# Some Problems of Second-Order Rational Difference Equations with Quadratic Terms

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1 International Journal of Difference Equations ISSN , Volume 9, Number 1, pp (2014) Some Problems of Second-Order Rational Difference Equations with Quadratic Terms Aija Anisimova University of Latvia Department of Mathematics Riga, LV-1002, Latvia Inese Bula University of Latvia Department of Mathematics Riga, LV-1002, Latvia University of Latvia Institute of Mathematics and Computer Science Riga, LV-1048, Latvia Abstract We consider some special cases of second-order quadratic rational difference equations with nonnegative parameters and with arbitrary nonnegative initial conditions such that the denominator is always positive. The main goal is to confirm some conjectures and solve some open problems stated by A. M. Amleh, E. Camouzis and G. Ladas in the papers On the Dynamics of a Rational Difference Equations, Part 1 (Int. J. Difference Equ., 3(1), pp. 1 35, 2008), and On the Dynamics of a Rational Difference Equations, Part 2 (Int. J. Difference Equ., 3(2), pp , 2008) about the global stability character, the periodic nature, and the boundedness of solutions of second-order quadratic rational difference equations. AMS Subject Classifications: 39A10, 39A20, 39A30. Keywords: Boundedness, periodicity, rational difference equations, stability. Received November 30, 2013; Accepted February 16, 2014 Communicated by Delfim F. M. Torres

2 12 Aija Anisimova and Inese Bula 1 Introduction and Preliminaries We consider some special cases of a second-order quadratic rational difference equation x n+1 = α + βx nx n 1 + γx n 1 A + Bx n x n 1 + Cx n 1, n = 0, 1, 2,... (1.1) with nonnegative parameters and with arbitrary nonnegative initial conditions such that the denominator is always positive. Equation (1.1) arises from the system of rational difference equations in the plane: x n+1 = α 1 + γ 1 y n, y n y n+1 = α 2 + β 2 x n + γ 2 y n = 0, 1,... (1.2) n, A 2 + B 2 x n + C 2 y n Results have been obtained about 30 special cases of (1.1). Open problems and conjectures about this class of difference equations can be found in papers [1, 2]. In this paper the authors consider two equations which are denoted in the paper [2] as #24 and #25, pose ideas how to confirm some conjectures and solve given open problems about the local and global stability character, the periodic nature, and the boundedness of difference equation (1.1). Behavior of different types of rational difference equations with quadratic terms were discussed in [1 3, 6, 7, 15 17, 19]. For related work on other nonlinear difference equations, see [4, 5, 8, 9, 11 13, 18]. Now we recall some well-known results, which will be useful in the investigation of (1.1) and which are given in [1, 2, 5, 12, 14]. We consider a difference equation defined by the formula x n+1 = f(x n, x n 1 ), n = 0, 1,.... (1.3) Let I be some interval of real numbers and let f : I I I be a continuously differentiable function. Then, for every set of initial conditions x 1, x 0 I, the difference equation (1.3) has a unique solution {x n } n= 1. A point x I is called an equilibrium point of (1.3) if that is, x = f(x, x), x n = x, n 0 is a solution of (1.3) or, equivalently, x is a fixed point of f. Let p = f f (x, x) and q = (x, x) denote the partial derivatives of f(u, v) evaluated at the equilibrium x of (1.3). Then the u v equation y n+1 = py n + qy n 1, n = 0, 1,... (1.4)

3 Some Problems of Rational Difference Equations with Quadratic Terms 13 is called the linearized equation associated with (1.3) about the equilibrium point x and the equation λ 2 pλ q = 0 (1.5) is called a characteristic equation of (1.4) about x. The following two theorems provide criteria for stability/unstability of second-order difference equations. Theorem 1.1 (See [12]). 1. If both roots of quadratic equation (1.5) lie in the open unit disk λ < 1, then the equilibrium x of (1.3) is locally asymptotically stable. 2. If at least one of the roots of (1.5) has absolute value greater than one, then the equilibrium x of (1.3) is unstable. 3. A necessary and sufficient condition for both roots of (1.5) to lie in the open unit disk λ < 1, is p < 1 q < 2. (1.6) In the next theorem we use the following notation associated with a function f(z 1, z 2 ), which is monotonic in both arguments. For each pair of numbers (m, M) and for each i {1, 2}, we define { M, if f is increasing in zi M i (m, M) = m, if f is decreasing in z i and m i (m, M) = M i (M, m). Theorem 1.2 ( M & m Theorem [5, 12]). Let [a, b] be a closed and bounded interval of real numbers and let f C([a, b] 2, [a, b]) satisfy the following conditions: 1. f(z 1, z 2 ) is monotonic in each of its arguments. 2. If (m,m) is a solution of the system { M = f(m1 (m, M), M 2 (m, M)) m = f(m 1 (m, M), m 2 (m, M)), then M = m. Then the difference equation (1.3) has a unique equilibrium point x [a, b] and every solution of (1.3), with initial conditions in [a, b], converges to x. A solution {x n } n= 1 of (1.3) is said to be periodic with period p if x n+p = x n for all n 1. (1.7) A solution {x n } n= 1 of (1.3) is said to be periodic with prime period p, or a p-cycle, if it is periodic with period p and p is the least positive integer for which (1.7) holds. In reference [14] the following result is proved.

4 14 Aija Anisimova and Inese Bula Theorem 1.3 (See [14]). Let [a, b] be an interval of real numbers and assume that f : [a, b] [a, b] [a, b] is a continuous function satisfying the following properties: 1. f(x, y) is nonincreasing in x [a, b] for each y [a, b], f(x, y) is nondecreasing in y [a, b] for each x [a, b]. 2. The difference equation (1.3) has no solutions of prime period two in [a, b]. Then (1.3) has a unique equilibrium x [a, b] and every solution of (1.3) converges to x. 2 Equation #25 One special case of the second-order rational quadratic difference equation (1.1) is x n+1 = α + γx n Bx n x n 1 + x n 1, n = 0, 1, 2,.... (2.1) Equation (2.1) has a unique equilibrium x, where x is a positive solution of the cubic equation Bx 3 + x 2 + (1 γ)x α = 0. (2.2) It is easy to show that the following lemma holds for the difference equation (2.1). Lemma 2.1. two. 1. Difference equation (2.1) has no positive solutions of prime period 2. Every positive solution of (2.1) is bounded above and below by positive constants 3. The function α 1 + B(α + γ) 2 + (α + γ) x n+1 < α + γ, n = 3, 4,.... (2.3) f(z 1, z 2 ) = α + γz Bz 1 z 2 + z 2, (2.4) which is associated with (2.1), is decreasing in z 1 and decreasing in z 2 when γ α. (2.5) Lemma 2.1 will be useful for the investigation in this section. In paper [2], a conjecture about the global asymptotically stability is posed: Conjecture 2.2 (See [12]). Every positive solution of (2.1) has a finite limit.

5 Some Problems of Rational Difference Equations with Quadratic Terms 15 According to Lemma 2.1, Theorem 1.3 does not solve Conjecture 2.2. Some results about the stability can be obtained by using Theorem 1.2, that is, the fact that if (m, M) is a solution of system, namely, α + γm M = then m = M when m = 1 + Bm 2 + m α + γm 1 + BM 2 + M, (2.6) (αb 1 γ) 2 4B(1 + γ) < 0. (2.7) Summarizing the above mentioned conditions, we have the following result: Theorem 2.3. Assume that the inequalities γ α and (αb 1 γ) 2 4B(1 + γ) < 0 hold. Then the positive solution of (2.1) has a finite limit. Proof. This proof is based on Theorem 1.2. Every solution of (2.1) is bounded (follows from Lemma 2.1) and [ ] α [a, b] := 1 + B(α + γ) 2 + (α + γ), α + γ α + γz 2 z 1, z 2 [a, b]: the function f(z 1, z 2 ) = is monotonically decreasing 1 + Bz 1 z 2 + z 2 in z 1 and in z 2, if γ α. (m, M) is a solution of system (2.6) if (2.7) holds. Since x 1, x 0 [0, + [ inequality (2.3) holds, the solution of (2.1) has a finite limit for every pair of positive initial conditions. This concludes the proof. 3 Equation #24 Let us consider a difference equation in the form x n+1 = α + βx n x n Bx n x n 1 + x n 1, n = 0, 1, 2,.... (3.1) In the above mentioned articles, no results about equation (3.1) are given. However, the following conjecture is posed. Conjecture 3.1 (See [12]). Every positive solution of (3.1) has a finite limit. We begin by proving the following lemma. Lemma Difference equation (3.1) has a unique positive equilibrium point x. 2. If β > 1, then α < x < β 1 B or β 1 B < x < α or α = x = β 1 B.

6 16 Aija Anisimova and Inese Bula 3. If 0 < β < 1, then x < α is not an equilibrium. Proof. The equilibrium equation of (3.1), can be considered as two curves with behavior Bx 3 + (1 β)x 2 + x α = 0, (3.2) Bx 2 + (1 β)x = α } {{ } x 1. (3.3) } {{ } a parabola a hyperbola Equation (3.1) has a unique positive equilibrium point x, which can be obtained as an intersection point of these two curves (see Figures 3.1 and 3.2). From Figures 3.1 and y Β 1 0 Α B x 0 x Β 1 2 B ; Β B Figure 3.1: The equilibrium of (3.1), β > 1 y Β 1 B 0 x 0 Α x Β 1 2 B ; Β B Figure 3.2: The equilibrium of (3.1), 0 < β < 1 3.2, we obtain the required conclusion.

7 Some Problems of Rational Difference Equations with Quadratic Terms 17 Next lemma describes the behavior of the solutions of the difference equation (3.1). Lemma 3.3. two. 1. Difference equation (3.1) has no positive solutions of prime period 2. Every positive solution of (3.1) is bounded above and below by positive constants: 3. The function αb B + (αb + β) 2 + (αb + β) x n+1 αb + β, n = 3, 4, 5,.... (3.4) B f(z 1, z 2 ) = α + βz 1z Bz 1 z 2 + z 2, (3.5) which is associated with (3.1), is decreasing in z 1 when β(b + β) + αb(β B) < 0 (3.6) and decreasing in z 2 when β αb. (3.7) According to Lemma 3.3, Theorem 1.3 does not solve Conjecture 3.1. By using the M & m theorem, that is, the fact that if (m, M) is a solution of system, namely, then m = M when M = m = α + βm2 1 + Bm 2 + m α + βm BM 2 + M, (3.8) (αb 1 β) 2 4(B + β + β 2 )(1 + αβ) < 0, (3.9) we can finally state the main result of this section for the difference equation (3.1): Theorem 3.4. Assume that the following inequalities hold: β(b + β) + αb(β B) < 0, β αb, (αb 1 β) 2 4(B + β + β 2 )(1 + αβ) < 0. Then the positive solution of (3.1) is globally asymptotically stable. Conditions of Theorem 3.4 do not form an empty set of parameters. For example, β = 2, α = 2, and B = 4 satisfy Theorem 3.4 (see Figure 3.3).

8 18 Aija Anisimova and Inese Bula x n n Figure 3.3: Solution of (3.1) converges to the unique positive equilibrium x 0.77 for values β = 2, α = 2, B = 4 4 Linearization Technique In [15] Kulenović and Mehuljić proved that the unique positive equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable for five special cases of (1.1). Namely, x n+1 = α 1 + x n x n 1, x n+1 = α + x nx n 1 A + x n x n 1, x n+1 = α + x n 1 A + x n x n 1, x n+1 = α + βx nx n 1 + x n 1 x n x n 1, x n+1 = α (1 + x n )x n 1 n = 0, 1,.... Theorem 4.1 (See [10, 15]). Let I be some interval of real numbers and let f C [I I, I]. Consider the difference equation x n+1 = f(x n, x n 1,..., x n k ), n = 0, 1,..., (4.1) where f is a real function in all variables. Let j {1, 2,...}. Suppose that on some interval I R equation (4.1) has the linearization x n+j = m i=1 j where the nonnegative functions g i : I k+j R are such that Assume that there exists A > 0 such that g 1 j A, n = 0, 1,.... g i x n i, (4.2) m i=j 1 g i = 1 is satisfied. If x j 1,..., x k I, then lim x n = L I. n

9 Some Problems of Rational Difference Equations with Quadratic Terms 19 The linearization for equation (2.1) can be written in the form 1 + x n γ x n+1 x n+2 = x n+1 + x n Bx n+1 x n + x } {{ n 1 + Bx } n+1 x n + x } {{ n } g 1 g 0 + Bx n+1x n + x n+1 γ x n Bx n+1 x n + x } {{ n } g 1 (4.3) We can create a linearization such that m i=j 1 g i = g 1 +g 0 +g 1 = 1, but we cannot show that there exists A > 0 such that g 1, g 0, g 1 A. We can write a similar linearization for (3.1) in the form x n+2 = 1 + x n + βx n Bx n+1 x n + x n } {{ } g 1 x n+1 + βx n+1 x n+1 βx n Bx n+1 x n + x n } {{ } g 0 x n + + Bx n+1x n + x n+1 βx n+1 x n Bx n+1 x n + x } {{ n } g 1 (4.4) We cannot show that g 0 0. With the linearization technique, it can be obtained different expressions of g 1, g 0, g 1. We have considered several cases, but they do not give a positive result. Acknowledgements This research was partially supported by the Latvian Council for Science through the research project 345/2012. References [1] A.M. Amleh, E. Camouzis, and G. Ladas. On the dynamics of a rational difference equations, part 1. Int. J. Difference Equ., 3(1):1 35, [2] A.M. Amleh, E. Camouzis, and G. Ladas. On the dynamics of a rational difference equations, part 2. Int. J. Difference Equ., 3(2): , [3] I. Bajo and E. Liz. Global behaviour of second-order nonlinear difference equation. J. Difference Equ. Appl., 17(10): , 2011.

10 20 Aija Anisimova and Inese Bula [4] F. Balibrea and A. Cascales. Eventually positive solutions in rational difference equations. Comput. Math. Appl., 64: , [5] E. Camouzis and G. Ladas. Advances in Discrete Mathematics and Applications, Volume 5, Dynamics of Third - Order Rational Difference Equations with Open Problems and Conjectures. Chapman & Hall/CRC, [6] E. Camouzis and G. Ladas. Global results on rational systems in the plane, part 1. J. Difference Equ. Appl., 16, [7] M. Dehghan, C.M. Kent, R. Mazrooei-Sebdanti, N.L. Ortiz, and H. Sedaghat. Dynamics of rational difference equations containing quadratic terms. J. Difference Equ. Appl., 14(2): , [8] E. Drymonis, Y. Kostrov, and Z. Kudlak. On rational difference equations with nonnegative periodic coefficients. Int. J. Difference Equ., 7(1):19 34, [9] L.-X. Hu, W.-T. Li, and S. Stević. Global asymptotic stability of a second order rational difference equation. J. Difference Equ. Appl., 14(8): , [10] E.J. Janowski, M.R.S. Kulenović, and E. Silić. Periodic solutions of linearizable difference equations. Int. J. Difference Equ., 6(2): , [11] W.A. Kosmala, M.R.S. Kulenović, G. Ladas, and C.T. Teixeira. On the recursive sequence y n+1 = p + y n 1. J. Math. Anal. Appl., 251: , qy n + y n 1 [12] M.R.S Kulenović and G. Ladas. Dynamics of Second Order Rational Difference Equations: with open problems and conjectures. Chapman & Hall/CRC, [13] M.R.S. Kulenović, G. Ladas, L.F. Martins, and I.W. Rodrigues. The dynamics of α + βx n x n+1 = : facts and conjectures. Comput. Math. Appl., 45((6- A + Bx n + Cx n 1 9)): , [14] M.R.S. Kulenović, G. Ladas, and W. Sizer. On the recursive sequence y n+1 = αy n + βy n 1 γy n + cy n 1. Math. Sci. Res. Hot-Line., 2(5):1 16, [15] M.R.S. Kulenović and M. Mehuljić. Global behavior of some rational second order difference equations. Int. J. Difference Equ., 7(2): , [16] R. Mazrooei-Sebdanti. Chaos in rational systems in the plane containing quadratic terms. Commun. Nonlinear Sci. Numer. Simulat., 17: , [17] H. Sedaghat. Global behaviours of rational difference equations of orders two and three with quadratic terms. J. Difference Equ. Appl., 15(3): , 2009.

11 Some Problems of Rational Difference Equations with Quadratic Terms 21 [18] S. Stević. On the difference equation x n+1 = α + x n 1. Comput. Math. Appl., 56: , [19] L. Xianyi and Z. Deming. Global asymptotic stability in a rational equation. J. Difference Equ. Appl., 9(9): , x n

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