Options for tar reforming in biomass gasification. Klas J. Andersson, Poul Erik Højlund Nielsen - IFC 2012

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1 Options for tar reforming in biomass gasification Klas J. Andersson, Poul Erik Højlund Nielsen - IFC 2012

2 Gasification Biomass Natural gas Coal Waste CO CO 2 H 2 Syngas Hydrogen Methanol DME Gasoline SNG Power Ammonia

3 Haldor Topsøe A/S - A global supplier of catalysts and technologies Headquarters Topsøe offices Research Production Engineering Sale & Marketing Alberta Copenhagen Moscow Los Angeles Houston Bahrain New Delhi Beijing Tokyo Kuala Lumpur Rio Buenos Aires Subsidiaries Haldor Topsoe, Inc. Haldor Topsøe International A/S, Denmark Haldor Topsoe India Pvt. Ltd. India ZAO Haldor Topsøe, Russia Subcontinent Ammonia Investment Company ApS (SAICA) Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S, Denmark

4 Introduction to biomass gasification Biomass gasification (except black liquor) is usually based on fluidized bed. Carbona, FW, Repotech etc The outlet temperature ( C) is restricted by ash stickiness BIOMASS GASIFIER TAR REFORMER Tar (C 6+ -PAHs), ~500 ppm 1 vol % Energy loss, fouling, waste water treatment, downstream catalyst deactivation etc. H 2 S: ppm ASH

5 Tar reforming 1. Increased gas production 2. Convert polyaromatic components to an extent that allows the syngas to cool for further processing without fouling or precipitation 3. Utilize the high temperature levels from gasification for increased efficiency

6 Tar reforming Tar reformer Syngas Easy: H 2 O + CO H 2 + CO 2 H 2 O + COS H 2 S + CO 2 Always (almost) in equilibrium C 1-10 bar Difficult in ppm H 2 S: CH 4 + H 2 O CO + 3H 2 C n H m + H 2 O CO + H 2 strongly endothermic Tar + H 2 O CO + H 2 2NH 3 N 2 + 3H 2 Treated Syngas

7 Links to neighboring HTAS technologies Similarities: Reforming of higher hydrocarbons Prereforming of heavy NG Naphtha steam reforming Sulfur passivated reforming (SPARG)

8 Hot gas filters Quench gas HOT GAS FILTER GASIFIER BIOMASS-FEED 5-10 mg dust / Nm 3 TAR REFORMER AIR / O 2 / H 2 O DUST SYNGAS CLEAN-UP ASH

9 Hot gas filters Pressurized gasification = yes clean tar reforming Atmospheric gasification = less likely, huge filter vessel dirty tar reforming

10 Choice of catalyst in dirty vs. clean tar reforming: coated monolith vs. catalyst pellets Monolith, coated w/ catalyst Catalyst pellet, bulk catalyst * Low P: can handle dusty environments. * Low density of active material. * Higher P: dust sensitive. * High density of active material.

11 Tar reforming layouts Dusty tar reformer Combined heat and power applications Low pressure drop Coarse clean up Avoiding dust accumulation is the major challenge

12 Tar reforming layouts Clean tar reformer Chemicals: SNG, gasoline etc. Higher catalyst load Clean syngas Can design to preserve or convert methane

13 Heating options in clean tar reforming Direct Syngas Indirect (SPARG) Oxygen CMD Treated Syngas

14 Clean vs. dirty tar reforming, pros and cons Clean, pressurized Chemicals, from SNG to BTL + Increased range of operability, flexibility + High poison capacity - Higher O 2 consumption (filter temperature) - Dust sensitivity Dirty, atmospheric Combined Heat and Power (CHP) + Largely dust insensitive, high alkali content + High T inlet - Limited flexibility

15 HTAS tar reforming activities Commercial projects, collaboration with Carbona E.On, pre-feed Bio2G, SNG (200 MW LHV-CH4 ) Skive Fjernvarme, CHP (20 MW th ) Gas Technology Institute pilot (5 MW th ) Tests financed by E.On and UPM Proof of concept & design basis Laboratory tests on model gases

16 Learned Tar reforming economy Opex: ~Cost neutral Increased gas production Competitive compared to washes (bio diesel, OLGA etc)

17 Wood to Gasoline Demonstration Project Green Gasoline From Wood Using Carbona Gasification and Topsoe TIGAS Processes BIOMASS BIOMASS GASIFIER TAR REFORMER TAR REFORMER GASIFIER Gas MeOH / DME Gasoline Cleaning Synthesis Synthesis ASH OXYGEN

18 Wood to Gasoline Demonstration Project Green Gasoline From Wood Using Carbona Gasification and Topsoe TIGAS Processes

19 Thank you!

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