Multiple positive solutions of a nonlinear fourth order periodic boundary value problem

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1 ANNALES POLONICI MATHEMATICI LXIX.3(1998) Multiple positive solutions of a nonlinear fourth order periodic boundary value problem by Lingbin Kong (Anda) and Daqing Jiang (Changchun) Abstract.Thefourthorderperiodicboundaryvalueproblemu (4) m 4 u+f(t,u)=0, 0<t<2π,withu (i) (0)=u (i) (2π),i=0,1,2,3,isstudiedbyusingthefixedpointindex ofmappingsincones,wherefisanonnegativecontinuousfunctionand0<m<1.under suitableconditionsonf,itisprovedthattheproblemhasatleasttwopositivesolutions ifm (0,M),whereMisthesmallestpositiverootoftheequationtanmπ= tanhmπ, whichtakesthevalue withanerrorof± Introduction. This paper deals with the fourth order periodic boundary value problem { u (1.1) (4) m 4 u + F(t,u) = 0, 0 < t < 2π, u (i) (0) = u (i) (2π), i = 0,1,2,3, where 0 < m < 1 and F : [0,2π] [0, ) [0, ) is a nonnegative continuous function. Recently, the periodic boundary value problems have been studied extensively (see [1 2, 4 7] and references therein). In [1], A. Cabada studied a fourth order periodic boundary value problem similar to (1.1), using a generalized method of upper and lower solutions and developing the monotone iterative technique in the presence of upper and lower solutions, but he did not study the multiplicity of the solutions. The purpose of this paper is to study the existence of multiple positive solutions to the problem (1.1) by using the fixed point index of mappings in cones. Our method is different from [1] and yields a multiplicity result for positive solutions. The following hypotheses are adopted in this paper, depending on various circumstances: 1991 Mathematics Subject Classification: 34B10, 34B15, 34C25. Key words and phrases: nonlinear periodic boundary value problem, multiple positive solutions, cone, fixed point index. [265]

2 266 L.B.KongandD.Q.Jiang (H1) There exists a p > 0 such that 0 u p implies F(t,u) < λp, where 1 (1.2) λ = 2πG(π,m), G(π,m) = 1 ( 1 4m 3 sinhmπ + 1 ). sin mπ (H2) There exists a p > 0 such that σp u p implies F(t,u) > (λ/σ)p, where (1.3) σ = (e2mπ 1)cos mπ + (e 2mπ + 1)sin mπ e 2mπ + 2e mπ. sin mπ 1 We call a function u(t) a positive solution of (1.1) if it satisfies: (1) u C 3 [0,2π] C 4 (0,2π), u (i) (0) = u (i) (2π), i = 0,1,2,3, and u(t) > 0 for all t (0,2π), and (2) the equality u (4) m 4 u = F(t,u) holds for all t (0,2π). The main result of this paper is as follows. Theorem 1. If m (0,M), then the problem (1.1) has at least two positive solutions u 1 and u 2 satisfying 0 < u 1 < p < u 2 provided that (I) the condition (H1) holds and lim min F(t,u) > λ u 0 u σ 2, lim u (II) the condition (H2) holds and lim max F(t,u) < λ, lim u 0 u u min max F(t,u) u F(t,u) u > λ σ 2, or < λ, where M is the smallest positive root of the equation tan mπ = tanh mπ, and λ is given by (1.2). The following theorem will be used in our proof (see [3]). Theorem 2. Let E be a Banach space, and K E a cone in E. For p > 0, define K p = {u K : u p}. Assume that Φ : K p K is a compact map such that Φu u for u K p = {u K : u = p}. (i) If u Φu for u K p, then i(φ,k p,k) = 0. (ii) If u Φu for u K p, then i(φ,k p,k) = Proof of Theorem 1. As shown in [1], problem (1.1) is equivalent to the integral equation (2.1) u(t) = G(t,s,m)F(s,u(s))ds

3 where (2.2) and (2.3) (2.4) A nonlinear periodic BVP 267 G(t,s,m) = G( t s,m) f(t s) + g(t s) 4m = 3 (e mπ e mπ ) 2 (1 cos 2mπ), 0 s t 2π, f(2π + t s) + g(2π + t s) 4m 3 (e mπ e mπ ) 2 (1 cos 2mπ), 0 t s 2π, f(t) = (e mπ e mπ ) 2 (sin mt + sinm(2π t)), g(t) = (e mt e mt + e m(2π t) e m(2π t) )(1 cos 2mπ). Lemma 1. If m (0,1), then the function G(t,m) in the interval [0,2π] attains its minimum for t = 0 and its maximum for t = π. P r o o f. Let w(t) = f(t) + g(t). Since w(2π t) = w(t), it suffices to consider the function w in the interval [0,π]. If m (0,1/2], then by a direct computation, we get w (4) (t) > 0 in [0,π] and w (π) = 0, and hence w (t) 0 in [0,π]. Thus, w (t) is a concave function in [0,π]. Moreover, since w (0) = 0 and w (π) = 0, we have w (t) 0 in [0,π]. Therefore, w(t) is nondecreasing in [0,π]. In [1] it is proved that, if m (1/2,1), then the unique root of f in [0,π] is 2m 1 2m π, and w(t) is nondecreasing in [ 0, 2m 1 2m π]. We claim that, if m (1/2,1), then w(t) is also nondecreasing in [ 2m 1 2m π,π]. In fact, it is not difficult to show that w (4) (t) > 0 in [ 2m 1 2m π,π] and w (π) = 0, so w (t) 0 in [ 2m 1 2m π,π], and hence w (t) is concave in [ 2m 1 2m π,π]. Moreover, since w ( 2m 1 [ 2m π) > 0 and w (π) = 0, we have w (t) 0 in 2m 1 2m π,π]. This shows our claim. To sum up, the function w(t) attains its minimum in [0,2π] at t = 0 and its maximum at t = π, and so does G(t,m). The proof is complete. By Lemma 1, the greatest value of m for which G(t,m) is positive in [0,2π] will be the smallest positive zero of the expression w(0) = (e 2mπ e 2mπ )(1 cos 2mπ) + (e mπ e mπ ) 2 sin2mπ. This expression is zero if and only if either m N or (2.5) tan mπ = tanh mπ. The smallest positive root of (2.5), which we denote by M, takes a value of with an error of ±10 7. This is the unique root in (0,1)(see [1]). Let m (0,M) (0,1). Then G(0,m) > 0. Define the mapping Φ : C[0,2π] C[0,2π] by (2.6) (Φu)(t) := G(t,s,m)F(s,u(s))ds.

4 268 L.B.KongandD.Q.Jiang It is obvious that Φ is completely continuous. We define a cone in the Banach space C[0,2π] by K := {u C[0,2π] : u(t) 0 for all t and where u = sup u(t) and σ is given by (1.3). Lemma 2. Φ(K) K. P r o o f. Lemma 1 implies and hence for u K we have min (Φu)(t) = min σ = G(0,m) G(π,m) G(t,s,m) G(π,m) 1, G(t,s,m)F(s,u(s))ds min u(t) σ u }, σ G(π,m)F(s,u(s))ds This shows that Φ(K) K. σ max G(t,s,m)F(s,u(s))ds = σ Φu. Now we prove the first part of Theorem 1. Since lim min F(t,u) > λ u 0 u σ 2, there exists a 0 < r < p such that F(t,u) > (λ/σ 2 )u for 0 u r. For u K r = {u K : u = r}, we have Φu = max G(t,s,m)F(s,u(s))ds > λ σ G(π,m) 2πλG(π,m) u = u, i.e. Φu > u for u K r, and hence Theorem 2 implies (2.7) i(φ,k r,k) = 0. u(s) ds In much the same way, we may prove that there exists an R > p such that Φu > u for u K R by using lim u min F(t,u)/u > λ/σ 2. Hence Theorem 2 again implies (2.8) i(φ,k R,K) = 0.

5 A nonlinear periodic BVP 269 On the other hand, by (H1), for u K p we have Φu = max G(t,s,m)F(s,u(s))ds G(π,m) < 2πλpG(π,m) = u, i.e. Φu < u for u K p. It follows from Theorem 2 that (2.9) i(φ,k p,k) = 1. F(s,u(s))ds Now, the additivity of the fixed point index and (2.7) (2.9) together imply i(φ,k p \ K r,k) = 1, i(φ,k R \ K p,k) = 1. Consequently, Φ has a fixed point u 1 in K p \ K r, and a fixed point u 2 in K R \ K p. Both are positive solutions of the problem (1.1). It is obvious that 0 < u 1 < p < u 2. This completes the proof of the first part. We now prove the second part of Theorem 1. Since lim max F(t,u) u 0 u < λ, there exists a 0 < r < p such that F(t,u) < λu for 0 u r. For u K r, we have Φu = max G(t,s,m)F(s,u(s))ds G(π,m) < 2πλG(π,m) u = u. F(s,u(s))ds This shows that Φu < u for u K r, and hence Theorem 2 implies (2.10) i(φ,k r,k) = 1. Similarly, we may prove that there exists R > p such that Φu < u for u K R by using lim u max F(t,u)/u < λ. Hence Theorem 2 again implies (2.11) i(φ,k R,K) = 1. In addition, since min u(t) σ u = σp for u K p, using (H2) we have, for such u, Φu = max > 2πλpG(π,m) = u, G(t,s,m)F(s,u(s))ds σg(π,m) F(s,u(s))ds i.e. Φu > u for u K p. Thus, Theorem 2 implies (2.12) i(φ,k p,k) = 0.

6 270 L.B.KongandD.Q.Jiang As before, (2.10) (2.12) show that Φ has two positive fixed points, which means that the problem (1.1) has two positive solutions. The proof is complete. References [1] A.Cabada,Themethodofloweranduppersolutionsforsecond,third,fourthand higher order boundary value problems, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 185(1994), [2] A.CabadaandJ.J.Nieto,Ageneralizationofthemonotoneiterativetechniquefor nonlinear second-order periodic boundary value problems, ibid. 151(1990), [3] L.H.Erbe,S.C.HuandH.Y.Wang,Multiplepositivesolutionsofsomeboundary value problems, ibid. 184(1994), [4] W.J.GaoandJ.Y.Wang,Onanonlinearsecondorderperiodicboundaryvalue problem with Carathéodory functions, Ann. Polon. Math. 62(1995), [5] D.Q.JiangandJ.Y.Wang,Ageneralizedperiodicboundaryvalueproblemfor the one-dimensional p-laplacian, ibid. 65(1997), [6] V.Šeda,J.J.NietoandM.Gera,Periodicboundaryvalueproblemsfornonlinear higher order ordinary differential equations, Appl. Math. Comput. 48(1992), [7] M.X.Wang,A.CabadaandJ.J.Nieto,Monotonemethodfornonlinearsecond order periodic boundary value problems with Carathéodory functions, Ann. Polon. Math. 58(1993), Department of Mathematics Daqing Petroleum Institute Anda , Heilongjiang, P.R. China Department of Mathematics Northeast Normal University Changchun , P.R. China Reçu par la Rédaction le Révisé le

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