1 National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Explorer Schools Pre-Algebra Unit Lesson 2 Student Workbook Solar System Math Comparing Mass, Gravity, Composition, & Density What interval of values for the mass of a planet or moon has surface conditions suitable for human exploration?
2 PRE-LESSON Engage Explore Explain Evaluate Extend Pre-Lesson Activity Make Observations! 1. Without touching them, look at the three containers and notice their similarities and differences. List your observations below: 2. Now observe the containers more closely by touching them and moving them, but do not open them. Write your new observations below: 3. Measure the weight of each of the three containers. Be sure to record your unit of measurement. Container A Container B Container C 4. Using a single finger, try moving each container one at a time. Record which container is easiest and which is hardest to move. Easiest to move In between Hardest to move 5. Imagine you are on a spacecraft orbiting Earth with the same containers. If you had to move these containers with just one finger, which container (if any) would be the most difficult to move and which would be the easiest? Easiest to move In between Hardest to move 2
3 PRE-LESSON Engage Explore Explain Evaluate Extend Mass vs. Weight MASS is the amount of stuff (MATTER) in an object. WEIGHT is a measurement of the force of gravity on the mass of an object. 6. Would the weight of these three containers change in space? Yes, because No, because 7. Would the mass of these three containers change in space? Yes, because No, because Draw Conclusions! 8. Objects that have the same size and shape may weigh different amounts and have different masses based on their. 9. An object s weight will ( change / stay the same ) in space and on other planets, and its mass will ( change / stay the same ) in space and on other planets. 10. Objects of greater mass are ( easier / harder ) to move than objects of lesser mass. 11. Statement 10 would be ( true / false ) in space and on other planets and moons. Make a Guess! 12. Based on the observations you have made and the conclusions you have drawn, guess the composition (or content) of each container. Container A Container B Container C 3
4 Pre-Lesson ENGAGE Explore Explain Evaluate Extend Planetary Mass and Human Exploration Before you begin gathering data about the planets, you should make a hypothesis (or educated guess) as to which planets or moons have a mass that will support human exploration. Use the following questions to help you formulate your hypothesis. 4
5 Pre-Lesson ENGAGE Explore Explain Evaluate Extend Minimum and Maximum Values Imagine you are in Chicago in January. During one day, you check the outside temperature each hour between 7am and 7pm. The temperature readings in degrees Fahrenheit are: 6º, 5º, 7º, 10º, 11º, 11º, 14º, 16º, 18º, 20º, 16º, 12º, 10º 1. What is the minimum (least) temperature reading? Why? minimum reading: º 2. What is the maximum (greatest) temperature reading? Why? maximum reading: º 3. Based on the minimum and maximum temperatures, write a number interval that contains all of the temperature readings. x 4. Create a number line showing your interval of values. Remember to label your line in uniform (equal) segments. 5
6 Pre-Lesson ENGAGE Explore Explain Evaluate Extend Circles and Spheres Think about the differences and similarities between circles and spheres, and then answer the questions below. 1. List three objects that are spheres. 2. Draw two lines: one line to indicate the diameter of the circle and one line to indicate the diameter of the sphere. Circle Sphere 3. Draw two lines: one line to indicate the circumference of the circle and one line to indicate the circumference of the sphere. Circle Sphere 4. A great circle is a circle on the surface of a sphere that divides the sphere into two equal hemispheres. Great circles have the same as the sphere. 5. ALL lines of are great circles. 6. ONE line of is a great circle. It is called. 6
7 Pre-Lesson Engage EXPLORE Explain Evaluate Extend Lesson 2 Planet Data Sheet Inner Planets Planet Mercury Venus Earth Mars Diameter in km Circumference in km Mass in kg Density in kg/m 3 Gravity in m/s 2 Composition (rocky, frozen, gaseous, etc) Surface flyby description 7
8 Pre-Lesson Engage EXPLORE Explain Evaluate Extend Lesson 2 Planet Data Sheet Outer Planets Planet Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Diameter in km Circumference in km Mass in kg Density in kg/m 3 Gravity in m/s 2 Composition (rocky, frozen, gaseous, etc) Surface flyby description 8
9 Pre-Lesson Engage EXPLORE Explain Evaluate Extend Lesson 2 Planet Data Sheet Moons Planet The Moon Titan Io Europa Triton Diameter in km Circumference in km Mass in kg Density in kg/m 3 Gravity in m/s 2 Composition (rocky, frozen, gaseous, etc) Surface flyby description Parent Planet 9
10 Pre-Lesson Engage EXPLORE Explain Evaluate Extend Scale Model: Mass Calculate the mass of each planet and moon, and then determine the number of cotton balls that will be needed for each planet (and moon) in the scale model. Planet / Moon Mass in kg x Mass in scientific notation (kg) Number of cotton balls based on Earth s mass Mercury 33.0 x kg Venus 487 x kg Earth 597 x kg 5.97 x kg 1.0 cotton ball Mars 64.2 x kg Jupiter 190,000 x kg Saturn 56,800 x kg Uranus 8,680 x kg Neptune 10,200 x kg Pluto 1.25 x kg Moon 7.35 x kg Titan 13.5 x kg Io 8.93 x kg Europa 4.80 x kg Triton 2.14 x kg 10
11 Pre-Lesson Engage EXPLORE Explain Evaluate Extend Scale Model: Circumference Calculate the scale circumference of each planet (and moon) based on Pluto s scale circumference being equal to 1 centimeter. Planet / Moon Diameter in km Circumference in km Scale circumference in cm Mercury 4,878 km 15,329 km Venus 12,104 km 38,025 km Earth 12,755 km 40,075 km Mars 6,790 km 21,344 km Jupiter 142,796 km 449,179 km Saturn 120,660 km 378,675 km Uranus 51,118 km 160,592 km Neptune 49,528 km 155,597 km Pluto 2,300 km 7,232 km 1.0 cm Moon 3,476 km 10,916 km Titan 5,150 km 16,171 km Io 3,630 km 11,398 km Europa 3,138 km 9,583 km Triton 2,700 km 8,748 km 11
12 Pre-Lesson Engage EXPLORE Explain Evaluate Extend Scale Model: Observations Quietly walk around the room and observe the scale model(s) that you and your classmates created. Gently use your hands to feel the differences in the models of the planets. Read the information on the cards. What do you notice or wonder about: the relationship between how the planets feel and their compositionf? the relationship between how the planets feel and their mass? the relationship between how the planets feel and their gravity? What else do you notice or wonder? Write your observations and questions in the spaces below. I Notice I Wonder Based on what you have observed and learned from the scale model and the information on the cards, which planets do you think would be best for humans to visit? Why? 12
13 Pre-Lesson Engage EXPLORE Explain Evaluate Extend Volume and Density If you know the volume and mass of an object, then you can calculate its density. Follow the steps below to first calculate the volume of each planet and then to calculate each planet s density. Note: In this exercise, we will assume that each planet is a perfect sphere. Step 1: Refer to the Lesson 2 Planet Data Sheets to find a planet s diameter in km. Step 2: Divide the diameter by 2 to find a planet s radius in km. Step 3: Convert kilometers to meters using a unit ratio. Step 4: Solve for the volume of a planet using the formula: volume = 4 π r 3 Step 5: Solve for the density of a planet using the formula: 3 density = mass in kg volume in m 3 Planet (diameter) Volume (m 3 ) Mass (kg x ) Density (kg/m 3 ) Mercury Venus Earth (12,755 km) Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto 33.0 x kg 487 x kg 1.08 x m x kg 5,528 kg/m x kg 190,000 x kg 56,800 x kg 8,680 x kg 10,200 x kg 1.25 x kg How do your answers for each planet s density compare to the density measurements you collected on your Lesson 2 Planet Data Sheets from What s the Difference? 13
14 Pre-Lesson Engage Explore EXPLAIN Evaluate Extend Density: Large Planets vs. Small Planets Density describes how tightly packed something is how much matter (stuff) is in a certain volume. Compare the density of the nine planets by listing them from greatest density to lowest density based on the scale model. The first one (Earth) has been done for you. most dense Planet Density kg/m 3 Rocky or Gaseous Mass kg x Earth 5,515 kg/m 3 rocky 597 kg x least dense 1. Which planets have higher densities? q rocky q gaseous 2. Which planets have lower densities? q rocky q gaseous Circle the 4 planets with the greatest mass. 3. Which planets have higher densities? q more massive q less massive 4. Which planets have lower densities? q more massive q less massive 14
15 Pre-Lesson Engage Explore EXPLAIN Evaluate Extend Characteristics: Large Planets vs. Small Planets You have observed the planets in the scale model in terms of mass, volume, composition, and density. Use the chart below to organize general characteristics of large planets vs. small planets. Large Planets Small Planets Mass: Circumference: Composition: Density: Gravity: Write your conclusions about the planets and their characteristics below. 15
16 Pre-Lesson Engage Explore EXPLAIN Evaluate Extend Graphing Resource Student Guide Types of Graphs There are several types of graphs that scientists and mathematicians use to analyze sets of numbers or data. Bar graphs are often used to compare values. Pie graphs are often used to compare percentages or parts of a whole Books Read at Challenger Elementary School % of Class That Likes the Color Pink Red 10% 20% 20 Number of Books 10 0 K 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th Grade Level Green 25% Blue 45% Line graphs are often used to show rates of change. Tom's Test Scores 95% 90% 85% 80% 75% 70% Percent on Test 65% 60% Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Month 16
17 Pre-Lesson Engage Explore EXPLAIN Evaluate Extend Before You Begin When you are planning to graph data, you need to answer some questions before you begin. 1. What type of graph will you use? 2. What unit of measurement will you use? 3. What scale will you use? 4. What will be the minimum and maximum values on your graph? 5. Will your graph start at 0? Making Bar Graphs and Line Graphs Every graph needs a title and labels on the horizontal x axis (side-to-side) and the vertical y axis (up and down). The unit of measurement you are using needs to be clearly shown (inches, kilograms, etc.). The unit for the bar graph above is number of books as is written in the vertical y-axis label. You also must choose a scale for your vertical y-axis. The vertical scale on the bar graph above goes from 0 to 80 in increments of
18 Pre-Lesson Engage Explore EXPLAIN Evaluate Extend The scale is determined by the data you are graphing. To determine the scale, look at the largest and smallest numbers you will be graphing. For this line graph, the vertical y-axis goes from 60% to 95% in increments of 5%. 95% 90% 85% 80% 75% Tom's Test Scores The unit of measurement for this graph is percent. (%) 70% Percent on Test 65% 60% Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Month Making a Pie Graph A pie graph is shown using a circle, which has 360 degrees. To make an accurate pie graph you will need a compass or a similar instrument to trace a circle and a protractor to measure angles in degrees. Start by making a circle. You will then have to multiply your fractions or percents (in decimal format) by 360 degrees to find out how many degrees you will need in each wedge. For example: Circle = 360º Color % of class that likes the color Blue 45% Green 25% Red 20% Pink 10% Total: 100% The sum of your fractions should total to 100%. 18
19 Pre-Lesson Engage Explore EXPLAIN Evaluate Extend To find out how many degrees of the pie graph will represent the number of students in the class who like the color blue, you would multiply 360 degrees by The result of your calculation is 162 degrees. To find out how many degrees of the pie graph will represent the number of students in the class who like the color green, you would multiply 360 degrees by The result of your calculation is 90 degrees. To mark off the blue portion of the pie graph, start by drawing a radius of the circle (a line segment from the center of the circle to the circle itself). Then use the protractor to measure an angle of 162 degrees and draw the corresponding radius. The green portion will have an angle measure of 90 degrees, the red portion will have an angle measure of 72 degrees, and the pink portion will have an angle measure of 36 degrees. The sum of these angles will have an angle measure of 360 degrees, the number of degrees in a circle. Pink = 36º Blue = 162º % of Class That Likes the Color Red 20% Pink 10% Green = 90º Red = 72º Total = 360º Green 25% Blue 45% When the portions have been drawn into the circle, you then need to color each portion, label each portion with both the category and the percent or fraction, and give the graph an overall title. 19
20 Pre-Lesson Engage Explore Explain Evaluate EXTEND Lesson 2 Extension Problems Fractions, Percents, and Planets A pie chart is a way to represent fractions or percents of a whole. The following example calculates what percent of the total mass of the nine planets is contained in a given planet. 1. How is the mass of the solar system distributed amongst the nine planets? In other words, what percent of the total mass of all nine planets is contained in each planet? Be sure to include descriptions and pictures to explain how you solved the problem. After finding solutions to the above problem, complete the following: 2. Which planets contain most of the mass of the nine planets? 3. If you made a pie chart showing the percent of mass for each of the nine planets, would you be able to represent the mass of the smaller planets? 4. Find the sum of the percent of mass for the inner planets and Pluto. Use that as one value and use the mass of each of the gas giants planets to create a pie chart to represent the distribution of mass in the solar system. 20
21 Pre-Lesson Engage Explore Explain Evaluate EXTEND Additional Ratio and Proportion Problems The following are problems that will require multiple steps to obtain a solution. You will need to measure lengths inside the classroom and apply what you know about scale, ratio, and proportion to solve them. You may choose the units you work with, as long as they are appropriate. Be sure to include descriptions and pictures to explain how you solved the problem. 1. An interesting relationship Circles and spheres are very special geometric shapes. They have no corners. The formulas for the circumference and area of a circle, as well as for the surface area and volume of a sphere, are very different from the formulas for figures with straight edges like rectangles and squares. The following problem allows you to investigate an interesting relationship between two often-used measurements of any circle or any sphere. a. Calculate the ratio of each planet s circumference to its diameter. (Refer to p.11) For example, the ratio for the planet Mercury would be as follows: Circumference of Mercury = 15,329 km Diameter of Mercury 4,878 km 3.14 (or 22/7) Calculate this ratio for each of the planets. Express your answers as both a fraction and as a decimal. What do you notice? b. Measure the circumference of a great circle on a basketball. Measure the diameter of the basketball by holding a ruler against its widest point. Calculate the ratio of the circumference of the basketball to the diameter of the basketball. What do you notice? Try this for other spheres and their great circles. What is your result? c. Look up the word pi on the Internet. Summarize what you learned about this very interesting number called pi (π). 21
22 Pre-Lesson Engage Explore Explain Evaluate EXTEND 2. A Bus to Pluto The mass of each planet is a measurement that is sometimes hard to conceptualize. It is helpful to compare the mass of a planet to objects that have a mass with which we are familiar. Here is an example. a. Pluto is the least massive planet in the solar system. A public bus has a mass of approximately 14,515 kilograms. If the mass of Pluto is 125,000 kg followed by 17 zeros, estimate how many buses it would take to equal the mass of Pluto? Calculate the value (and then add 17 zeros to the end of the number!) How close was your estimate? b. You calculated in this lesson that Pluto s mass is of Earth s mass. Use this relationship to calculate how many buses it would take to equal the mass of Earth. (Be sure that your answer makes sense Earth is more massive than Pluto.) c. If Earth s mass is equal to the mass of the number of buses you calculated in part b, estimate how many buses it would take to equal the mass of Jupiter the most massive planet in the solar system. (You calculated in this lesson that the mass of Jupiter is approximate 318 times the mass of Earth.) Calculate the number of buses that it would take to represent the mass of Jupiter. (Be sure your answer makes sense Jupiter is more massive than Earth.) How close was your estimate? 22
23 Pre-Lesson Engage Explore Explain Evaluate EXTEND 3. I Gained HOW Much??!! In this lesson, you learned that weight is affected by gravity. On another planet, an object would weigh less or more, depending on the gravity on that planet. a. Weigh yourself here on Earth (Be careful! Think about what units you should use to record your weight and what units are on a typical scale. Remember: your mass will not change from planet to planet.) b. For each of the other planets, use the percentage value of the other planet s gravity in terms of the Earth s gravity to calculate your weight on another planet. (For example, if Mercury has 0.4 of Earth s gravity, on Mercury you would weigh 40% of your weight on Earth.) Make a chart of what you would weigh on different planets in our solar system. c. In addition to affecting your weight, the amount of gravity on a planet affects how high you can jump. Get a friend to measure how high you can jump standing in one spot (It might be helpful to try a few times and average your jumps.) What units of measurement will you use? This time you will use the inverse of the percentage value. To calculate the inverse, divide 1 by the decimal value of the gravity. For example, Mercury has only 40% of Earth s gravity. One divided by 0.4 is 2.5. You can jump 2.5 times higher on the surface of Mercury than you can on the surface of Earth! Make a chart showing how high you could jump on different planets in our solar system. 23
National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Explorer Schools PreAlgebra Unit Lesson 2 Teacher Guide Solar System Math Comparing Mass, Gravity, Composition, & Density http://quest.nasa.gov/vft/#wtd
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presentapresents Presents Science Notebooks in the Classroom kdkrifr Notebook Criteria This document was developed by Bay Area Schools for Excellence in Education (BASEE) a local systemic change project
AP Physics 1 Summer Assignment AP Physics 1 Summer Assignment Welcome to AP Physics 1. This course and the AP exam will be challenging. AP classes are taught as college courses not just college-level courses,