BIOMASS RESEARCH at ECN. Bram van der Drift

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1 BIOMASS RESEARCH at ECN Bram van der Drift

2 ECN-BIOMASS ~50 persons, ~8 M /y, organized in three groups: power and heat biomass upgrading (torrefaction) waste to energy co-firing CHP (combustion, gasification) syngas and SNG syngas (feeding, slag/ash issues, ) SNG (indirect gasification, OLGA tar removal, ) transportation fuels and chemicals Fischer Tropsch ethanol (lignocellulose) chemicals and materials (biorefinery) 2 Biomassavergassing in Nederland, Enschede, 16 maart 2007

3 TORREFACTION 3 Biomassavergassing in Nederland, Enschede, 16 maart 2007

4 TORREFACTION (1) why? fact: so: coal is conventional turn biomass into coal to make things easy 250 MW e coal IGCC, Buggenum (NL) 2x600 MW e coal boiler, Geertruidenberg (NL) 4 Biomassavergassing in Nederland, Enschede, 16 maart 2007

5 TORREFACTION (2) what is it? gas biomass solids torrefaction temperature: C pressure: near atmospheric absence of oxygen product: solid phase (energy) energy densification (E/kg): = 1.3 particle size < 4 cm thickness residence time 10 to 60 min mass energy heating rate: <50 C/min 5 Biomassavergassing in Nederland, Enschede, 16 maart 2007

6 TORREFACTION (3) the conversion green biomass waste friable and less fibrous hydrophobic preserved homogeneous 19 to 22 MJ/kg (LHV, ar) < 5 GJ/m3 torre f pulv action a erisa n tion d kg/m GJ/m3 demolition wood tough and fibrous heterogeneous 15 to 18 MJ/kg (LHV, ar) < 5 GJ/m3 pelle TOP fuel powder tisati on TOP fuel pellets 6 Biomassavergassing in Nederland, Enschede, 16 maart 2007

7 TORREFACTION (4) easy grinding 100 power consumption [kwe/mwth] wood torrefied wood average particle size after pulverisation [mm] [ECN-reports: ECN-C , ECN , ECN ] 7 Biomassavergassing in Nederland, Enschede, 16 maart 2007

8 TORREFACTION (5) economics sawdust TOP process logistics (South Africa) 0.7 /GJ <2.0 /GJ 2.0 /GJ <4.7 /GJ Higher co-firing capacity Lower capital investment Higher co-firing flexibility and availability 2.2 /GJ 0.7 /GJ conventional 2.9 /GJ sawdust pelletisation (South Africa) logistics (co-)firing coal-fired power stations or entrained-flow gasifiers North-West Europe 5.8 /GJ 8 Biomassavergassing in Nederland, Enschede, 16 maart 2007

9 TORREFACTION (6) at ECN ECN focus: high energy efficiency heat integration pellet (TOP) integration compact moving bed technology Biomass Air Utility fuel Torrefaction gases Gas recycle Combustion Drying Torrefaction Cooling Flue gas Torrefied biomass P Flue gas Heat exchange Flue gas 9 Biomassavergassing in Nederland, Enschede, 16 maart 2007

10 TORREFACTION (7) roadmap capacity 5-10 kg/h 100 kg/h 20 kton/a kton/a Green biomass Proof-ofprinciple Proof-of-concept Prototype (pilot-scale) Technical demonstration Commercial demonstration Time Waste Proof-ofprinciple Proof-of-concept Prototype (pilot-scale) Technical demonstration Proof-of-concept Experimentally based process design Technology identification Knowledge base torrefaction Experimental infrastructure torrefaction Economic evaluation full-scale (+/- 30%) Set-up pilot phase of development Prototype (pilot-scale evaluation) Pilot plant / prototype technology Demonstration technical feasibility Process and product characterisation Economic evaluation full-scale (+/- 20%) Business plan(s) Technical demonstration Demonstration plant (semi-commercial) Technical feasibility (refined design) Product applications (large scale) Economic evaluation full-scale (+/-10%) Business plan(s) 10 Biomassavergassing in Nederland, Enschede, 16 maart 2007

11 SNG: SUBSTITUTE NATURAL GAS 11 Biomassavergassing in Nederland, Enschede, 16 maart 2007

12 SNG FROM BIOMASS (1) why? PJ/y natural gas (NL) production consumption NG in the Netherlands sources: CBS (history), WLO/2006 (projections) PJ/y natural gas (EU25) gas is popular, but not available consumption production European Union 25 sources: BP (history), IEA/2006 (projections) Biomassavergassing in Nederland, Enschede, 16 maart 2007

13 cost effectiveness [ /ton CO2-eq] SNG FROM BIOMASS (2) why? % 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% kerncentrales CO 2 opslag wind off-shore [% reduction CO2-eq.] bio-sng (20% of NG) SNG is relatively cheap and has great potential situation 2020/2030 in the Netherlands, reference NG price: 4.1 /GJ (oil 25 $/bbl) source data: optiedocument (2006), ECN renewable energy options other CO2-reduction options kilometerheffing [Mton reduction CO2-eq.] Biomassavergassing in Nederland, Enschede, 16 maart 2007

14 SNG FROM BIOMASS (3) why? cheap production at large scale biomass import no local biomass transport CO 2 available for storage, EOR,... gas storage enables whole year operation SNG plant efficient and cheap distribution of gas existing gas grid natural gas back-up easy application and many other reasons easy to meet emission limits distributed use for transport, heat, electricity high social acceptance biomass SNG (Substitute Natural Gas) 14 Biomassavergassing in Nederland, Enschede, 16 maart 2007

15 SNG FROM BIOMASS (4) system Lignite-to-SNG (US) 3 GW lignite-to-sng plant, Beulah, ND, USA 3 H 2 + CO CH 4 + H 2 O gasifier dry ash Lurgiupdraft tar removal condensation further gas cleaning CH 4 synthesis gas upgrading Biomass-to-SNG (ECN) 3 H 2 + CO CH 4 + H 2 O gasifier indirect fluidisedbed tar removal OLGA further gas cleaning CH 4 synthesis gas upgrading 15 Biomassavergassing in Nederland, Enschede, 16 maart 2007

16 SNG FROM BIOMASS (5) development status status gasifier tar removal further gas cleaning CH 4 synthesis gas upgrading 16 Biomassavergassing in Nederland, Enschede, 16 maart 2007

17 SNG FROM BIOMASS (6) indirect gasification with MILENA low-n 2 product gas indirect gasifier developed for high efficient SNG-production can be operated as SilvaGas and Güssing and BFB 25 kw available, 800 kw under construction pyrolysis in riser BFB combustor flue gas biomass combustion air carrier gas (steam, CO 2 ) 17 Biomassavergassing in Nederland, Enschede, 16 maart 2007

18 SNG FROM BIOMASS (7) at ECN 50 Concentration [%] CH4 CO2 H2 CO x Time [hours] wood MILENA gasifier OLGA tar removal gas cleaning methanation 18 Biomassavergassing in Nederland, Enschede, 16 maart 2007

19 SNG FROM BIOMASS (8) roadmap MW th biomass capacity 1000 full-scale SNG 100 SNG 10 1 demo 0% 10% 100% SNG pilot-scale (ECN) CHP + SNG SNG lab-scale (ECN) SNG Biomassavergassing in Nederland, Enschede, 16 maart 2007

20 OLGA TAR REMOVAL 20 Biomassavergassing in Nederland, Enschede, 16 maart 2007

21 OLGA TAR REMOVAL (1) the tar problem fouling waste water problem catalyst deactivation 21 Biomassavergassing in Nederland, Enschede, 16 maart 2007

22 OLGA TAR REMOVAL (2) development 2 nm3/h lab-scale facility at ECN, 2002, >1400 hours 2000 nm3/h plant in France, 2006, 100 hours 200 nm3/h pilot facility at ECN, 2003, 900 hours 22 Biomassavergassing in Nederland, Enschede, 16 maart 2007

23 OLGA TAR REMOVAL (3) the 4 MW th installation in France OLGA flare cyclone gasifier cooler saw dust gas engine wine residue 23 Biomassavergassing in Nederland, Enschede, 16 maart 2007

24 OLGA TAR REMOVAL (4) the 4 MW th installation in France Project details Moissannes in France Eneria is plant operator Dahlman is OLGA supplier ECN assisted design, start-up, and operation Key process data Saw dust and Wine residue 4 MW th fixed bed gasifier, 1.1 MW e gas engine OLGA removes fine dust + tar 100 hours of OLGA operation Performance according design Duration tests planned in Biomassavergassing in Nederland, Enschede, 16 maart 2007

25 MORE INFORMATION Bram van der Drift e: t: w: PO Box 1 NL 1755 ZG Petten the Netherlands publications: composition database: tar dew point calculator: IEA (task 33: biomass gasification): 25 Biomassavergassing in Nederland, Enschede, 16 maart 2007

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