of breeds of pigs. There aresummarized two complete models related to pig domestication history: -the one originated in the early Holoceneuntil early Neolithicin some isolated geographic locations (Middle East and China) from which the descendants of domesticated animals were dispersed to other areas of breeders and farmers, and - the one held in several geographical areas outside the Middle East and China, including Neolithic Europe and even the same historical period in Japan. Chapter 3 is providing data related to the Appendiceal segments in terrestrial vertebrate embryology. For understanding the complex processes of formation of limbs, subsection Fundamental plan of organization of the body is performing a review of the changes that occur at the end of gastrulation to shape the prie features of early embryo. Here is presented the importance of fibroblast growth factorin developing appendiceal segments and last updated models that explains growth and differentiationlimb buds:progress zone model and early model specificity.limb evolution is presented as ontogenetic and phylogenetic development reportbeing described transformations that occurs from pentadactil member type tosolipeds herbivore. ii

3 Chapter 4 presentsa complex bibliographic study of phylogenesis base of anatomical appendiceal segments in tetrapods. Presentation is accompanied by numerous images that facilitates the understanding of vertebrate limb morphology. The second part includes the chapters with personal research. Chapter 5 includes the natural, organizational and institutional frame where the research took place and the animals, materials and methods used in research. Thesis was conducted as part of POSDRU /107/1.5/S/76888, "Doctoral scholarships to increase the quality of training young researchers in the field of agronomy and veterinary medicine" financed from the European Social Fund Operational Programme Human Resources Development key area of investment 1.5 "Doctoral and postdoctoral research support" priority axis. 1 "Education and training in support of growth and development of knowledge based society", beneficiary: University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Bucharest. The research was conducted in the Laboratory of Anatomy of domestic animals of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. We used a representative number of animals (parts from 44 specimens of domestic swine and wild boar 33 body), domestic animals is characterized by a marked heterogeneity as race, age, sex and method of growth. As a way of working was used primarily classical technique of dissection and injection of contrast material parts. For detailed study of elements using a stereomicroscope modern Alltion AM-P 8000 series, and the description and interpretation of the results was done according to nominal approval Anatimice Veterinaria 1993 (latest edition). Chapter 6 presents comparative aspects on anatomical limb morphology in boar and swine. The importance of the chapter is the fact that the bones can providemost accurate data on membership of the animal to the species from which is belonging, even when it comes to dead body or some bone debris.details of morphology accident reliefnot only allows differentiation pigs from other species but the difference between swine and boar. We aimed to identify the relative features but alsoclear elements that make it possible to determine the origin of bone. For example,was specified that spina scapularis longer in wild boar and that is an important characteristic. Prolonging the ventral spina with an imaginary line at boar it passes tangent to the tuberosity supraglenoide while at swine intersects the center of the tuberosity.peculiarities noticed were correlated withsome functional adaptations.an example is the presence of the hole supratrochleare at some examples of domestic swine raised in the wild. iii

4 Chapter 7 named Morfotopografy of appendiceal muscle segments describes peculiarities limb muscles. Presentation is done systematically on anatomical segments with details on the origin and insertion of each muscle. Attention is paid to zeugopody musclesthat in this species shows complexity wich is no longer seen in other domestic species. We have made some observations not mentioned in the literature: medialbelly of the digital extensor muscle distributed to finger III, in 20% cases send a beam to finger II, absence in 25% cases of supinator muscle, in 75% cases lateral digital extensor tendon merger withcommon digital extensor, the presence in only 50% cases of the ulnar flexor muscle portion carpo-ulnar. In the case of pelvic zeuogopodiuluihave been observed : insertion volatility in the domestic pig (25% ) in third fibular muscle,presence in 10% cases of digital extensor tendon in addition to muscle for finger side, integration of the domestic pig soleus musclein the muscular body of the medial gastrocnemius muscle. Always the boar has this muscle independent. Other differences at boar such as consolidation of fibrous structures, more pronounced isolation of muscle bodies, development of all structures belonging passive device.these things are explained by more intense activity that has the wild specie. Chapter 8 includes Morphology of vascular formations.to better differentiate these substances were injected with contrasting plastic.study of thoracic limb arteriesbegan in the chest cavitywhere it was studied compared to both sidessubclavian artery morphology and topography. We observed and ratedmorphological differences between these collaterals arteries:costo-cervical trunk, deep cervical artery, superficial cervical artery and internal thoracic.axillary artery was found with no peculiarities in terms of pathand distributions, but the main focus is distinguished by collateralsubcapulara artery in both species. Some differences were observed in the morphology in the deep artery of the arm, brachial artery collateral. Has variable size, at boar it is strong and at the swine it is thiner, in 20% cases replaced by branches of the radial collateral artery. We described topography of the median artery,main vessel of the forearm regionparticularly aiming atcommon interosseous artery, that both the boar and swine it is very strong. Face palm of autopodiului is served by three arteries: common palmar digital arteries, terminal divisions of the palmar artery. Best represented is palmar digital arteries III, continuation of the median. We have described the autopodiului dorsal arteries are better represented than other ungulates. Even in this region there are several variants autopodiala distribution we emerged, however, a general scheme of vasculature autopodiului. iv

5 The limb vessels began describing the caudal aorta, where they originate external and internal iliac arteries. Various aspects and have first found in the trunk pudendoepigastric that in 60% cases it is absent. This gives rise to a cremaster arteriesrelatively well represented and very long, which in 40% cases in swine and 80% cases in boar comes directly from the deep femoral artery. Regarding the femoral artery, the main vessel of the thigh region, has the lateral femoral circumflex artery collateral first which is an ascending branch, reduced, replaced about 20% of cases of both species. We have been found particularly in the case of the knee descending coronary artery which in 20% cases of swine is absent. Contrary to the data presented in the literature, (20% cases in swine and 40% cases in boar) popliteal artery was isolated and a low median artery proximal to the knee. Regarding pelvic vasculature, both in swine and boar variability is found in the distribution of digital arteries.was done drafting a general plan of organization. Responsible for irrigation of autopodiu is saphenous arteryespeciallymedial plantar artery continued joint dorsal digital artery III continued with the commonplanting digital arteries II and IV. To both categories of animals lacking on the dorsal common digital arteries. In morphology of the lymphatic system were studied and realized comparedlimb lymph nodes in the domestic pig and wild boar. Axillary lymph consists only of the first rib, located at the edge of the cranial ribs, with ratios of the thymus,separating them from the caudal deep cervical lymph nodes. At adult axillary lymph nodes of the first rib separates the tracheaventral axillary vein. At the domestic pig was observed one or two lymph nodes larger 2-3 cm each and 3-4 smaller(5-10 mm). The boar constantly missing small lymph accessories. A novel aspect was present in lymph ischiatic. Ischial lymph nodes in the domestic pig are reduced in number (1-2) and smaller 0,2-2 cm). They are found on the dorsal side of the sacro-tuberous ligament, gluteus medius muscle in the caudal gluteal vessels. The boar, in 50% of cases was observed unilaterally reduced lymph node and in 20% cases are missing on both sides. This was correlated with muscle development in the domestic pig hind. Superficial popliteal lymph has a length of 0,5-3 cmand was on hand accompanied by a lower lymph node. In 20% of cases at the boar was missing on one side. Subcutaneous fat is found in surface trench that separates muscles, biceps and semitendinosus gluteo, the caudal edge of the gastrocnemius muscle. Popliteal lymph deeply, is located near the affluence saphenous vein in the femoral caudal. Is located dorsal and deeper, in the interstices between the v

6 biceps and semitendinosus-gluteo, embedded in fat tissue. There were no differences between the two groups of animals. Chapter 9 named Appendiceal segments nerve morphology in wild boar and domestic swine includes observations on the three nerve plexuses serving members: brachial plexus, lumbar and sacral cranial.first we described the origin of plexuses, mentioning the pairs of spinal nerveswhich contribute to their forming.we described in detail the relationship of each muscle nerve formations and skin areas served by senzitve components. Both swine and boar autopodiu nerves are well represented. The forelimb is served by the dorsal common digital nerves that supply their own digital nerves. Participate in their formation especially nerve lateral and ulnar nerve. On the palm, the main plantar nerve is responsible for issuing the median nerve, to both species ulnar nerve with a lower contribution than the one on the dorsal. In case of limb dorsal digital nerves will come from superficial fibular nerve and palmar nerves come from the tibial nerve.distribution scheme is similar, the first common digital nerves being emitted that will provide the palmar digital nerves axial and abaxial own. Conclusions and recommendations are presented in a clear, concise and easy to understand. The descriptions are accompanied by 67 original photographs that facilitates their understanding. Were used 142 references, all cited in the thesis. vi

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