EXISTENCE AND NONEXISTENCE RESULTS FOR A NONLINEAR HEAT EQUATION


 Alan Wilkerson
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1 Sixth Mississippi State Conference on Differential Equations and Computational Simulations, Electronic Journal of Differential Equations, Conference 5 (7), pp ISSN: UL: or ftp ejde.math.txstate.edu (login: ftp) EXISTENCE AND NONEXISTENCE ESULTS FO A NONLINEA HEAT EQUATION CANAN CELIK Abstract. In this study, we consider the nonlinear heat equation u t(x, t) = u(x, t) + u(x, t) p in Ω (, T ), Bu(x, t) = on Ω (, T ), u(x, ) = u (x) in Ω, with Dirichlet and mixed boundary conditions, where Ω n is a smooth bounded domain and p = + /n is the critical exponent. For an initial condition u L, we prove the nonexistence of local solution in L for the mixed boundary condition. Our proof is based on comparison principle for Dirichlet and mixed boundary value problems. We also establish the global existence in L +ɛ to the Dirichlet problem, for any fixed ɛ > with u +ɛ sufficiently small.. Introduction In this paper we study the existence and nonexistence results for the initial and boundary value problems of the form u t (x, t) = u(x, t) + u(x, t) p u(x, t) in Ω (, T ), Bu(x, t) = on Ω (, T ), u(x, ) = u (x) in Ω, (.) where Ω n is a smooth bounded domain, B denotes the corresponding boundary condition and p is the critical exponent, which will be specified later. Throughout this paper we use the following definition for the solution. Definition.. A function u = u(x, t) is a mild solution of initial and boundary value problem (.) in Ω [, T ], T being a positive number, if and only if u C([, T ], L q (Ω)) satisfies the integral equation t u(x, t) = K(x, y, t)u (y)dy + K(x, y, t s) u(y, s) p u(y, s) dy ds, (.) Ω Ω Mathematics Subject Classification. 35K55, 35K5, 35K57, 35B33. Key words and phrases. Nonlinear heat equation; mixed boundary condition; global existence; critical exponent. c 7 Texas State University  San Marcos. Published February 8, 7. 5
2 5 C. CELIK EJDE/CONF/5 where u L q (Ω) and K denotes the heat kernel for the linear heat equation with Dirichlet boundary condition. It is well known that if the initial condition u L (Ω), there exists a unique solution of (.) on [, T max ). However the question of local existence and uniqueness was interesting when u / L (Ω); i.e., u L q (Ω) where q <. This type of initial and boundary value problem was studied by many authors. First Fujita [, 5] studied this problem for classical solutions and established the following results for the Cauchy problem u t (x, t) = u(x, t) + u p (x, t) in n (, T ), u(x, t) = u (x) on n, (.3) where u (x). (i) If n(p )/ <, no nonnegative global solution exists for any nontrivial initial data u L. That is, every positive solution to this initial value problem blows up in a finite time. (ii) If n(p )/ >, global solution do exist for small initial data. To be precise, for any k >, δ can be chosen such that problem (.3) has a global solution whenever u (x) δe k x. Later Hayakawa [8] showed that the critical case for the Cauchy problem (.3), that is n(p )/ =, also belongs to blow up case for n =,. After Hayakawa the same result was proved by Kobayashi, Sirao and Tanaka [9] for general n. Also Weissler [] obtained that for n(p )/ with p <, nonnegative L p solutions to the Cauchy problem blow up in L p norm in finite time. However in the case n(p )/ >, he obtained sufficient conditions for the initial data u which guarantee the existence of global solution. The initial and boundary value problem was considered by Weissler [3, ] who obtained some important local existence and uniqueness results in C([, T ], L q (Ω)). In [3], he considered the case q > n(p )/ and q > p and proved the local existence and uniqueness in C([, T ], L q (Ω)) for which the same argument works for q > n(p )/ and q = p. Later local existence in C([, T ], L q (Ω)) with q n(p )/ and q > or q > n(p )/ and q was proved in []. In the same study he also proved a uniqueness result in a smaller class which was improved in []. If we notice, while the applications of the abstract results in [3] and [] are given on a bounded domain, they work equally well on all of n. The first nonuniqueness result for this problem was given by HarauxWeissler in [7]. Further nonuniqueness results which were motivated by [7] came in [] and []. A unique solution to the initial and boundary value problem (.) in L p (, T ; L p ) was constructed by Giga [6]. In his work, the main relation between p and p was p = n ( r p ), p > r, provided that the initial data u L r with r = n(p )/ >. As we stated above, it is well known that if u L (Ω), there exists a unique solution defined on a maximal interval [,T max ) and Brezis and Cazenave [] considered the case if u / L (Ω); i.e., u L q (Ω) for some q <. And they studied two cases. (i) If q > n(p )/ (resp. q = n(p )/) and q (resp. q > ) with n, they obtained existence and uniqueness of a local solution in
3 EJDE6/CONF/5 EXISTENCE AND NONEXISTENCE ESULTS 53 C([, T ], L q (Ω)) which is a classical solution of the initial boundary value problem on Ω (, T ). (ii) If q < n(p )/, they showed that there exists no local solution in any reasonable sense for some initial data u L q (Ω). emark.. The quantity q = n(p )/ plays a critical role for this initial and boundary value problem. To see that q = n(p )/ is the critical exponent, we observe the following dilation argument. If v is the solution of v t = v xx + v p, v(x, ) = g(x), then u(x, t) = k s v(kx, k t) is the solution of u t = u xx + u p, u(x, ) = k s g(kx). By using the equation u t = u xx + u p with u(x, t) = k s v(kx, k t), we get k s+ v t = k s+ v xx + k sp v p which gives the condition s = /(p ). Also note that, u() q q = u q (x, )dx = k sq n v q q (y, )dy = v() q when s = n/q. So, combining these two conditions for s, we have q = n(p )/, which is the critical exponent. The question of existence and uniqueness of a local solution for the doubly critical case which is q = n(p )/ and q =, which was proposed by Brezis and Cazenave [], was wide open even for n =,(p = 3). In [3], we proved that for u = j= j e je (ej )x, Dirichlet problem has no nonnegative local solution in L (, ). Moreover we generalized the nonexistence result of local solution for ndimensional case with the critical exponent p = + n. More general nonlinearity was also considered for Dirichlet boundary value problem. This paper is organized as follows: In Section, we summarize the nonexistence results of local solution for both cauchy and the Dirichlet problems for doubly critical case q = n(p )/ and q =, first for one dimensional case and then ndimensional case. In Section 3, we consider the same problem with mixed boundary conditions; that means having u and the normal derivative of u in the boundary condition. We prove the nonexistence of local solution for the mixed boundary conditions by using the comparison argument for the kernels with Dirichlet and mixed boundary conditions. In Section, we give the sufficient conditions for q and the initial data u to guarantee the existence of the global solution to the Dirichlet problem. In particular, we prove the global existence in L +ɛ with u +ɛ sufficiently small and ɛ >, for the critical exponent p = 3.. Nonexistence of a Local Solution In the following two sections, we summarize the nonexistence of local solution for both cauchy and Dirichlet problems.
4 5 C. CELIK EJDE/CONF/5.. Nonexistence of Local Solutions for the Cauchy Problem. To motivate the proof of the nonexistence of local L solution for the Dirichlet problem, we first prove the nonexistence of local L solution for the Cauchy problem for the one dimensional case, u t (x, t) = u xx (x, t) + u 3 (x, t) in (, T ), u(x, t) = u (x) on, (.) for some u L (). First we choose a particular initial data u (x) = ke k x L () and observe the following result. After this observation, we prove in Theorem.. that the Cauchy problem has no local L solution for initial data of the form u = k c kke k x where c k will be determined later. We denote the solution of the Cauchy problem (.) by u c. For the Cauchy problem (.) with the initial data u (x) = ke k x L (), using that e (x y) t e ay dy = e ax +at, πt + at the linear solution is u L k c (x, t) = + k t e k x +k t. So the solution to the Cauchy problem (.) is t u c (x, t) = u L c (x, t) + K c (x, y, t s)(u c (y, s)) 3 dy ds, where the Cauchy kernel is Note that K c (x, y, t) = (u L c (y, s)) 3 = x y e t. πt k 3 ( + k s) 3k y e +k s 3/ and K c(x, y, t s)dx =. Since u L c (x, t) > and u c (x, t) > u L c (x, t), we have t u c (x, t) > K c (x, y, t s)(u L c (y, s)) 3 dy ds. Then for any δ >, u c L ( (,δ)) = > = = = δ δ t δ t δ t π 3 u c (x, t) dx dt δ t K c (x, y, t s)(u L c (y, s)) 3 dy ds dx dt (u L c (y, s)) 3 k 3 e 3k y +k s ( + k s) K c (x, y, t s)dx dy ds dt 3/ dy ds dt k ( + k ds dt = s) π δ 3 ln( + k t)dt.
5 EJDE6/CONF/5 EXISTENCE AND NONEXISTENCE ESULTS 55 We can use the above estimate to establish the following theorem for the Cauchy problem. Theorem.. For some initial data u L (), u, the Cauchy problem (.) has no nonnegative local mild solution in C([, δ], L ()) for all δ >. Proof. Let u = k c kke k x where c k will be determined later. The linear solution to the Cauchy problem (.) is u L c (x, t) = k c k k + k t e k x +k t. Note that (u L c (y, s)) 3 c 3 k k 3 3k y e ( + k +k s s) 3/. k Since the solution of the problem satisfies t u c (x, t) > K c (x, y, t s)(u L c (y, s)) 3 dy ds, we have that for any δ >, u c L ( (,δ)) = > = δ δ u c (x, t) dx dt t δ t δ t = k = k C k k δ t C K c (x, y, t s)(u L c (y, s)) 3 dy ds dx dt (u L c (y, s)) 3 c 3 k k3 ( + k s) c 3 k k ( + k ds dt s) δ C c3 k ln( + k t)dt δ δ/ c 3 k ln( + k t)dt K c (x, y, t s)dx dy ds dt 3k y e 3/ +k s dy ds dt C k δc 3 k ln( + k δ). Now we choose c k s such that (i) k c3 k δ ln( + k δ) = ; and (ii) k c k < so that u L. We will find a sequence {k j } j= such that c k only when k = k j. For k big enough, we have c 3 kδ ln( + k δ) c 3 k ln k. So if we set ck 3 ln k = (ln k) / for some k = k j as j ; that is, if we choose c k =, for k = k (ln k) / j, j =,,, condition (i) will be satisfied for all δ >.
6 56 C. CELIK EJDE/CONF/5 For (ii), we set = (ln k) / j Then for u (x) = which implies that k = e j j= j ej e (ej )x, the Cauchy problem (.) has no local solution in L. = k j, j =,,... Nonexistence of Local Solutions for the Dirichlet Problem. In this section we will prove that there is no local L solution to the one dimensional Dirichlet problem u t (x, t) = u xx (x, t) + u 3 (x, t) in (, ) (, T ) u(±, t) =, u(x, ) = u (x) in (, ), (.) for some initial data u L. First by using the lower solution argument with a cutoff function we prove some estimates for a family of particular initial data and then we will construct the initial data u L (, ) for which there is no local L solution to the Dirichlet problem (.). Throughout this section we denote the solution of the Dirichlet problem (.) by u d. Let u (x) = ke k x, then by Fourier series, the linear solution to the problem (.) is where K d (x, y, t) = u L d (x, t) = j= K d (x, y, t)ke k y dy e j π t sin jπ( + y is the Dirichlet kernel. Then the solution of (.) is u d (x, t) = u L d (x, t) + t + x ) sin jπ( ) K d (x, y, t s)u 3 d(y, s) dy ds. The difficulty for the Dirichlet problem is that we do not have a good explicit formula for the solution in a bounded domain as we have for the Cauchy problem. In the proof for the Cauchy problem, K c(x, y, t s)dx = is used to simplify the argument. For the Dirichlet problem we do not have that but we know that Ω K d(x, y, t)dx decays exponentially for t >. The idea behind the proof of the nonexistence of local solution for the Dirichlet problem is to use the nonexistence of local solution for the Cauchy problem (which was proved in the previous section). To do this, we first construct a cutoff function and estimate the Dirichlet kernel K d in terms of the Cauchy kernel K c. Then using this estimate we find a lower bound for the linear solution of the Dirichlet problem u L d in terms of the linear solution of the Cauchy problem ul c. Combining the estimates for K d and u L d, we can estimate u d L and obtain the nonexistence result of local solution for the Dirichlet problem. In the first lemma below, we estimate the Dirichlet kernel K d in terms of the Cauchy kernel K c by constructing a cutoff function in a concentrated domain.
7 EJDE6/CONF/5 EXISTENCE AND NONEXISTENCE ESULTS 57 Lemma.. For x y and x, K d (x, y, t) e t ( + (x y) + )K c (x, y, t). Proof. The crux of the proof of this lemma is to construct a cutoff function g so that the function w(x, y, t) = gk c (x, y, t) K d (x, y, t) will satisfy the following conditions: (i) L(w) where L(w) = w t w xx, (ii) w on the boundary x y = with x and at t =. Since L(K d ) =, we want w to satisfy L(w) = L(gK c K d ) = L(gK c ) = L(g)K c K c. g. x y Note that K c (x, y, t) = e t πt K c = implies (x y) t e x y t = πt (x y) K c. t So g must satisfy (x y) L(w) = L(g)K c + K c g ; t that is, (x y) g t g xx + g x t in the onedimensional case. To satisfy this inequality and to have zero on the boundary (i.e., when y = x ± ), we choose the cutoff function as g(x, y, t) = e αt( + (x y) ) + where α will be determined later. So we want (x y) g t g xx + g x t ( = α + (x y) + ) ( 6(x y) ) ( + (x y) ) 3 (x y) t( (x y) ). If x y 3, then g t g xx + (x y) t g x for any α. If x y < 3, we need to find α so that this expression will be negative. So, if we choose i.e., if α, then we have α 6(x y) (+(x y) ) 3 ( +(x y) + (x y) g t g xx + g x. t Set α =. Then the cutoff function is g(x, y, t) = e t( + (x y) ) +. So L(w) and (i) is satisfied. ) ;
8 58 C. CELIK EJDE/CONF/5 Now we show that condition (ii) will be satisfied by w with this cutoff function; i.e., we will show that w on the boundary and at t =. Since g(x, x±, t) =, w on the boundary x y = and x. To show that w at t =, it is sufficient to show that Since lim t x+ lim t x+ x w(x, y, t)h(y)dy = x w(x, y, t)h(y)dy for every h. x+ x Ch(x) h(x) (g(x, y, t)k c (x, y, t) K d (x, y, t))h(y)dy where g C, we have w at t =. Hence, by the maximum principle, (i) and (ii) imply that w inside the domain, which implies K d (x, y, t) e t ( + (x y) + )K c (x, y, t) when x y and x. In the following lemma we use the estimate for K d to get an estimate for u L d which is the linear solution of the Dirichlet problem. Lemma.3. For x, ul d (x, t) c e t u L c (x, t) with u d (x, ) = ke k x, where c is a uniform constant independent of k. Proof. To show this estimate for the linear solution of the Dirichlet problem, the main idea is to use the crucial estimate for the Dirichlet kernel in terms of the Cauchy kernel that we proved in Lemma.. The linear solution for the Dirichlet problem is u L d (x, t) = K d (x, y, t)ke k y dy. Using the estimate of Lemma.. for K d (x, y, t), we have u L d (x, t) = x+ x x+ K d (x, y, t)ke k y dy K d (x, y, t)ke k y dy (since x y ) e t ( x + (x y) + )K c (x, y, t)ke k y dy ce t K c (x, y, t)ke k y dy (since x implies ( + (x y) + ) c) = ce t e (x y) t πt ke k y dy
9 EJDE6/CONF/5 EXISTENCE AND NONEXISTENCE ESULTS 59 where u = kx +k t = ce = ce = ce x t e t k πt k x t t e + k x k t(+k t) k x t e +k t πt πt e xs kt ( +k t k t )s ds (where s = ky) k k +k ( t k kx )(s t +k t ) ds e k t u + k t u e u du +k t k t (s kx +k t ), u +k = t k t ( k kx ). The above expression is greater than or equal to k x ce t ke +k t π +k t k x ce t ke +k t π +k t c π e t u L c (x, t)c c e t u L c (x, t), +k t ) and u = u e u du if x <, u e u du if x +k t k t ( k where c = c c π, c = min(c, c ), u e u du c, and u e u du c. Now using the estimates in Lemmas. and.3, we prove that for some initial data u L there is no local solution to the Dirichlet problem (.) in L. Lemma.. For any fixed δ >, we have u d L ((,) (,δ)) = with u = k c kke k x where the c k s will be determined later. Proof. For the solution of the Dirichlet problem, for any fixed δ >, u d L ((,) (,δ)) = > > = δ u d (x, t) dx dt δ t δ t δ t Then using Lemma., we get K d (x, y, t s)dx K d (x, y, t s)(u L d (y, s)) 3 dy ds dx dt K d (x, y, t s)(u L d (y, s)) 3 dy ds dx dt (u L d (y, s)) 3 ce (t s) K c (x, y, t s)dx ce (t s) = ce (t s) π e (x y) (t s) dx π(t s) y (t s) y (t s) K d (x, y, t s) dx dy ds dt. e u du (where u = x y (t s) )
10 6 C. CELIK EJDE/CONF/5 ce (t s) π Ce (t s) y (t s) for some constant C. Using Lemma.3 for u L d (u L c (y, s)) 3 k e u du and the fact that c 3 k k3 e 3k y +k s ( + k s), 3/ we have u d L ((,) (,δ)) for some constant C. = δ t δ t δ t δ t δ t k = k C δ (u L d (y, s)) 3 K d (x, y, t s)dx dy ds dt (u L d (y, s)) 3 (Ce (t s) ) dy ds dt Ce (t s) (c e s u L c (y, s)) 3 dy ds dt Cc e t s Cc e t s C δ t (u L c (y, s)) 3 dy ds dt k c 3 k k + k ds dt s c3 k ln( + k t)dt, c 3 k k3 e 3k y +k s dy ds dt ( + k s) 3/ Now as we discussed for the Cauchy problem in previous section, we choose c k = which will imply that k = e j = k (ln k) / j, for j =,,. So for u (x) = j= j ej e (ej )x, using Lemmas.,.3 and. we can prove the following theorem. Theorem.5. For u = j= j e je (ej )x, the Dirichlet problem (.) has no nonnegative local mild solution in L (, ). We have also generalized this result to ndimensional Dirichlet problem which is u t (x, t) = u(x, t) + u(x, t) n u(x, t) in Ω (, T ), u(x, t) = on Ω (, T ), u(x, ) = u (x) in Ω, where Ω = (, ) (, ) n and obtained the following result. (.3)
11 EJDE6/CONF/5 EXISTENCE AND NONEXISTENCE ESULTS 6 Theorem.6. For u (x) = j= j e 6+8n nj n e (ej 6+8n n ) x L, the n  dimensional Dirichlet problem has no nonnegative local mild solution in L ((, ) (, )). We have also considered the general nonlinearity for Dirichlet boundary value problem in [3] and proved the following result. Corollary.7. The Dirichlet problem u t (x, t) = u(x, t) + f(u) in Ω (, T ), u(x, t) = on Ω (, T ), u(x, ) = u (x) in Ω, (.) where Ω n is any smooth bounded domain and f(u) u n +, has no nonnegative local mild solution for some u, in L. 3. Nonexistence of Local Solutions for the Mixed Boundary Condition In this section, we study the same problem with the mixed boundary conditions; i.e., considering the boundary conditions in terms of u and the normal derivative of u, which is denoted by u n. Let ũ be the solution of the onedimensional mixed boundary value problem, ũ t (x, t) = ũ xx (x, t) + ũ 3 (x, t) in (, ) (, T ), ũ (x, t) + βũ(x, t) = n x = ± in (, T ), ũ(x, ) = u in (, ) (3.) where β is a constant. First we prove the nonexistence of local solution for the onedimensional mixed boundary value problem (3.) and then we generalize this result to the n  dimensional case. The main idea of the proof is to use the comparison principle for the kernels of heat semigroups with Dirichlet and mixed boundary conditions. ecall that onedimensional Dirichlet problem is u t (x, t) = u xx (x, t) + u 3 (x, t) in (, ) (, T ), u(±, t) =, u(x, ) = u (x) in (, ). (3.) where u (x) = j= j e je (ej )x for which there is no local solution. Let K(t) and K(t) be the heat kernels on (, ) with Dirichlet and mixed boundary conditions respectively. Now we claim that K(t) K(t) on (, ). In fact, let u be any positive initial data, and let u and ũ be the solution to linear heat equation with Dirichlet and mixed boundary conditions respectively. Hence, (ũ u) n (ũ u) t = (ũ u) xx in (, ) (, T ), + β(ũ u) = u, x = ±, t (, T ), n (ũ u)(x, ) = x (, ), and by the maximum principle, we have ũ u; i.e., K(t) K(t) on (, ). (3.3)
12 6 C. CELIK EJDE/CONF/5 Now suppose for the same initial data u (x) = j= j e je (ej )x problem (3.) has a solution ũ C([.T ], L (, )), then ũ(t) = K(t)u + H(ũ)(t) K(t)u + H(ũ)(t), where H(u)(t) = t K(t s)u3 (s)ds and H(u)(t) = t K(t s)u 3 (s)ds. Let ũ(t) = u (t), and define by iteration, It follows by induction that u k+ (t) = K(t)u + H(u k )(t). K(t)u u k+ (t) u k (t). Thus, the u k (t) converge v(t) (by monotone convergence theorem) which must be a solution of the integral equation v(t) = K(t)u + H(v)(t), which is a contradiction that proves the following theorem for the one dimensional mixed boundary value problem. Theorem 3.. For u (x) = j= j e je (ej )x there is no local L solution to the onedimensional mixed boundary value problem (3.). Since we can generalize the nonexistence result of local solution to the n dimensional Dirichlet problem, we can also obtain the nonexistence of local solution for the ndimensional mixed boundary value problem by the similar comparison argument as above. Theorem 3.. For the ndimensional mixed boundary value problem, ũ t (x, t) = ũ(x, t) + ũ(x, t) n ũ(x, t) in (, T ) Ω, ũ n + βũ = on (, T ) Ω, ũ(x, ) = u (x) in Ω, (3.) 6+8n n ) x L, there is no non where Ω n and u (x) = j= negative local solution in L. j e 6+8n nj n e (ej In the previous sections we give the nonexistence results of local solution for some initial data u L for the Dirichlet and mixed boundary value problems. However in the next section, we establish the existence of global solution for some u L +ɛ sufficiently small.. Existence of a Global Solution for Small Initial Data In this section, we give sufficient conditions on q and u for the existence of global solution to the Dirichlet problem u t (x, t) = u xx (x, t) + u 3 (x, t) in (, ) (, T ) u(±, t) = in (, T ) u(x, ) = u in (, ). (.) where u L q (, ). Mainly we will prove that if the initial condition u L +ɛ for any fixed ɛ >, then the Dirichlet problem (.) has a global solution in L +ɛ for u +ɛ sufficiently small.
13 EJDE6/CONF/5 EXISTENCE AND NONEXISTENCE ESULTS 63 For notational simplicity, we will use the following form of the solution throughout this section; u(t) = e t u + t e (t s) u 3 (s)ds where e t u denotes the linear solution of problem (.). Before proving the global existence result, we give some interpolation inequalities for the linear solution of (.). emark.. Let < p <. Then it is easy to see that for all t, e t : L L with norm M ; i.e., e t φ φ, and e t : L L with norm M = e tγ where γ is the first (negative) eigenvalue of the Laplacian with vanishing Dirichlet boundary condition; i.e., e t φ e tγ φ. Now we recall the following interpolation theorem. Theorem. (Nirenberg []). Let T (t) be a continuous linear mapping of L p into L p with norm M and L q into L q with norm M. Then T (t) is a continuous mapping of L r into L r with the norm M M λ M λ where p r q and r = λ p + λ q. By this theorem, we conclude that e t : L p L p with the norm M M λ λ M with λ = p p. Hence e t φ p e tγ p p φ p for < p <. For p, we can get a similar estimate by the following interpolation argument. e t : L L with norm M = e tγ as above. Note that for all t, e t : L L with norm M by the maximum principle; i.e., e t φ φ. Then again by the interpolation theorem [] of Nirenberg, we have e t : L p L p with the norm M M λ M λ with λ = p ; i.e., e t φ p e tγ p φ p p [, ). First by the following lemma, we get the estimate on u(s) in terms of u +ɛ, which is a crucial estimate to prove the global existence theorem. Lemma.3. u(s) G(M, T ) u +ɛ s (+ɛ), where G(M, T ) : is an increasing function of M and T respectively when u(s) +ɛ M + on [, T ]. For the proof of the above lemma, we use the following local existence theorem by Brezis and Cazenave (Theorem in []). Theorem.. Assume q > n(p )/ (resp. q = n(p )/) and q (resp. q > ), n. Given any u L q, there exist a time T = T (u ) > and a unique function u C([, T ], L q ) with u() = u, which is a classical solution of (.). Moreover, we have smoothing effect and continuous dependence; namely, u v L q + t n/q u v L C u v L q.
14 6 C. CELIK EJDE/CONF/5 for all t (, T ] where T = min(t (u ), T (v )) and C can be estimated in terms of u L q and v L q. Proof of Lemma.3. By replacing q = + ɛ and p = 3 in this theorem, we get an L estimate for the solution u of problem (.), u(s) G(M, T ) u +ɛ s (+ɛ) 6+6ɛ c(m+) +3ɛ T +3ɛ where G(M, T ) = e 3ɛ and c = c (ɛ). Next we prove the following global existence theorem. Theorem.5. For any fixed ɛ >, there is a δ > such that u +ɛ δ implies that u(t) globally exists and u(t) +ɛ δ for t. Proof. Let us choose δ > such that +ɛ ɛ (G(δ, )δ) < γ and e +ɛ ɛ (G(δ,)δ) <. By the local existence theorem that is stated in Lemma.3, there exists T > such that u(t) exists on [, T ] and u(t) +ɛ δ for t [, T ]. Now we will prove the following claims to prove the global existence result. Claim. u(t) +ɛ < δ for t. Claim. u() +ɛ δ. Proof of Claim. Suppose Claim is not true. Then set T = min{t > u(t) +ɛ δ}. We have u( T ) +ɛ = δ and u(t) +ɛ < δ for all t < T with < T. Consequently, for any t [, T ], the emark. in this section indicates that there ɛ is a γ < (γ = γ +ɛ ) such that u(t) +ɛ e γt u +ɛ + e γt u +ɛ + e γt u +ɛ + t t t e (t s) u 3 (s) +ɛ ds e γ(t s) u(s) +ɛ u(s) ds e γ(t s) u(s) +ɛ Bs +ɛ ds. where B = (G(δ, T )) u +ɛ for notational simplicity. Then e γt u(t) +ɛ u +ɛ + B t e γs u(s) +ɛ s +ɛ ds := H(t), where, we denote the righthand side of the above inequality by H(t). Then H (t) = Be γt u(t) +ɛ t +ɛ BH(t)t +ɛ. Hence H (t) H(t) Bt +ɛ. Integrating from to t yields which implies ln H(t) H() + ɛ Bt ɛ +ɛ and H(t) H()e +ɛ ɛ Bt +ɛ ɛ, ɛ u(t) +ɛ e γt H(t) u +ɛ e γt e +ɛ ɛ Bt ɛ +ɛ. (.)
15 EJDE6/CONF/5 EXISTENCE AND NONEXISTENCE ESULTS 65 Note that for t [, T ] [, ], e γt e +ɛ ɛ Bt ɛ +ɛ e +ɛ ɛ B e +ɛ ɛ (G(δ,)) δ <, by the choice of δ. Then by (.), u( T ) +ɛ < δ which is contrary to the fact that u( T ) +ɛ = δ. So the proof of Claim is completed. Proof of Claim. After proving Claim, Claim follows immediately by the inequality (.) since +ɛ γ+ u() +ɛ δe ɛ B δ by the choice of δ. Finally, the existence of a global solution will follow by a simple induction argument. By Claim and, we can easily conclude that u(j) +ɛ δ for each j =,,.... Using u(j) as new initial data, we can solve the problem for t [j, j + ], and we get u(t) +ɛ δ for all t [j, j + ] by Claim. As a conclusion, we can state the generalized global existence result as follows. Corollary.6. For q >, problem (.) has a global solution in L q for all u L q with u q sufficiently small. eferences [] P. Baras, Nonunicte des solutions d une equation d evolution nonlineaire, Ann. Fac. Sci. Toulouse 5, (983), [] H. Brezis and T. Cazenave, A nonlinear heat equations with singular initial data, Journal D Analyse Mathematique, 68, (996), [3] C. Celik, Z. Zhou, No Local L Solution for a Nonlinear Heat Equation., Communications in PDE s, 8, No. & (3), [] H. Fujita, On the blowing up of the Cauchy problem for u t = u + u +α, J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokya, Sect. I, Vol. 3, (966), 9. [5] H. Fujita, On the nonexistence and nonuniqueness theorems for nonlinear parabolic equations, Proc. Symp. Pure Math., Part I, Amer. Math. Soc., 8, (968), [6] Y. Giga, Solutions for semilinear parabolic equations in L p and regularity of weak solutions of the NavierStokes system, J. Differential Equations, 6, (986), 86. [7] A. Haraux and F. B. Weissler, Nonuniqueness for a semilinear initial value problem, Indiana Univ. Math. J, 3, (98), [8] K. Hayakawa, On nonexistence of global solutions of some nonlinear parabolic equations, Proc. Japan Acad., 9, (973), [9] K. Kobayashi, T. Sirao, and H. Tanaka, On the growing up problem for semilinear heat equations, J. Math. Soc. Japan, 9, (977), 7. [] W. M. Ni and P. Sacks, Singular behavior in nonlinear parabolic equations, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc., 87, (985), [] Nirenberg, L. Functional Analysis, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York, [] F. B. Weissler, Existence and nonexistence of global solutions for a semilinear heat equation, Israel Journal of Math, 38, No , (98), 9. [3] F. B. Weissler, Semilinear evolution equations in Banach spaces, J. Funct. Anal., 3, (979), [] F. B. Weissler, Local existence and nonlexistence for semilinear parabolic equations in L p, Indiana Univ. Math. J., 9, (98), 79. Canan Celik Departmane to Mathematics, TOBB Economics and Technology University, Sögütözü cad. No Sögütözü, Ankara, Turkey address:
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