Discover the planets of our solar system. In 90 minutes through the universe. On a hiking path between Ehrenfriedensdorf and Drebach

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1 Discover the planets of our solar system In 90 minutes through the universe On a hiking path between Ehrenfriedensdorf and Drebach Solar System - Sonnensystem The Solar System consists of the Sun and the astronomical objects gravitationally bound in orbit around it, all of which formed from the collapse of a giant molecular cloud approximately 4.6 billion years ago. Of the many objects that orbit the Sun, most of the mass is contained within eight relatively solitary planets whose orbits are almost circular and lie within a nearly flat disc called the ecliptic plane. The four smaller inner planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars, also called the terrestrial planets, are primarily composed of rock and metal. The four outer planets, the gas giants, are substantially more massive than the terrestrials. The two largest, Jupiter and Saturn, are composed mainly of hydrogen and helium; the two outermost planets, Uranus and Neptune, are composed largely of ices, such as water, ammonia and methane, and are often referred to separately as "ice giants".

2 The Sun - Sonne The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. It is almost perfectly spherical and consists of hot plasma interwoven with magnetic fields. It has a diameter of about km, about 109 times that of Earth, and its mass (about kilograms, 330,000 times that of Earth) accounts for about 99.86% of the total mass of the Solar System. At this average distance, light travels from the Sun to Earth in about 8 minutes and 19 seconds. The energy of this sunlight supports almost all life on Earth by photosynthesis, and drives Earth s climate and weather. Mean diameter: km (109 Earth) Äquatordurchmesser Mass: 1, kg ( Earth) Masse rotation period: 25d 9h 7m (at equator) Rotationsdauer composition: Hydrogen (73 %), Helium (25 %) Bestandteile Temperature Photosphere: 5500 C Oberflächentemperatur Temperature Center: ~ 15 Mill. C Temperatur im Inneren

3 Mercury - Merkur Mercury is the innermost and smallest planet in the Solar System, orbiting the Sun once every Earth days. Mercury is similar in appearance to the Moon: it is heavily cratered with regions of smooth plains, has no natural satellites and no substantial atmosphere. Mercury is one of four terrestrial planets in the Solar System, and is a rocky body like the Earth. Mean radius: 2440 km - 0,4 Earths diameter Äquatorradius Distance to sun: 46,0 bis 69,8 Mill. km Sonnenabstand rotation period: 58 days 16 hours Rotationsdauer Orbital period: 87 days 23 hours Umlaufzeit um die Sonne Mass : 0,055 Earths mass Masse satellites : 0 Anzahl der Monde atmosphere: none Atmosphäre Surface Temperature : -170 bis +430 C Oberflächentemperatur

4 Venus Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every Earth days. The planet is named after Venus, the Roman goddess of love and beauty. After the Moon, it is the brightest natural object in the night sky. Venus is classified as a terrestrial planet and it is sometimes called Earth s sister planet due to the similar size, gravity, and bulk composition. Venus is covered with an opaque layer of highly reflective clouds of sulfuric acid, preventing its surface from being seen from space in visible light. Venus has the densest atmosphere of all the terrestrial planets in the Solar System, consisting mostly of carbon dioxide. Venus s surface is a dusty dry desertscape with many slab-like rocks, periodically refreshed by volcanism. The atmospheric pressure at the planet s surface is 92 times that of the Earth. Mean radius: 6052 km (0,9 Earths) Äquatorradius Distance to sun: 107,1 109,0 Mill. km Sonnenabstand rotation period: 243 days Rotationsdauer Orbital period: 224 days 17 hours Umlaufzeit um die Sonne Mass : 0,81 Earths mass Masse satellites : 0 Anzahl der Monde atmosphere: 96% carbon dioxide, 3% nitrogen... Atmosphäre Surface Temperature : +460 C Oberflächentemperatur

5 Earth - Erde Earth (or the Earth) is the third planet from the Sun, and the densest and fifth-largest of the eight planets in the Solar System. It is also the largest of the Solar System's four terrestrial planets. It is sometimes referred to as the World, the Blue Planet. About 71% of the surface is covered by salt water oceans, with the remainder consisting of continents and islands which together have many lakes and other sources of water that contribute to the hydrosphere. Earth's poles are mostly covered with solid ice. Mean radius: 6371 km Äquatorradius Distance to sun: 147,1 bis 152,1 Mill. km Sonnenabstand rotation period: 23h 56m Rotationsdauer Orbital period: 365 days 6 hours Umlaufzeit um die Sonne Mass: kg Masse satellites: 1 Anzahl der Monde atmosphere: 78 % nitrogen, 21 % oxygen... Atmosphäre mean Surface Temperature : +15 C Mittl. Oberflächentemp.

6 Mars Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the Solar System. The planet is named after the Roman god of war, Mars. It is often described as the "Red Planet", as the iron oxide prevalent on its surface gives it a reddish appearance. Mars is a terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere, having surface features reminiscent both of the impact craters of the Moon and the volcanoes, valleys, deserts, and polar ice caps of Earth. The rotational period and seasonal cycles of Mars are likewise similar to those of Earth, as is the tilt that produces the seasons. Mars is the site of Olympus Mons, the highest known mountain within the Solar System, and of Valles Marineris, the largest canyon. Mean radius: 3397 km (0,53 Earths) Äquatorradius Distance to sun: 206,7 bis 249,2 Mill. km Sonnenabstand rotation period: 24 hours 37 m Rotationsdauer Orbital period: 687 days Umlaufzeit um die Sonne Mass: 0,1 Earths mass Masse satellites: 2 Anzahl der Monde atmosphere: 96% carbon dioxide, 3% nitrogen... Atmosphäre Surface Temperature : C Oberflächentemperatur

7 Jupiter Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest planet within the Solar System. Jupiter is classified as a gas giant along with Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Together, these four planets are sometimes referred to as the Jovian or outer planets. Equatorial radius: km (11,2 Earths) Äquatorradius Distance to sun: 741,9 bis 815 Mill. km Sonnenabstand rotation period: 9 hours 56 m Rotationsdauer Orbital period: 11,87 years Umlaufzeit um die Sonne Mass: 317,8 Earths mass Masse satellites: 65 Anzahl der Monde atmosphere: 90% hydrogen, 9% helium Atmosphäre Surface Temperature : -150 C Oberflächentemperatur

8 Saturn Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second largest planet in the Solar System, after Jupiter. Saturn, along with Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune, is a gas giant. Together, these four planets are sometimes referred to as the Jovian, meaning "Jupiter-like", planets. Saturn has a ring system that is divided into nine continuous and three discontinuous main rings (arcs), consisting mostly of ice particles with a smaller amount of rocky debris and dust. Equatorial radius: km (9,4 Earths) Äquatorradius Distance to sun: 1343 bis 1509 Mill. km Sonnenabstand rotation period: 10 hours 39 m Rotationsdauer Orbital period: 29,5 years Umlaufzeit um die Sonne Mass: 95,2 Earths mass Masse satellites: 60 Anzahl der Monde atmosphere: 93% hydrogen, 6% helium Atmosphäre Surface Temperature : -180 C Oberflächentemperatur

9 Uranus Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun. It is named after the ancient Greek deity of the sky Uranus. Though it is visible to the naked eye like the five classical planets, it was never recognized as a planet by ancient observers because of its dimness and slow orbit. Sir William Herschel announced its discovery on March 13, 1781, expanding the known boundaries of the Solar System for the first time in modern history. Uranus was also the first planet discovered with a telescope. Equatorial radius: km (4 Earths) Äquatorradius Distance to sun: 2735 bis 3005 Mill. km Sonnenabstand rotation period: 17 hours 14 m Rotationsdauer Orbital period: 84,7 years Umlaufzeit um die Sonne Mass: 14,5 Earths mass Masse satellites: 21 Anzahl der Monde atmosphere: 83% hydrogen, 15% helium Atmosphäre Surface Temperature : -215 C Oberflächentemperatur

10 Neptune Neptune is the eighth and farthest planet from the Sun in the Solar System. Named for the Roman god of the sea, it is the fourth-largest planet by diameter and the third largest by mass. Discovered on September 23, 1846, Neptune was the first planet found by mathematical prediction rather than by empirical observation. Unexpected changes in the orbit of Uranus led Alexis Bouvard to deduce that its orbit was subject to gravitational perturbation by an unknown planet. Neptune was subsequently observed by Johann Galle within a degree of the position predicted by Urbain Le Verrier, and its largest moon, Triton, was discovered shortly thereafter Equatorial radius: km (3,8 Earths) Äquatorradius Distance to sun: 4456 bis 4537 Mill. km Sonnenabstand rotation period: 16 hours 6 m Rotationsdauer Orbital period: 165 years Umlaufzeit um die Sonne Mass: 17,1 Earths mass Masse satellites: 15 Anzahl der Monde atmosphere: 80% hydrogen, 19% helium Atmosphäre Surface Temperature : -218 C Oberflächentemperatur

11 Dwarf Planet Pluto - Zwergplanet Pluto Pluto is the second-most-massive known dwarf planet in the Solar System (after Eris) and the tenth-most-massive body observed directly orbiting the Sun. Originally classified as the ninth planet from the Sun, Pluto was recategorized as a dwarf planet and plutoid due to the discovery that it is one of several large bodies within the newly charted Kuiper belt. From its discovery in 1930 until 2006, Pluto was classified as a planet. On August 24, 2006, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) defined what it means to be a "planet" within the Solar System. This definition excluded Pluto as a planet and added it as a member of the new category "dwarf planet" along with Eris and Ceres. Equatorial radius: 1153 km (0,18 Earths) Äquatorradius Distance to sun: 4425 bis 7375 Mill. km Sonnenabstand rotation period: 6 days 9 hours 18 m Rotationsdauer Orbital period: 247,7 years Umlaufzeit um die Sonne Mass: 0,0025 Earths mass Masse satellites: 4 Anzahl der Monde atmosphere: --- Atmosphäre Surface Temperature : -213 bis -233 C Oberflächentemperatur

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