Lecture 19: Planet Formation I. Clues from the Solar System

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Lecture 19: Planet Formation I. Clues from the Solar System"

Transcription

1 Lecture 19: Planet Formation I. Clues from the Solar System 1 Outline The Solar System:! Terrestrial planets! Jovian planets! Asteroid belt, Kuiper belt, Oort cloud Condensation and growth of solid bodies The minimum mass solar nebula

2 The Solar System Planets and most of the other bodies of the solar system do orbit the Sun in about the same plane, called the ecliptic plane. Not to scale! The Solar System: content e 4

3 The Solar System: the terrestrial planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars share many similar features. Small compared with the huge planets beyond them, these inner planets also have rocky surfaces surrounded by relatively thin and transparent atmospheres. Together, we call these four the terrestrial planets (from the Latin terra, meaning earth). Earth R=6378 km M E = kg Mars R=3397 km M=0.11 M E Mercury R=2440 km M=0.06 M E Venus R=6052 km M=0.82 M E 5 The Solar System: the Jovian planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are giant planets; they are also called the jovian planets. They are much bigger, more massive, and less dense than the inner, terrestrial planets. Their internal structure is entirely different from that of the four inner planets. D = 5.2 AU R = 71,492 km = 11.2 R earth M = M earth 6 T = 165 K (cloudtops)

4 The Solar System: the Jovian planets The Solar System

5 The Solar System: Other constituents /Water-carried-on-asteroids-are-common.html 10

6 11 Herschel makes a splash and fuels the controversy of the origin of Earth's water. H 2O HDO Hartogh et al. 2011, Nature,12 478, 218

7 HDO/H2O in Jupiter family comet = HDO/H2O in oceans! The Solar System: Other constituents

8 The Solar System: Other constituents The Solar System: 16

9 The Formation of the solar system: Condensation and growth of solid bodies The mechanical and chemical processes related to grain agglomeration are poorly understood. Loosely packed fractal structures which are held together by Van der Waals forces may be formed. IDP Interplanetary Dust Particle Dominik et al. 2006, PPV The Formation of the solar system: Condensation and growth of solid bodies The motions of small grains in a protoplanetary disk are strongly coupled to the gas. For solid particles smaller than 1 cm, the dust-gas coupling is well described by Epstein s drag law: FD = A ρ g vc s A projected surface area of the body ρg gas density v velocity of the body with respect to the gas cs mean thermal velocity of the gas

10 The Formation of the solar system: Condensation and growth of solid bodies When grains condense, the vertical component of the star s gravity causes the dust to sediment out towards the midplane of the disk. Current models (appropriate for the solar nebula) suggest that the bulk of solid material was able to agglomerate into bodies of macroscopic size within 10 4 yr at 1 AU. Most of the bodies confined to a thin region. The Formation of the solar system: Condensation and growth of solid bodies Growth from cm-size particles to km-sized planetesimals depends on the relative motions between the various bodies. The motions of (sub-)cm-sized material are coupled with the gas. The gas is partially supported against stellar gravity by a pressure gradient in the radial direction " gas circles the star slightly less rapidly than the keplerian rate. The effective gravity felt by the gas is: g eff = GM * r ρ g dp dr acceleration due to pressure gradient For circular orbits, the effective gravity must be balanced by centrifugal acceleration. Considering that the pressure is much smaller than gravity, one finds that the gas rotates ~0.5% slower than the keplerian speed. 20 In the next slides we will demonstrate this.

11 The Formation of the solar system: Condensation and growth of solid bodies Let P be the gas pressure, ρ its density and r the distance from the nebular axis. The central gravity g and the circular Keplerian orbital velocity V K are related by g = GM! r 2 = V 2 K r. In a reference frame rotating with the gas, the residual gravity is Δg = 1 ρ g dp dr, which is the condition for hydrostatic equilibrium. [see Weidenschilling (1977, MNRAS)] The Formation of the solar system: Condensation and growth of solid bodies If V g is the rotational velocity of the gas, g eff = V 2 g r = V 2 K r + Δg. Therefore, the deviation of the gas velocity from the circular orbital velocity is: ΔV = V K V g, V g = V K 2 + rδg with = V 2 K + Δg V 2 K g = V K 1+ Δg g

12 The Formation of the solar system: Condensation and growth of solid bodies If Δg/g << 1: and 1+ Δg g ~ 1+ 1 Δg 2 g, $ ΔV = V K V g ~ V K V K 1+ Δg ' $ Δg' & ) = V K & ). % 2g( % 2g( Over some range of r, the pressure can always be approximated by a powerlaw: P = P 0 (r / r 0 ) -a. Therefore, for an ideal gas: Δg = 1 dp ρ g dr = a nk T B ρ g r = ak B T µm H r The Formation of the solar system: Condensation and growth of solid bodies Example: assuming M = 1 M!, a = 2, T = 300 K and r = 5 AU: Δg 2g = Therefore, the gas rotates ~0.5% slower than the keplerian speed.

13 The Formation of the solar system: Condensation and growth of solid bodies Large particles thus encounter a headwind which removes angular momentum and causes them to spiral inward toward the star. Small grains drift less. A meter-sized body at 1 AU would approach the Sun in ~ 100 yr! As a consequence of the difference in velocities, small (sub-)cm sized grains can be swept up by the larger bodies, while gas drag on the meter-sized planetesimals induces considerable radial motions. The material that survives to form planets must complete the transition from cm- to km- size rather quickly!! unless the material is confined to a thin dust-dominated subdisk in which the gas is dragged along at the same Keplerian velocity. Two alternative hypotheses describe the growth through this size range: The Formation of the solar system: Condensation and growth of solid bodies 1. If the nebula is quiescent, the dust and small particles settle into a layer thin enough to be gravitationally unstable to clumping, and planetesimals are formed. The planetesimals produced have sizes of the order ~ 1 km. 2. In a turbulent nebula, growth continues via simple two-body collisions. The growth of solid bodies from mm to km size must occur very quickly, but the related physics is poorly understood. Molecular forces can lead to ~1 km-sized planetesimals by coagulation (van der Waals binding energies [~10 3 erg g -1 ] ~ gravitational binding energy of a 1 km body). Then, when size 1 km, gravity takes over and mutual gravitational perturbations become important.

14 The Solar System: -Material within the disk condenses into several large chunks of material called planetesimals. -These collide with other planetesimals and coalesce into larger bodies, eventually forming planets. -Since the Sun and planets all form from the same cloud all rotate in the same direction as initial cloud. -Planets rotate counter-clockwise around the Sun. -Also planets and Sun rotate counterclockwise about their axes, -with the exception of Venus which rotates clockwise (retrograde motion) The Solar System: 28

15 The Solar System: 29 The Solar System: The snowline r snow 30

16 The Solar System: 31 The Solar System: T C material, further away both lecture 9 32

17 The Solar System: [1 Pa = 1 N/m 2 = 10 5 bar = atm] 33 The Solar System: 34

18 The Solar System: 35 The Solar System: 36

19 The Solar System: 37 The Solar System:

20 Summary The Solar System: Terrestrial planets, Jovian planets, Asteroid belt, Kuiper belt, Oort cloud. Problems with the condensation and growth of solid bodies from cm- to kmsize (headwind on large particles) Minimum Mass Solar Nebula 39

Formation and content of the solar system.

Formation and content of the solar system. Formation and content of the solar system. The Solar Nebula Hypothesis Basis of modern theory of planet formation: Planets form at the same time from the same cloud as the star. Planet formation sites

More information

The Origin of the Solar System and Other Planetary Systems

The Origin of the Solar System and Other Planetary Systems The Origin of the Solar System and Other Planetary Systems Modeling Planet Formation Boundary Conditions Nebular Hypothesis Fixing Problems Role of Catastrophes Planets of Other Stars Modeling Planet Formation

More information

The Formation of Planetary Systems. Astronomy 1-1 Lecture 20-1

The Formation of Planetary Systems. Astronomy 1-1 Lecture 20-1 The Formation of Planetary Systems Astronomy 1-1 Lecture 20-1 Modeling Planet Formation Any model for solar system and planet formation must explain 1. Planets are relatively isolated in space 2. Planetary

More information

Summary: Four Major Features of our Solar System

Summary: Four Major Features of our Solar System Summary: Four Major Features of our Solar System How did the solar system form? According to the nebular theory, our solar system formed from the gravitational collapse of a giant cloud of interstellar

More information

Chapter 6: Our Solar System and Its Origin

Chapter 6: Our Solar System and Its Origin Chapter 6: Our Solar System and Its Origin What does our solar system look like? The planets are tiny compared to the distances between them (a million times smaller than shown here), but they exhibit

More information

Patterns in the Solar System. Patterns in the Solar System. ASTR 105 The Solar System

Patterns in the Solar System. Patterns in the Solar System. ASTR 105 The Solar System ASTR 105 The Solar System 1. Orderly motions 2.Two kinds of planets 3.Two kinds of small bodies 4.Exceptions to the rules Today: Group Lab at the end of class Next THURSDAY 03/10: First Group Project Orderly

More information

4. Formation of Solar Systems

4. Formation of Solar Systems Astronomy 110: SURVEY OF ASTRONOMY 4. Formation of Solar Systems 1. A Survey of the Solar System 2. The Solar System s Early History 3. Other Planetary Systems The solar system s rich and varied structure

More information

The Origin of the Solar System. Formation and basic characteristics of the Solar System

The Origin of the Solar System. Formation and basic characteristics of the Solar System The Origin of the Solar System Formation and basic characteristics of the Solar System The origin of matter All the building material necessary to make our Solar System was assembled in the process of

More information

L3: The formation of the Solar System

L3: The formation of the Solar System credit: NASA L3: The formation of the Solar System UCL Certificate of astronomy Dr. Ingo Waldmann A stable home The presence of life forms elsewhere in the Universe requires a stable environment where

More information

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 15. Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan. 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 15. Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan. 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Outlines Chapter 15 Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Chapter 15 The Formation of Planetary Systems Units of Chapter 15 15.1 Modeling Planet Formation 15.2 Terrestrial and Jovian Planets

More information

Chapter 6 Formation of Planetary Systems: Our Solar System and Beyond. What does the solar system look like? What does the solar system look like?

Chapter 6 Formation of Planetary Systems: Our Solar System and Beyond. What does the solar system look like? What does the solar system look like? Chapter 6 Formation of Planetary Systems: Our Solar System and Beyond What does the solar system look like? The solar system exhibits clear patterns of composition and motion. These patterns are far more

More information

Lecture 7 Formation of the Solar System. Nebular Theory. Origin of the Solar System. Origin of the Solar System. The Solar Nebula

Lecture 7 Formation of the Solar System. Nebular Theory. Origin of the Solar System. Origin of the Solar System. The Solar Nebula Origin of the Solar System Lecture 7 Formation of the Solar System Reading: Chapter 9 Quiz#2 Today: Lecture 60 minutes, then quiz 20 minutes. Homework#1 will be returned on Thursday. Our theory must explain

More information

The Main Point. The Scientific Method. Laws of Planetary Motion. Lecture #3: Orbits and Gravity. Laws of Planetary Motion:

The Main Point. The Scientific Method. Laws of Planetary Motion. Lecture #3: Orbits and Gravity. Laws of Planetary Motion: Lecture #3: Orbits and Gravity Laws of Planetary Motion: Kepler's Laws. Newton's Laws. Gravity. Planetary Orbits. Spacecraft Orbits. The Main Point Motions of planets, moons, and asteroids can be very

More information

The Main Point. Lecture #34: Solar System Origin II. Chemical Condensation ( Lewis ) Model. How did the solar system form? Reading: Chapter 8.

The Main Point. Lecture #34: Solar System Origin II. Chemical Condensation ( Lewis ) Model. How did the solar system form? Reading: Chapter 8. Lecture #34: Solar System Origin II How did the solar system form? Chemical Condensation ("Lewis") Model. Formation of the Terrestrial Planets. Formation of the Giant Planets. Planetary Evolution. Reading:

More information

Exam #1. Exam #1. Exam #1. Nighttime observing has 4 more nights. Check the webpage.

Exam #1. Exam #1. Exam #1. Nighttime observing has 4 more nights. Check the webpage. Nighttime observing has 4 more nights. Check the webpage. 1 st exam is October 10 th Friday! Justin will have an extra office hour Thursday (10/9) before exam 4:00 to 5:00pm. I will have an extra office

More information

Lecture 10 Formation of the Solar System January 6c, 2014

Lecture 10 Formation of the Solar System January 6c, 2014 1 Lecture 10 Formation of the Solar System January 6c, 2014 2 Orbits of the Planets 3 Clues for the Formation of the SS All planets orbit in roughly the same plane about the Sun. All planets orbit in the

More information

Solar System Formation

Solar System Formation Solar System Formation Solar System Formation Question: How did our solar system and other planetary systems form? Comparative planetology has helped us understand Compare the differences and similarities

More information

The Origin of the Solar System

The Origin of the Solar System The Origin of the Solar System Questions: How did the various constituents of Solar System form? What were the physical processes involved? When did they form? Did they all form more-or less simultaneously?

More information

Chapter 6 Formation of Planetary Systems Our Solar System and Beyond

Chapter 6 Formation of Planetary Systems Our Solar System and Beyond Chapter 6 Formation of Planetary Systems Our Solar System and Beyond The solar system exhibits clear patterns of composition and motion. Sun Over 99.9% of solar system s mass Made mostly of H/He gas (plasma)

More information

PART 1 OBJECTS IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM 4.1 INTRODUCTION 4.2 PLANET TYPES

PART 1 OBJECTS IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM 4.1 INTRODUCTION 4.2 PLANET TYPES PART 1 OBJECTS IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM 4.1 INTRODUCTION Besides the Sun, the central object of our solar system, which is a star and will be discussed in more detail in Chapter 11, there are basically three

More information

The Layout of the Solar System

The Layout of the Solar System The Layout of the Solar System Planets fall into two main categories Terrestrial (i.e. Earth-like) Jovian (i.e. Jupiter-like or gaseous) [~5000 kg/m 3 ] [~1300 kg/m 3 ] What is density? Average density

More information

LESSON 3 THE SOLAR SYSTEM. Chapter 8, Astronomy

LESSON 3 THE SOLAR SYSTEM. Chapter 8, Astronomy LESSON 3 THE SOLAR SYSTEM Chapter 8, Astronomy OBJECTIVES Identify planets by observing their movement against background stars. Explain that the solar system consists of many bodies held together by gravity.

More information

Patterns in the Solar System (Chapter 18)

Patterns in the Solar System (Chapter 18) GEOLOGY 306 Laboratory Instructor: TERRY J. BOROUGHS NAME: Patterns in the Solar System (Chapter 18) For this assignment you will require: a calculator, colored pencils, a metric ruler, and meter stick.

More information

Solar Nebula Theory. Basic properties of the Solar System that need to be explained:

Solar Nebula Theory. Basic properties of the Solar System that need to be explained: Solar Nebula Theory Basic properties of the Solar System that need to be explained: 1. All planets orbit the Sun in the same direction as the Sun s rotation 2. All planetary orbits are confined to the

More information

Class 2 Solar System Characteristics Formation Exosolar Planets

Class 2 Solar System Characteristics Formation Exosolar Planets Class 1 Introduction, Background History of Modern Astronomy The Night Sky, Eclipses and the Seasons Kepler's Laws Newtonian Gravity General Relativity Matter and Light Telescopes Class 2 Solar System

More information

15.6 Planets Beyond the Solar System

15.6 Planets Beyond the Solar System 15.6 Planets Beyond the Solar System Planets orbiting other stars are called extrasolar planets. Until 1995, whether or not extrasolar planets existed was unknown. Since then more than 300 have been discovered.

More information

Introduction to the Solar System

Introduction to the Solar System Introduction to the Solar System Lesson Objectives Describe some early ideas about our solar system. Name the planets, and describe their motion around the Sun. Explain how the solar system formed. Introduction

More information

8.3: The Solar System: The Sun and the Planets pg. 313

8.3: The Solar System: The Sun and the Planets pg. 313 8.3: The Solar System: The Sun and the Planets pg. 313 Key Concepts: 1. Careful observation of the night sky can offer clues about the motion of celestial objects. 2. Celestial objects in the Solar System

More information

Formation of the Solar System

Formation of the Solar System Formation of the Solar System Any theory of formation of the Solar System must explain all of the basic facts that we have learned so far. 1 The Solar System The Sun contains 99.9% of the mass. The Solar

More information

Astronomy 103: First Exam

Astronomy 103: First Exam Name: Astronomy 103: First Exam Stephen Lepp October 25, 2010 Each question is worth 2 points. Write your name on this exam and on the scantron. 1 Short Answer A. What is the largest of the terrestrial

More information

Class 14 Patterns & diversity in our Solar System. I : The kinematics of the Solar System

Class 14 Patterns & diversity in our Solar System. I : The kinematics of the Solar System Class 14 Patterns & diversity in our Solar System Kinematics of the solar system Comparative planetology I : The kinematics of the Solar System We have learned about the laws of physics (motion and gravity)

More information

1 The Nine Planets. What are the parts of our solar system? When were the planets discovered? How do astronomers measure large distances?

1 The Nine Planets. What are the parts of our solar system? When were the planets discovered? How do astronomers measure large distances? CHAPTER 4 1 The Nine Planets SECTION A Family of Planets BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What are the parts of our solar system? When were the

More information

Chapter 8 Formation of the Solar System Agenda

Chapter 8 Formation of the Solar System Agenda Chapter 8 Formation of the Solar System Agenda Announce: Mercury Transit Part 2 of Projects due next Thursday Ch. 8 Formation of the Solar System Philip on The Physics of Star Trek Radiometric Dating Lab

More information

ASTR 380 Possibilities for Life on the Moons of Giant Planets

ASTR 380 Possibilities for Life on the Moons of Giant Planets Let s first consider the large gas planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune Planets to scale with Sun in background 67 62 14 The many moons of the outer planets.. Most of the moons are very small 1

More information

Chapter 8 Formation of the Solar System. What theory best explains the features of our solar system? Close Encounter Hypothesis

Chapter 8 Formation of the Solar System. What theory best explains the features of our solar system? Close Encounter Hypothesis Chapter 8 Formation of the Solar System What properties of our solar system must a formation theory explain? 1. Patterns of motion of the large bodies Orbit in same direction and plane 2. Existence of

More information

Chapter 8 Welcome to the Solar System

Chapter 8 Welcome to the Solar System Chapter 8 Welcome to the Solar System 8.1 The Search for Origins What properties of our solar system must a formation theory explain? What theory best explains the features of our solar system? What properties

More information

Lecture 7: Formation of the Solar System

Lecture 7: Formation of the Solar System Lecture 7: Formation of the Solar System Dust and debris disk around Fomalhaut, with embedded young planet! Claire Max April 24 th, 2014 Astro 18: Planets and Planetary Systems UC Santa Cruz Solar System

More information

Formation of the Solar System (Chapter 8)

Formation of the Solar System (Chapter 8) Formation of the Solar System (Chapter 8) Based on Chapter 8 This material will be useful for understanding Chapters 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 on Formation of the solar system, Planetary geology, Planetary

More information

Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Clickers. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Our Planetary System Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Clickers. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Our Planetary System Pearson Education, Inc. Reading Quiz Clickers The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Our Planetary System 7.1 Studying the Solar System What does the solar system look like? What can we learn by comparing the planets to one another?

More information

Exploring Our Solar System and Its Origin

Exploring Our Solar System and Its Origin Exploring Our Solar System and Its Origin Sun Over 99.9% of solar system s mass Made mostly of H/He gas (plasma) Converts 4 million tons of mass into energy each second Earth and Moon to scale Mercury

More information

THE SOLAR SYSTEM NAME. I. Physical characteristics of the solar system

THE SOLAR SYSTEM NAME. I. Physical characteristics of the solar system NAME I. Physical characteristics of the solar system THE SOLAR SYSTEM The solar system consists of the sun and 9 planets. Table 2 lists a number of the properties and characteristics of the sun and the

More information

The Hidden Lives of Galaxies. Jim Lochner, USRA & NASA/GSFC

The Hidden Lives of Galaxies. Jim Lochner, USRA & NASA/GSFC The Hidden Lives of Galaxies Jim Lochner, USRA & NASA/GSFC What is a Galaxy? Solar System Distance from Earth to Sun = 93,000,000 miles = 8 light-minutes Size of Solar System = 5.5 light-hours What is

More information

How did the Solar System form?

How did the Solar System form? How did the Solar System form? Is our solar system unique? Are there other Earth-like planets, or are we a fluke? Under what conditions can Earth-like planets form? Is life common or rare? Ways to Find

More information

ASTRONOMY 161. Introduction to Solar System Astronomy. Class 12

ASTRONOMY 161. Introduction to Solar System Astronomy. Class 12 ASTRONOMY 161 Introduction to Solar System Astronomy Class 12 Solar System Survey Monday, February 5 Key Concepts (1) The terrestrial planets are made primarily of rock and metal. (2) The Jovian planets

More information

Related Standards and Background Information

Related Standards and Background Information Related Standards and Background Information Earth Patterns, Cycles and Changes This strand focuses on student understanding of patterns in nature, natural cycles, and changes that occur both quickly and

More information

Cosmology and the Birth of Earth

Cosmology and the Birth of Earth Cosmology and the Birth of Earth Our Island in Space The Earth is a very special and unique planet. Its temperature, composition and atmosphere favor life. It is dynamic and ever-changing. It has a long

More information

Kepler s Laws and our Solar System

Kepler s Laws and our Solar System Kepler s Laws and our Solar System The Astronomical Unit, AU Kepler s Empirical Laws of Planetary mo=on The mass of the Sun, M O. A very brief tour of the solar system Major planets Dwarf planets (defini=on)

More information

Earth Science Lesson Plan Quarter 4, Week 6, Day 1

Earth Science Lesson Plan Quarter 4, Week 6, Day 1 Earth Science Lesson Plan Quarter 4, Week 6, Day 1 Outcomes for Today Standard Focus: PREPARE 1. Background knowledge necessary for today s reading. The outer part of the solar system is comprised of the

More information

Unit 8 Lesson 2 Gravity and the Solar System

Unit 8 Lesson 2 Gravity and the Solar System Unit 8 Lesson 2 Gravity and the Solar System Gravity What is gravity? Gravity is a force of attraction between objects that is due to their masses and the distances between them. Every object in the universe

More information

8.1: Touring the Night Sky pg. 305

8.1: Touring the Night Sky pg. 305 Unit D: The Study of the Universe 8.1: Touring the Night Sky pg. 305 Key Concepts: 1. Careful observation of the night sky can offer clues about the motion of celestial objects. 2. Celestial objects in

More information

Giant Molecular Clouds

Giant Molecular Clouds Giant Molecular Clouds http://www.astro.ncu.edu.tw/irlab/projects/project.htm Galactic Open Clusters Galactic Structure GMCs The Solar System and its Place in the Galaxy In Encyclopedia of the Solar System

More information

Welcome to Class 4: Our Solar System (and a bit of cosmology at the start) Remember: sit only in the first 10 rows of the room

Welcome to Class 4: Our Solar System (and a bit of cosmology at the start) Remember: sit only in the first 10 rows of the room Welcome to Class 4: Our Solar System (and a bit of cosmology at the start) Remember: sit only in the first 10 rows of the room What is the difference between dark ENERGY and dark MATTER? Is Earth unique,

More information

UNIT V. Earth and Space. Earth and the Solar System

UNIT V. Earth and Space. Earth and the Solar System UNIT V Earth and Space Chapter 9 Earth and the Solar System EARTH AND OTHER PLANETS A solar system contains planets, moons, and other objects that orbit around a star or the star system. The solar system

More information

Solar System Fundamentals. What is a Planet? Planetary orbits Planetary temperatures Planetary Atmospheres Origin of the Solar System

Solar System Fundamentals. What is a Planet? Planetary orbits Planetary temperatures Planetary Atmospheres Origin of the Solar System Solar System Fundamentals What is a Planet? Planetary orbits Planetary temperatures Planetary Atmospheres Origin of the Solar System Properties of Planets What is a planet? Defined finally in August 2006!

More information

Introduction to Astronomy & Astrophysics*

Introduction to Astronomy & Astrophysics* Introduction to Astronomy & Astrophysics* Annalisa Bonafede * based on the lectures by Prof. Brueggen, Banerjee, Hauschildt 1 Outline of today s lecture The solar system Earth-Moon System Tidal forces

More information

The orbit of Halley s Comet

The orbit of Halley s Comet The orbit of Halley s Comet Given this information Orbital period = 76 yrs Aphelion distance = 35.3 AU Observed comet in 1682 and predicted return 1758 Questions: How close does HC approach the Sun? What

More information

Origin of Our Universe

Origin of Our Universe Origin of Our Universe Before the Big Bang? As cosmologists begin to understand what happened just after the Big Bang, many are questioning what led up to the Big Bang (4 possibilities) 1. No previous

More information

AST 105 HW #4 Solution

AST 105 HW #4 Solution AST 105 HW # Solution Week of September 1 th, 2015 Note: All Problems are from The Cosmic Perspective (6ed) Chapter 6 Review Problems 2. For purposes of astronomy, what advantages does a camera have over

More information

DE2410: Learning Objectives. SOLAR SYSTEM Formation, Evolution and Death. Solar System: To Size Scale. Learning Objectives : This Lecture

DE2410: Learning Objectives. SOLAR SYSTEM Formation, Evolution and Death. Solar System: To Size Scale. Learning Objectives : This Lecture DE2410: Learning Objectives SOLAR SYSTEM Formation, Evolution and Death To become aware of our planet, solar system, and the Universe To know about how these objects and structures were formed, are evolving

More information

1 A Solar System Is Born

1 A Solar System Is Born CHAPTER 3 1 A Solar System Is Born SECTION Formation of the Solar System BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is a nebula? How did our solar system

More information

Christoph U. Keller, Planets & Exoplanets 2011: Solar System Structure and Orbital Mechanics

Christoph U. Keller, Planets & Exoplanets 2011: Solar System Structure and Orbital Mechanics Outline 1. Components of the solar system 2. Solar system planet properties 3. Kepler s Laws (Two-body problem) 4. Three-body problem 5. Tides and other forces 2 Inventory of the Solar System www.solarviews.org/cap/misc/solarsystem.htm

More information

Formation of the Solar System

Formation of the Solar System CHAPTER 19 13 SECTION The Solar System Formation of the Solar System KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: How did early astronomers understand and describe the solar system?

More information

1 Newton s Laws of Motion

1 Newton s Laws of Motion Exam 1 Ast 4 - Chapter 2 - Newton s Laws Exam 1 is scheduled for the week of Feb 19th Bring Pencil Scantron 882-E (available in the Bookstore) A scientific calculator (you will not be allowed to use you

More information

The areas of Spaceport where you can find the answers are in capital letters and also in brackets. (Solar System Area)

The areas of Spaceport where you can find the answers are in capital letters and also in brackets. (Solar System Area) KEY STAGE 3 SPACEPORT Quiz The areas of Spaceport where you can find the answers are in capital letters and also in brackets. (Solar System Area) 1 Why do Astronauts experience feelings of weightlessness

More information

Group Leader: Group Members:

Group Leader: Group Members: THE SOLAR SYSTEM PROJECT: TOPIC: THE SUN Required Project Content for an Oral/Poster Presentation on THE SUN - What it s made of - Age and how it formed (provide pictures or diagrams) - What is an AU?

More information

Table of Contents. Our Solar System 3 The Planets in the Solar System 4

Table of Contents. Our Solar System 3 The Planets in the Solar System 4 The Solar System 2 Table of Contents Our Solar System 3 The Planets in the Solar System 4 Mercury 5 Venus 6 Earth 7 Mars 8 Jupiter 9 Saturn 10 Uranus 11 Neptune 12 Pluto 13 The Asteroid Belt 14 The Moon

More information

Our Planetary System. Earth, as viewed by the Voyager spacecraft. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Our Planetary System. Earth, as viewed by the Voyager spacecraft. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Our Planetary System Earth, as viewed by the Voyager spacecraft 7.1 Studying the Solar System Our goals for learning: What does the solar system look like? What can we learn by comparing the planets to

More information

Vagabonds of the Solar System. Chapter 17

Vagabonds of the Solar System. Chapter 17 Vagabonds of the Solar System Chapter 17 ASTR 111 003 Fall 2006 Lecture 13 Nov. 27, 2006 Introduction To Modern Astronomy I Introducing Astronomy (chap. 1-6) Planets and Moons (chap. 7-17) Ch7: Comparative

More information

8. Mercury, the planet nearest to the Sun, has extreme surface temperatures, ranging from 465 C in sunlight to 180 C in darkness.

8. Mercury, the planet nearest to the Sun, has extreme surface temperatures, ranging from 465 C in sunlight to 180 C in darkness. 6.E.1 Unit Test DO NOT WRITE ON THIS QUIZ!!! 1. The largest body in our solar system is Earth. the Sun. Jupiter. the Moon. 4. What do the four planets closest to the Sun have in common? Their solid, rocky

More information

Lecture 12: The Solar System Briefly

Lecture 12: The Solar System Briefly Lecture 12: The Solar System Briefly Formation of the Moonhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WpOKztEiMqo&feature =related Formation of our Solar System Conservation of Angular Momentum Why are the larger,

More information

Exemplar Problems Physics

Exemplar Problems Physics Chapter Eight GRAVITATION MCQ I 8.1 The earth is an approximate sphere. If the interior contained matter which is not of the same density everywhere, then on the surface of the earth, the acceleration

More information

Name Date Hour Table. Cosmic Relations (Select each location and record how the Earth fits into the universe.)

Name Date Hour Table. Cosmic Relations (Select each location and record how the Earth fits into the universe.) Open the Solar System App Cosmic Relations (Select each location and record how the Earth fits into the universe.) 1. Earth 2. Solar System 3. Milky Way 4. Universe The Milky Way is the home of Earth s

More information

Study Guide: Solar System

Study Guide: Solar System Study Guide: Solar System 1. How many planets are there in the solar system? 2. What is the correct order of all the planets in the solar system? 3. Where can a comet be located in the solar system? 4.

More information

Read the lesson. Use the words in the box to complete the concept web. The Sun is a, star or a fiery ball of hot gases.

Read the lesson. Use the words in the box to complete the concept web. The Sun is a, star or a fiery ball of hot gases. Lesson 1 Study Guide What is? Read the lesson. Use the words in the box to complete the concept web. chromosphere corona innermost photosphere prominences solar flare star sunspots Use with pages 257 259.

More information

4 HOW OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMED 750L

4 HOW OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMED 750L 4 HOW OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMED 750L HOW OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMED A CLOSE LOOK AT THE PLANETS ORBITING OUR SUN By Cynthia Stokes Brown, adapted by Newsela Planets come from the clouds of gas and dust that

More information

NOTES: GEORGIA HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE TEST THE SOLAR SYSTEM

NOTES: GEORGIA HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE TEST THE SOLAR SYSTEM NOTES: GEORGIA HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE TEST THE SOLAR SYSTEM 1.What is a Solar system? A solar system consists of: * one central star, the Sun and * nine planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn,

More information

Having completed the chapters on the planets,

Having completed the chapters on the planets, 15 The formation of our solar system was a long-ago event, with much of the matter of our primordial galactic cloud eventually either comprising the Sun and planets or ejected back into deep space. Now,

More information

Chapter 12 Remnants of Rock and Ice. Asteroids, Comets, and the Kuiper Belt

Chapter 12 Remnants of Rock and Ice. Asteroids, Comets, and the Kuiper Belt Chapter 12 Remnants of Rock and Ice Asteroids, Comets, and the Kuiper Belt What are asteroids like? Asteroid Facts Asteroids are rocky leftovers of planet formation. Largest is Ceres, diameter ~1,000 km

More information

astronomy 2008 1. A planet was viewed from Earth for several hours. The diagrams below represent the appearance of the planet at four different times.

astronomy 2008 1. A planet was viewed from Earth for several hours. The diagrams below represent the appearance of the planet at four different times. 1. A planet was viewed from Earth for several hours. The diagrams below represent the appearance of the planet at four different times. 5. If the distance between the Earth and the Sun were increased,

More information

TAKEN FROM HORIZONS 7TH EDITION CHAPTER 18 TUTORIAL QUIZ

TAKEN FROM HORIZONS 7TH EDITION CHAPTER 18 TUTORIAL QUIZ TAKEN FROM HORIZONS 7TH EDITION CHAPTER 18 TUTORIAL QUIZ 1. Which of the following are known to have ring systems? a. Saturn only. b. Jupiter, Uranus, and Saturn. c. Saturn, Jupiter, Uranus, and Neptune.

More information

This paper is also taken for the relevant Examination for the Associateship. For Second Year Physics Students Wednesday, 4th June 2008: 14:00 to 16:00

This paper is also taken for the relevant Examination for the Associateship. For Second Year Physics Students Wednesday, 4th June 2008: 14:00 to 16:00 Imperial College London BSc/MSci EXAMINATION June 2008 This paper is also taken for the relevant Examination for the Associateship SUN, STARS, PLANETS For Second Year Physics Students Wednesday, 4th June

More information

Our Island in Space. Our Island in Space. Cosmology and the Birth of Earth. Cosmology. Cosmology. Cosmology

Our Island in Space. Our Island in Space. Cosmology and the Birth of Earth. Cosmology. Cosmology. Cosmology Our Island in Space We pass our lives on our one planet Earth. Earth may seem endless; it isn t. Viewed from space, Earth is a small, shiny globe. It is truly our island oasis in space. Cosmology and the

More information

Lecture 19. 1) The geologic timescale: the age of the Earth/ Solar System the history of the Earth

Lecture 19. 1) The geologic timescale: the age of the Earth/ Solar System the history of the Earth Lecture 19 Part 2: Climates of the Past 1) The geologic timescale: the age of the Earth/ Solar System the history of the Earth 2) The evolution of Earth s atmosphere - from its origin to present-day 3)

More information

The Solar System. The Outer Planets

The Solar System. The Outer Planets chapter 12 3 The Solar System section 3 The Outer Planets Before You Read What do you know about the outer planets Jupiter, Uranus, Saturn, Neptune, or Pluto? What would you like to learn? What You ll

More information

Chapter 12 Remnants of Rock and Ice Asteroids, Comets, and the Kuiper Belt. Asteroid Facts. What are asteroids like? Asteroids with Moons

Chapter 12 Remnants of Rock and Ice Asteroids, Comets, and the Kuiper Belt. Asteroid Facts. What are asteroids like? Asteroids with Moons Chapter 12 Remnants of Rock and Ice Asteroids, Comets, and the Kuiper Belt 12.1 Asteroids and Meteorites Our goals for learning What are asteroids like? Why is there an asteroid belt? Where do meteorites

More information

Chapter 7 Lecture. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Our Planetary System Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 7 Lecture. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Our Planetary System Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 7 Lecture The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Our Planetary System Our Planetary System Earth, as viewed by the Voyager spacecraft 7.1 Studying the Solar System Our goals for learning: What

More information

4 Formation of the Universe

4 Formation of the Universe CHAPTER 2 4 Formation of the Universe SECTION Stars, Galaxies, and the Universe BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is the big bang theory? How

More information

Name Class Date. How did Earth s moon probably form? How does the moon s appearance change with time? What moons revolve around other planets?

Name Class Date. How did Earth s moon probably form? How does the moon s appearance change with time? What moons revolve around other planets? CHAPTER 4 A Family of Planets SECTION 4 Moons BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: How did Earth s moon probably form? How does the moon s appearance

More information

Lecture 13. Gravity in the Solar System

Lecture 13. Gravity in the Solar System Lecture 13 Gravity in the Solar System Guiding Questions 1. How was the heliocentric model established? What are monumental steps in the history of the heliocentric model? 2. How do Kepler s three laws

More information

Chapter 5. Determining Masses of Astronomical Objects

Chapter 5. Determining Masses of Astronomical Objects Chapter 5. Determining Masses of Astronomical Objects One of the most fundamental and important properties of an object is its mass. On Earth we can easily weigh objects, essentially measuring how much

More information

Small Bodies in the Solar System. Bigger is not better

Small Bodies in the Solar System. Bigger is not better Small Bodies in the Solar System Bigger is not better The Sun, planets, and moons are not the only objects in the solar system. Scientists estimate there are up to a trillion smaller bodies in our solar

More information

The Outer Worlds. Chapter Sixteen

The Outer Worlds. Chapter Sixteen The Outer Worlds Chapter Sixteen ASTR 111 003 Fall 2006 Lecture 13 Nov. 27, 2006 Introduction To Modern Astronomy I Introducing Astronomy (chap. 1-6) Planets and Moons (chap. 7-17) Ch7: Comparative Planetology

More information

Homework #3 Solutions

Homework #3 Solutions Chap. 7, #40 Homework #3 Solutions ASTR100: Introduction to Astronomy Fall 2009: Dr. Stacy McGaugh Which of the following is a strong greenhouse gas? A) Nitrogen. B) Water Vapor. C) Oxygen) The correct

More information

Planetesimal Dynamics Formation of Terrestrial Planets from Planetesimals

Planetesimal Dynamics Formation of Terrestrial Planets from Planetesimals Planetesimal Dynamics Formation of Terrestrial Planets from Planetesimals Protoplanetary disk Gas/Dust Planetesimals...... 10 6 yr 10 5-6 yr Protoplanets 10 7-8 yr Terrestrial planets Eiichiro Kokubo National

More information

Chapter 14 The Solar System. Greek Word Origins. astron chroma geo helios kentron photo sphaira

Chapter 14 The Solar System. Greek Word Origins. astron chroma geo helios kentron photo sphaira Greek Word Origins Greek Word Meaning Key Terms astron chroma geo helios kentron photo sphaira star color Earth sun near the center; central light sphere astronomy, asteroid chromosphere geocentric, geology

More information

Solar System Stroll: Tour Book

Solar System Stroll: Tour Book Solar System Stroll: Tour Book Version 1.2, 04/8/02 A walk through a 1 kilometer scale model of the Solar System The scale model activity Solar System Stroll is also available. 201 South Gammon Road, Madison,

More information

ASTR 115: Introduction to Astronomy. Stephen Kane

ASTR 115: Introduction to Astronomy. Stephen Kane ASTR 115: Introduction to Astronomy Stephen Kane ASTR 115: The Second Mid-Term Exam What will be covered? - Everything from chapters 6-10 of the textbook. What will be the format of the exam? - It will

More information

Notes Our Planetary System

Notes Our Planetary System Notes Our Planetary System 7.1 Studying the Solar System - Galileo s telescopic observations sparked a new era in which the Sun, Moon and planets could be studied as worlds rather than just mere lights

More information

A SOLAR SYSTEM COLORING BOOK

A SOLAR SYSTEM COLORING BOOK A SOLAR SYSTEM COLORING BOOK Brought to you by: THE SUN Size: The Sun is wider than 100 Earths. 1 Temperature: 27,000,000 F in the center, 10,000 F at the surface. So that s REALLY hot anywhere on the

More information

Chapter 7 Our Planetary System. What does the solar system look like? Thought Question How does the Earth-Sun distance compare with the Sun s radius

Chapter 7 Our Planetary System. What does the solar system look like? Thought Question How does the Earth-Sun distance compare with the Sun s radius Chapter 7 Our Planetary System 7.1 Studying the Solar System Our goals for learning:! What does the solar system look like?! What can we learn by comparing the planets to one another?! What are the major

More information