Biomass gasification technologies for advanced power systems and synfuels - Status and Present R&D activities in Finland

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1 Biomass gasification technologies for advanced power systems and synfuels - Status and Present R&D activities in Finland Esa Kurkela FINNISH SWEDISH FLAME DAYS Naantali, January 29, Biomass and waste gasification for boilers and kilns 1

2 3 REACTOR BIOFUEL FEED 850 C 900 C CFB GASIFIER RETURN LEG BOTTOM ASH COOLING SCREW UNIFLOW CYCLONE GASIFICATION AIR FAN AIR PREHEATER HOT LOW CALORIFIC GAS ( C) From: Foster Wheeler Atmospheric-pressure CFB/BFB gasification for kilns and boilers Commercial lime-kiln gasifiers were constructed in 1980 s by Ahlström Oy New development by Foster Wheeler in 1990 s for boiler applications Gasifiers are now offered by Foster Wheeler Carbona/Andritz Metso Power Feasible in size range MW Fuel drying is often needed to achieve required flame properties Efficient utilisation of wastes and biomass residues in existing power plants a cost-effective way to reduce CO 2 emissions of power plants - in operation since no commissioning problems - 50 high 000 fuel operating flexibilityhours - gasifier availability > 95 % - boiler emissions decreased - payback time ca. 8 years Main boiler 360 MW th Gasifier feed preparation CFB gasifier of 60MW From: Foster Wheeler 2

3 Corenso gasifier in Varkaus, Finland gasification of aluminium containing plastic reject material complete recycling of liquid cartoons (milk & juice packaging) 50 MW gas to boiler, 2100 t/year aluminium for re-use developed by VTT & Foster Wheeler Energia Oy in Plastic reject material with 10 % aluminium in operation since autumn 2001 Source: T.Anttikoski, Foster Wheeler Energia Oy From: Foster Wheeler 6 Gas cleaning: gas cooling followed by filtration Bed material/ Ca-based additive Gas cooler Coal burners Fuel feeding Sorbent Gas burner Filter 3

4 Fuel: SRF (RDF); Ceramic fabric filter (3M FB-900); Cyclone temperature o C; filter temperature 395 o C) 100,0 90,0 80,0 70,0 % of output 60,0 50,0 40,0 30,0 20,0 10,0 0,0 Na K Cl Al Ca Hg Sn Sb As Cd Pb V Mn Co Ni Cu Zn Mo Cr Si Mg Bottom ash Cyclone dust Filter dust Gas VTT data from late 1990 s Demonstration by Lahti Energia Oy (Lahti, Kymijärvi) - SRF fuelled gasification based WtE plant (CHP) - 2 x 80 MW th gasification & gas cleaning trains MW th gas fired boiler 8 Gasifier Gas cooling Gas cleaning Gas boiler Flue gas cleaning Bag house, Ca(OH) 2 + activated carbon Steam turbine RFD Natural gas/ oil auxiliary fuel High pressure steam Electricity, process steam 4

5 9 LahtiStreams IP (Advanced Integrated Waste Management and WtE Demonstration) ( Lahti Energia/FI, VTT/FI, L&T/FI, Dong Energy/DK, FZK/D; total budget 23.5 M ) ) - Demonstration of complete advanced waste management chain including: > waste processing > material recovery > SRD/RDF production > advanced high efficiency WtE plant > further treatment of ashes -R&D of - waste processing and material recovery - improved hot gas cleaning - advanced ash treatment - new gasification based high efficiency WtE technologies From: Metso Power 5

6 11 Biomass gasification for High-Efficiency Power EU-BigPower Biomass Gasification for High Efficiency Power October 2005 December 2008 Overall Budget for the project: k - Financed in part by EU FP6 Gasification systems Condens Oy, Finland Carbona Oy, Finland Repotec GmbH, Austria Biomasse Kraftwerk Güssing, Austria (Kokemäki & Skive sites) Power production equipment GE Jenbacher, Austria MTU CFC Solutions GmbH, Germany Catalytic Gas Cleaning and filtration MEL Chemicals, United Kingdom NortaUAB, Lithuania Madison Filter Ltd, United Kingdom R&D organisations supporting industrial development VTT - Technical Research Centre of Finland TUV - Technical University of Vienna, Austria CERTH - Centre of Research & Technology Hellas,Greece TKK - Helsinki University of Technology, Finland 6

7 Dual Fluidised-Bed Steam Gasification (Repotec, TUV & Biomasse Kraftwerk Güssing) Biomass-CHP-Plant-Güssing, 2 MWe MW heat from: Repotec and TUV Gasification CHP Plant, Denmark As result of Carbona s domestic and international R&D cooperation 6 MW POWER 12 MW DISTRICT HEAT BIOMASS GASIFIER SKIVE PROCESS DIAGRAM GAS FILTER TAR REFORMER GAS SCRUBBER 2 BOILERS TO STACK FLY ASH 2x10 MWth DISTRICT HEATING 12 MWth WATER AIR/STEAM GAS BUFFER TANK POWER 3x2 MWe BFB GASIFIER BOTTOM ASH GAS COOLERS 3 GAS ENGINES WOOD PELLETS FLARE 2 GAS BOILERS 3 GAS ENGINES 3 GAS ENGINES 14 7

8 15 Novel power plant: 1.8 MWe MW heat Supplier: Condens Oy Kokemäki, Finland Tar reformer Scrubber Novel gasifier Gas cooler and Filter Gas engines 16 Large-scale Power with Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle - IGCC Fluidised-Bed Gasification at 20 bar, o C Gas filtration at o C Combined Gas Turbine and Steam Turbine Process Developed and demonstrated in 1990 s Electric efficiency up to % Requires large-scale > 50 MW e Best global potential for CO 2 reduction New R&D on hot gas filtration by VTT in EU-BiGPower project in New demonstration projects when? Biomass IGCC Demonstration Plant, Värnamo, Sweden 8

9 17 Biomass gasification for liquid biofuels and green chemicals 18 Production of Biomass-Derived Synthesis Gas Initial step - two main approaches Biomass Typically: oxygen-blown entrained-flow gasifier Biomass Typically: fluidised-bed gasifier, either oxygenblown or indirectly heated (twin bed) Gasifier e.g. 900 ºC Gasifier 1200 ºC + Reformer 1200 ºC + (thermal) or e.g. 900 ºC (catalytic) Main technical challenge: prehandling, feeding of biomass Raw synthesis gas to cooling, clean-up and conditioning Main technical challenge: reforming of gas Raw synthesis gas to cooling, clean-up and conditioning 9

10 Synthesis Gas from Biomass VTT s UltraClean Gas project ( ) VTT,TKK, Foster Wheeler, Neste Oil, Andritz, Vapo, PVO, UPM, StoraEnso, M-real, Botnia pressurised gasification followed by catalytic reforming 500 kw Process development Unit studies for MW plants integrated to pulp and paper industry 19 PFB GASIFIER To slip stream testing facilities Bed material Additive CATR Gas cooler Pressure control valve Kemira s peat ammonia plant in 1990 Fuel feeding equipment Oxygen Steam Air Nitrogen Heating elements FILTER Ash removal Bed removal Heating elements Furnace VTT s 500 kw PDU for syngas and ultraclean fuel gas 20 Integration of FT-synthesis plant to pulp and paper mill Paper & pulp Process steam & power power plant Pulp and paper mill Energy to drying Gasification and gas treatment fuel gas + steam Wood, straw energy crops, peat, RDF Biomass handling and drying bark, forest residues, other biomass steam & oxygen synthesis -gas FT-synthesis & upgrading WoodDiesel 10

11 Efficiencies with Industrial-Heat Production Efficiency = 100 x [LHV-energy of main product + high-grade byproduct energy - {electricity / 0.4}] / [LHV-energy of as-received feedstock] 100 Overall Efficiency, % Primary energy out Main product (Electricity in) / FT CH3OH SNG H2 Feedstock drying: from 50 % moisture to 30 % with secondary heat; from 30 % to 15 % with by-product steam From: McKeough & Kurkela, NWBC, Stockholm SYNTHESIS GAS FROM BIOMASS FROM R&D TO INDUSTRIAL SUCCESS (road map made in VTT s UCG project in 2006) Peat ammonia plant Oulu/Finland Biorefineries at pulp and paper mills and at large CHP plants - diesel production: tons/plant - by-product heat for process steam or district heating - high overall efficiency First synfuel production plant MW feed capacity tons/a diesel fuel - 3 % Finnish transport fuel - start-up in Biomass/waste gasification for power (Lahti, Corenso, Värnamo, Kokemäki) Industrial demonstration: 15 MW - replacement of oil/gas - start-up in 2009 New applications - fuel cells, 2nd gen. IGCC - hydrogen or methane - renewable chemicals Synthesis gas R&D in Europe and USA in 1980 s R & D on hot filtration and catalytic gas cleaning VTT-UCG Optimised syngas R&D & PDU-scale development Further R&D - process optimisation - waste gasification - hydrogen technologies 11

12 23 The Finnish Development Path NSE Biofuels National UCG project: budget 4 MEUR, duration Biomass gasification and gas reforming experiments employing the 0.5 MW process development unit (PDU) at VTT Wide industrial consortium: Foster-Wheeler, Neste Oil, Andritz- Carbona, Vapo, PVO, UPM, M-real, Metsä-Botnia, Stora-Enso Demonstration phase now under way: Demonstration plant under construction at Varkaus, Finland; consortium: Neste Oil and Stora-Enso Stora Enso / Neste Oil Joint Venture for F-T BTL Diesel Fuel 50/50 Joint Venture NSE Biofuels Oy to first develop technology and later produce next generation renewable diesel crude from wood / forest residues Currently building a 12MW demonstration plant in Stora Enso s Varkaus mill, to be in use spring 2009 Investment decision for a commercial scale plant when the parties have enough experience from the demonstration plant Strong development consortium Joint Venture partners: Testing & research partner: Gasification supplier: From Neste Oil and Stora Enso 12

13 NSE Biofuels Demo 1 plant in Varkaus, Finland Biomass Kuivur Dryer i Silo 12 MW Gasifier Lime kiln 1. Commissioning as air blown lime kiln gasifier 2. Testing period as O 2 /H 2 O gasifier, gas cleaning, FT tests 3. Return to lime kiln gasifier 5 MW Gas cleaning and FT From Neste Oil and Stora Enso from: Neste Oil and Stora Enso

14 BTLtec 2008 PRESSURISED GASIFICATION OF BIOMASS Värnamo IGCC Demonstration Plant at 1990 s FW scope: Gasification plant from: Foster Wheeler COMMERCIAL SCALE BTL PRODUCTION PLANT BTLtec 2008 For BtL applications the size has been set roughly in the range of 100,000 t/a FT-waxes MW fuel FW already has draft layout of full-scale gasification plant for synthetic gas production The same biomass gasification concept could be applied for the production of: SNG Hydrogen Methanol Ethanol Electricity by biomass IGCC 14

15 29 The Finnish Development Path - UPM National UCG project: budget 4 MEUR, duration Biomass gasification and gas reforming experiments employing the 0.5 MW process development unit (PDU) at VTT Wide industrial consortium: Foster-Wheeler, Neste Oil, Andritz-Carbona, Vapo, PVO, UPM, M-real, Metsä-Botnia, Stora-Enso Demonstration phase now under way: Demonstration plant under construction at Varkaus, Finland; consortium: Neste Oil and Stora-Enso Pilot-plant testing at Gas Technology Institute, Chicago, USA; consortium: UPM and Carbona International Gasification R&D Cooperation CARBONA with The Gas Technology Institute Chicago, USA long term exclusive cooperation pressurized BFB gasification biomass fuels air and oxygen gasification gas cleanup systems for IGCC and BTL 30 15

16 Current Biofuel activities - BTL Backbone of UPM's Biofuel initiative Biomass to liquids development Route: FB-gasification Fischer Tropsch synthesis Product upgrade UPM strengths: Access to raw material Mill integration Close to core business Current status Exclusive alliance with Andritz/Carbona Piloting in Gas Technology Institute facility in Des Plaines, IL Commercial scale plant engineering ongoing & EIA initiated Site selection process ongoing Wood supply chain & logistics survey ongoing from: UPM Our 2G BTL Concept Synthetic Biomass Biomass drying drying Gasification Gasification & purification purification H 2 +CO FT-synthesis FT-synthesis & up-grading up-grading biodiesel C n H 2n+2 Bark Stumps Residues Wood Wood sourcing sourcing Pulp wood Water Water treatment treatment Pulp Pulp & paper paper mill mill CHP CHP plant plant Gas Technology Institute, Des Plaines, Illinois, US Paper mill units Additional units Material flow Energy flow from: UPM 16

17

18 UCGFUNDA Biomass gasification for synthesis applications - fundamental studies supporting industrial development projects 35 VTT, TKK and Åbo Akademi, total budget 1.5 M Financing by Tekes Biorefine, VTT and private companies (Carbona, Foster Wheeler, Metso Power, Neste Oil, Stora Enso, UPM & Vapo) Biomass characterisation for pressurised steam/oxygen-blown gasification: ash behaviour and reactivity Filter blinding and catalyst deactivation studies Tar reactions in non-catalytic and catalytic processes System studies on BTL-applications and hydrogen production Development of measuring methods for tars and other gas contaminants IEA groups: Biomass thermal gasification and Biomass Hydrogen C A R B O N Oil Coal Biomass Waste/SRF Gasification G A S C L E A N U P Syngas Energy (Fuel gas) FTsynthesis Hydrogen SNG MetOH SOFC IGCC Co-firing Gas engine CHP O 2 A i r S t e a m 18

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