Experimental DTC of an Induction Motor Applied to Optimize a Tracking System


 Kory Harrison
 2 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Euopean Aociation fo the Development of Renewable Enegie, Envionment and Powe Quality (EA4EPQ) Intenational Confeence on Renewable Enegie and Powe Quality (ICREPQ 2) Santiago de Compotela (Spain), 28th to 3th Mach, 22 Expeimental DTC of an Induction Moto Applied to Optimize a Tacking Sytem B. Mokhtai, A. Ameu, M. F. Benkhoi 2, L. Mokani and B. Azoui 3 LEDMaSeD Laboatoy, Electical Engineeing Depatment, Laghouat Univeity, BP 37G, Ghadaia Steet, Laghouat (3), Algeia, 2 IREENA, Polytech'Nante, Site de SaintNazaie, 37 bd de l'univeité  BP 46, 4462 SaintNazaie cedex 3 LEB Laboatoy, Electical Engineeing Depatment, Batna Univeity, Chahid M.E.H. Boukhlouf Steet, Batna (5), Algeia, Abtact. In ecent yea, the aea of indutial application of high pefomance AC dive, epecially the induction moto (IM), baed on Diect Toque Contolle (DTC) technique ha gadually inceaed due to it advantage ove the othe technique of contol. Among thee application ae cited, populion and tacking ytem. Thi wok peent the expeimental pat of a eeach poject conducted by the autho whee they have implemented an algoithm fo a DTC in ode to achieve a tacking ytem deigned fo a eie of ola panel to maximize it oveall efficiency. In thi pape, thee diffeent witching table ae peented fo chooing the bet between them fo a le fluctuation in toque. Thi tudy i jutified by educed cot of implementation compaed to othe method that equie the ue of expenive hadwae and complicated contol technique. The tet wee caied out unde the ame condition with the ame equipment of the tetbed, to get a good compaative tudy. Thee vaiant wee teted: imple witching table, table of ecto hifted by 3 and a table with 2 ecto. The eult how an impovement, but a dilemma between the toque ipple and thoe of the tato flux. Key wod Induction Moto, Diect Toque Contol, Switching Table, Toque and Flux Ripple, Tacking ytem, ola panel efficiency.. Intoduction High dynamic pefomance of evo moto dive i indipenable in many application of today automatically contolled machine. AC evo moto contol ha attacted much attention ecently in the powe electonic field []. The IM ha eveal advantage ove othe type of electic moto. The ecent development of the technology of powe electonic ha put in competition a few othe type of moto, which had difficulty of deign in the pat, uch a the pemanent magnet ynchonou moto, fo example. But pobably, it will tay, fo next yea, the mot dominant moto in indutial application, becaue of it technoeconomic chaacteitic [6]. DTC wa intoduced in 985 by Takahahi and Depenbock epecially fo the aynchonou and ynchonou machine [], [6]. The main advantage of DTC ae the implicity of the contol cheme and it uneponivene to paamete vaiation (except tato eito), [7]. In the conventional DTC, the employment of the hyteei contolle, in ode to egulate the tato magnetic flux and toque, have by natue high toque ipple and vaiable witching fequency depending on peed, load toque and hyteei band. Thi lead to a difficulty to contol toque and flux at a vey low peed [8]. Lacu, C.et al.in [9], have peented a modified DTC uing (SVM) fo an IM with fixed witching fequency and low ipple fo toque and flux. Thi ytem equie two popotionalintegal (PI) contolle popely tuned at the ame time fo the bet pefomance. Matin, C. et al in [] and Ciincione, M., et al. in [] have popoed olution to educe the toque ipple, thi tategy elie on inceaing the numbe of vecto applied voltage, which can impove the ipple band of toque. The IM which i poweed by a theelevel invete ha the ame dynamic pefomance a thoe obtained with a twolevel invete with low toque and flux ipple, but thi inceae the cot of implantation, due to the cot of the theelevel invete and alo the witching table become lage. The aim of thi tudy i to have a imple and le expenive ytem, to apply it to a tacking ytem which wa popoed by [5], and can be ued fo themal ytem o photovoltaic; thi equie that it focue on impovement, oftwae ide only. Fo thi, we mut keep the ame equipment of tetbed and the ame contol condition (gain of PI egulato, efeence value, hyteei compaato), and theefoe, only the witching table mut be changed. The pefomance of ola panel ha alway been
2 conideed to be inufficient and we have to make them moe efficient to upply a moe ignificant enegy fo low and medium powe ytem. Among eveal paamete that influence pefomance we may cite the iadiation of unlight pojected onto the ola panel and captued by photovoltaic cell. Seveal tudie have been made to impove the oveall efficiency and thu benefit the mot fom the obtained tanfomed enegy [25]. The unlight captue block popoed by the autho in [5], i updated and coected o that it i eady to achieve oon. Figue how a diagam of the new tuctue. It diffe fom the peviou model by the poition of the photodiode which i eponible fo the detection of the unie, becaue it i moe convenient. So we mut place it in the back of the ola panel o that it i diectly in font of unie. The eat way of un ay The ide of ola panel Shadow Tube ized accoding to the pefomance degadation Panel uface Sunie photodiode Rotation axi Two photodiode Fig.. A new tuctue of the unlight captue block The expeimental tudy examine a DTC applied to an IM fo thee diffeent witching table: imple witching table, table with ecto hifted by 3 and table with 2 ecto in ode to educe the ipple of the electomagnetic toque and flux. 2. Optimal poition capto Thi block i deigned by thee photodiode, two ae located on the font of the ola panel, thei ole i to enue the optimal location of the un duing the day, while the thid photodiode located in the back of the ola panel to detect unie when the panel i facing wet. One of the two photodiode included in a tube of pedetemined length (depending on the deied accuacy of degadation of the unlight) to detect the hadow when the un move along it tajectoy. The ytem will be locked when we each the two logic tate: ' 'and '', whee ' 'epeent an excitation of the photodiode and '' epeent the abence of excitation. The following table lit all poible tate that can occu duing the whole day of opeation. Table. Summay of the ytem popoed duing the day Event State (logical) Action (contol) Sunie Rotate to the Eat Ray Panel Lock (no otation) The Sun Move Rotate to the Wet Ray Panel Lock (no otation) Cloud / Sunet Lock (no otation) Cloud miing Rotate to the Wet Sunie Rotate to the Eat If we ymbolize (left to ight) the tate of the fit photodiode with 'A', and that of the econd with 'B' and then we ue 'C' fo the thid, we can ee fom the table, that the movement will begin in two way:' ' and ''. 3. IM model The tato and oto flux equation of IM can be witten in the efeence fame of Pak in the following fom: Such a: A = B = X σ σl = σl T ω X = AX + BU t t [ i i φ φ ],U = [ v v ] α + β T α β  ω + σ T T α β σl T ω σl () ω σl σlt 2 m L L, σ =,T =,T = (2) L L In addition, the electomagnetic toque can be expeed by: T e 3 = p( φ α iβ φβiα ) (3) 2 The mechanical equation of the IM can be expeed a flow:. J Ω = T T f Ω (4) 4. Conventional DTC e The DTC, a hown in figue 2, conit of diectly contolling the invete witche tun OFF o ON, on the calculated value of the tato flux and toque fom elation (6) and (7). The efeence fame elated to the tato, make poible to etimate flux and toque on the one hand and the poition of flux tato on the othe hand. The aim of the witche contol i to give the vecto epeenting the tato flux the diection detemined by the efeence value.
3 The ynthetic equence can be illutated though the following example: Auming that the flux vecto i located in ecto [5], then if the eo between the efeence flux and the tato flux i poitive, we mut inceae the flux, thi i only poible by applying a voltage vecto in the ame diection, accoding to (4) o V (), V2 () o V6 (). Howeve, applying voltage of oppoite diection V3 (), V4 () o V5 () deceae the vaiation of the flux. On the othe hand, if the eo between the efeence toque and the electomagnetic toque i poitive we mut inceae the electomagnetic toque by applying the voltage vecto in the half plane of poitive angle, accoding to (5), i.e. V2 (), V3 () o V4 (). Tying vecto V (), V5 () o V6 (), deceae the toque [5]. t φ α = ( v α I α ) dt t φ β = ( ) v β I β dt (5) φ ( k + ) φ ( k) + VTE φ VTE (6) ' ' T = k ( φ + φ ) = k φ φ in( δ) (7) whee: T E i the ample time e Fig.2. Block Diagam of a Conventional DTC A two level claical invete can achieve even epaate poition in the phae coeponding to the eight equence of the voltage invete [], [5]. Table 2 how the equence fo each poition. Futhemoe, Table 4 and 5 have the equence coeponding to the poition of the tato flux vecto in diffeent ecto fo the othe tategie of ST (ee figue 3 and 4). The flux and toque ae contolled by two compaato with hyteei. The dynamic toque, ae geneally fate than the flux. So, a compaato hyteei of eveal level i, jutified to adjut the toque and minimize the witching fequency aveage [5]. Table 2. Table genealized of voltage vecto geneated by a conventional DTC. Inceae Deceae φ V k,v k and V k+ V k2,v k+2 and V k+3 5. DTC with ecto hifted by 3 The ame pinciple of baic DTC contol of the IM, which i upplied by a twolevel invete, i applied fo the othe ST. All ecto ae hifted by an angle of 3 leading to an angle of the fit ecto between and 6 a hown in figue 3. β V 4 =( ) V 3 =( ) S 3 S 4 S 2 S 5 V 2 =( ) S S 6 V 5 =( ) V 6 =( ) Secto V =( ) Fig.3. Diffeent vecto of tato voltage, in cae of table with ecto hifted by 3. The diffeence between a DTC with a imple witching table and that with ecto hifted i ummaized in table 3. Table 3. Compaion between the imple table and the table with ecto hifted by 3. Simple Table Secto hifted by 3 V toque undetemined DT, IF V IT, IF IT, IF V IT, DF flux undetemined V toque undetemined IT, DF V DT, DF DT, DF V DC, IF flux undetemined whee: I(D)T(F) : Inceae (Deceae) of Toque (Flux) Table 4 peent the witching table when the ecto ae hifted by 3. We can ee the diffeence fom the conventional DTC in the thid and the fouth line fo conventional witching table. Table 4. Switching table of DTC with hifting 3 φ T e S S 2 S 3 S 4 S 5 S DTC with 2 ecto The 2 ecto method ue the ame block diagam a hown in figue 2; but the witching table now conit of 2 non null voltage vecto, to be elected. The flux angle now lie on one of the 2 ecto a hown in figue 4. α
4 V 3 =( ) β S 4 S 3 V 2 =( ) Secto The cae of ecto hifted by 3 peent the mot emakable impovement. S 5 S 2 V 4 =( ) S 6 S 7 S S 2 V =( ) α S 8 S S 9 S V 5 =( ) V 6 =( ) V 3 (DF,IT) V 2 (IF,IT) Fig.6. Toque epone, fo all tategie of DTC. V4(DF,SIT) V 5 (DF,DT) V (IF,SDT) V 6 (IF,DT) Fig.4. Diffeent vecto of tato voltage in cae of table with 2 ecto. with: SI(D)T : Small Inceae (Deceae) of Toque. The witching logic i imila to that of a conventional DTC [6]. Table 5 how the tategy fo the fit ecto and the 2 ecto whee we can deduce the et of all ecto. Figue 7 how the eaon why the conventional and the DTC with 2 ecto ae not o diffeent, which i confimed by [6]. DTC with ecto hifted by 3 i well chaacteized by a diffeent PWM, which give bette impovement in tem of ipple. Table 5. Switching table of DTC with 2 ecto S S 2 Flux Toque Inceae V,V 2 and V 6 V,V 2 and V 6 Deceae V 3,V 4 and V 5 V 3,V 4 and V 5 Inceae V 2,V 3 and V 4 V,V 2 and V 3 Deceae V 5,V 6 and V V 4,V 5 and V 6 7. DTC expeimental eult A. Pat The paamete of the IM ued in thi tudy and the deciption of the tetbed ae given at the end of thi pape. Fo a compaion tudy, the eult ae gouped into et of thee. In Figue 5, the oto peed eache it efeence with a gap of about 4ad / fo the imple table and the table of 2 ecto, the efeence of thi peed i ad /. thi diffeence i due to the load which i 5 N.m. In the ame tet condition, the oto peed dop by about 2 ad / in the cae of ecto hifted by 3 compaed to the othe table, but it may be noted that fluctuation in peed, ae le peent in the latte tategy compaed to the othe two tategie. Fig.7. Voltage of a tato phae, fo all tategie. In figue 8, the tato flux ha fewe ipple in the cae of conventional DTC than the othe tategie. Thi cae peent a dilemma fo choice between ipple of toque and ipple of flux. The flux otation fequency, in the cae of ecto hifted by 3 i bigge than that of othe table; theefoe the flux pefom well in thee two table than in the table with ecto hifted, thi can intepet the ipple of tato flux. Fig.8. Stato flux, fo all tategie of DTC. Fig.5. Roto Speed, fo all tategie of DTC. The toque ha been impoved in the lat two tategie (Figue 6), but even if it wa chaacteized by annoying fluctuation. Fig.9. Occupation zone, fo all tategie.
5 B. Pat 2 In the following wok, we will chooe a cenaio fo teting the contol ytem, thi cenaio i ummaized in table 6. Table 6. Scenaio imulation fo tacking of ola panel. Peiod () Event State (logic) Action (movement)  2,2 The Sun move Rotate to the Wet 2,24,62 Optimal poition Lock (no movement) 4,627,2 Sunie Rotate to the Eat 7,29,62 Optimal poition Lock (no movement) 9,62 The Sun move Rotate to the Wet Whee thee ae cloud, i imila to the unet, howeve, the tate that follow take '' indicating that the panel hould tun to the Wet. 8. Concluion In thi wok, we have examined and validated the algoithm of a imple DTC, applied to a tacking ytem in the aim to optimize a global panel ola efficiency. Thee witching table have been peented and teted; the expeimental eult how that the table with ecto hifted by 3 can impove the toque ipple which i inteeting fo the application in iue (tacking ytem), but not thoe of the tato flux. Table with 2 ecto can alo impove the contol lightly, confiming the eult of [6], but it epoted le inteet ince it employ a witching table lage enough compaed to the othe two tategie. Thi expeimental tudy help u to adopt the bet imple witching table, it i ecommended to ue the hifted table tategy to implement the tacking ytem deigned fo ola ytem (themal o photovoltaic). Deciption of the tetbed Fig.. Roto Speed, fo DTC with ecto hifted by 3 PC: P3(X86 Family 6, Model 8, tepping 6), 866 MHz, 256 MO (Ram), VGA: Matox Millinium G45 Dual head (32 MO), OS: Window 2 po. DSPACE: ISA, DSP 3 PPC Contolled Boad. INVERTER: Two level (max KHz), IGBT (2V 5A). SENSORS:, Speed: Univeal DIGISINE, DHO5 [BEIIDEACOD], 2, Cuent: AM3N A/V, (Input: A peak max, DC. khz output:mv/a, V peak max. 3, Voltage: Diffeential DP with two output  Fig.. Toque, fo DTC with ecto hifted by 3. whee: Fig.3. Tetbed ued in the peent tudy. : the IM 2: DSPASE conol 3: the twolevel invete 4: the load (PMSG) Fig.2. Stato flux, fo DTC with ecto hifted by 3. To maintain the toque equalling zeo, one ha to cancel the tato flux, othewie one i not able to have a zeo toque in the moment whee the flux and the cuent ae not indicating zeo, becaue the unloaded cuent i till non null accoding to (2). Table 7. IM paamete ued in thi tudy Pole pai 2 Rated powe kw (at 5 Hz) 4 Rated voltage (V) 22/38 R (Ω).3 R (Ω).9 L, (H).9 M (H).8 J(kg.m²).9 f (N.m./ad).3
6 Acknowledgment Thi expeimental tudy wa conducted within the laboatoy IREENA in St Nazaie, Univeity of Nante. The IREENA' team membe find hee ou appeciation and acknowledgment. Refeence []. I. Takahahi, and Y. Ohmoi, Highpefomance Diect Toque Contol of an Induction Moto. IEEE Tanaction on Induty Application, Vol. 25, Mach/Apil 989, pp [2]. B.K. Boe, High Pefomance Contol of Induction Moto Dive. IEEE, IES Newlette, Vol. 45, pp. 7, Sept [3]. X. Roboam, B. De Fonel and M. PietzakDavid, Loi de commande diecte de couple du moteu aynchone, chapite 6, Modéliation Contôle Vectoiel et DTC, commande de moteu aynchone (Law of diect toque contol of aynchonou moto, Chapte 6, Modeling, Vectoial Contol and DTC, contol of aynchonou moto.) Vol., Hemè Science Euope 2 Edition. [4]. G.M.A. Sahan, A.A. Nafeh, M.H. Shalan, Diect Toque Contol of PM Synchonou Moto. In Jounal of Electic Engineeing, Vol., 2, Edition 4, p [5]. B. Mokhtai, A. Ameu, L. Mokani, B. Azoui and M.F. Benkhoi, DTC Applied to Optimize Sola Panel Efficiency. In Poc, IECON O9, 25 Novembe 29, Poto, Potugal, pp [6]. L. Zhong, M.F. Rahman, W.Y. Hu, K.W. Lim, and M.A. Rahman, A Diect Toque Contolle fo Pemanent Magnet Synchonou Moto Dive. IEEE Tanaction on Enegy Conveion, Vol. 4, Septembe 999, pp [7]. A. Ameu, B. Mokhtai, L. Mokani, B. Azoui, N. Eounbouli and A. Hamzaoui An Impoved Sliding Mode Obeve fo Speed Senole Diect Toque Contol Of PMSM Dive With a TheeLevel NPC Invete Baed Speed And Stato Reitance Etimato. In Jounal of Electic Engineeing, Vol., 2, Edition 4, pp.9. [8]. C.G. Mei, S.K. Panda, J.X. Xu and K.W. Lim, Diect Toque Contol of Induction MotoVaiable Switching Seno. Conf. Rec. IEEEPEDS, July 999, Hong Kong, pp [9]. C. Lacu, I. Boldea and F. Blaabjeg, A Modified Diect Toque Contol fo Induction Moto Senole Dive. IEEE Tan. Ind. Applicat, vol. 36 no., Jan/ Feb 2, pp []. C. Matin, X. Roboam, T.A. Meynad and A.S. Cayalho, Switching Fequency Impoition and Ripple Reduction in DTC Dive by Uing a Multilevel Convete. IEEE Tan. Powe Electon., vol. 7, iue 2, Mach 22, pp []. M. Ciincione, M. Pucci and G. Vitale, A novel diect toque contol of an induction moto dive with a theelevel invete. IEEE Bologna Powe Tech Confeence, June 2326, Italy, 23, Vol. 3, pp.7. [2]. E. Hoain, R. Muhida, and A. Ali,, Efficiency impovement of ola cell uing compound paabolic concentato and un tacking ytem, IEEE Electical Powe & Enegy Confeence (EPEC 28), Vancouve, Canada, Octobe 67, 28. [3]. C. Alexandu, M. Comit, The enegy balance of the photovoltaic tacking ytem uing vitual pototyping platfom. Euopean Electicity Maket, 28. EEM 28, 5th Intenational Confeence on, 283 May 28 [4]. R. Lau, H. Kim; M. Pang, A. Neidhadt, A. Cineo, V. Kaul, Selfcoecting Adaptive Tacking Sytem. Militay Communication Confeence, 28. MILCOM 28, IEEE, 69 Nov. 28, pp.7. [5]. C. JungSik, K. DoYeon, P. KiTae, C. ChungHoon, C. DongHwa, Deign of Fuzzy Contolle baed on PC fo Sola Tacking Sytem. Smat Manufactuing Application, ICSMA 28. Intenational Confeence on, 9 Apil 28, pp [6]. B.S. Kuma, R.A. Gupta, and R. Kuma, 2Secto Methodology of Toque Ripple Reduction in a Diect Toque Contolled Induction Moto Dive. SICEICASE Intenational Joint Confeence 26, Oct. 82, 26, in Bexco, Buan, Koea, pp
Small Hydropower Plant with variable speed PM generator
Witold MAZGAJ, Zbigniew SZULAR, Tomaz WĘGEL, Tadeuz SOBCZYK Politechnika Kakowka, ntytut Elektomechanicznych Pzemian Enegii Small Hydopowe Plant with vaiable peed PM geneato Abtact. Thi pape peent a new
More informationSpace Vector Modulated Direct Torque Controlled (DTC SVM) Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive
Waaw niveity of Technology Faculty of Electical Engineeing Intitute of Contol and Indutial Electonic Ph.D. Thei acin Żelechowki,. Sc. Space Vecto odulated Diect Toque Contolled (DTC SV) Invete Fed Induction
More informationModelling and simulation of a signal injection selfsensored drive
Modelling and imulation o a ignal injection elenoed dive Alen Poljugan Faculty o Electical Engineeing and Computing, Depatment o electic machine, dive and automation, Univeity o Zageb Unka, Zageb, Coatia,
More informationEffect of Unemployment Insurance Tax On Wages and Employment: A Partial Equilibrium Analysis
Effect of Unemployment nuance Tax On Wage and Employment: atial Equilibium nalyi Deegha Raj dhikai, Oklahoma Employment Secuity Commiion ynn Gay, Oklahoma Employment Secuity Commiion Jackie Bun, Texa &
More informationChapter 30: Magnetic Fields Due to Currents
d Chapte 3: Magnetic Field Due to Cuent A moving electic chage ceate a magnetic field. One of the moe pactical way of geneating a lage magnetic field (.11 T) i to ue a lage cuent flowing though a wie.
More informationSolutions to Problems: Chapter 7
Solution to Poblem: Chapte 7 P71. P72. P73. P74. Authoized and available hae LG 2; Baic a. Maximum hae available fo ale Authoized hae 2,000,000 Le: Shae outtanding 1,400,000 Available hae 600,000 b.
More informationDSC Baseline Improvements Obtained by a New Heat Flow Measurement Technique
DS Baeline Impovement Obtained by a New Heat Flow Meauement Technique obet L. Danley, Pete A. aulfield TA Intument, 109 Luken Dive, New atle DE 19720 ABSTAT Nealy all diffeential canning caloimety (DS)
More informationStandardized Coefficients
Standadized Coefficient Ta. How do ou decide which of the X ae mot impotant fo detemining? In thi handout, we dicu one poile (and contoveial) anwe to thi quetion  the tandadized egeion coefficient. Fomula.
More informationInternational Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences and Technology
Int. J. Pue App. Sci. Techno., 4(1) (211), pp. 4148 Intenationa Jouna of Pue and Appied Science and Technoogy ISSN 2229617 Avaiabe onine at www.ijopaaat.in Reeach Pape Effect of Roto Reitance Vaue of
More informationScal abil it y of ANSYS 16 applicat ions and Hardware select ion.
Technical white pape Scal abil it y of ANSYS 16 applicat ion and Hadwae elect ion. On multicoe and floating point acceleato poceo ytem Table of Content Ab t a ct... 2 Tet configuation detail... 2 Meage
More informationOptimizing Supply Chain Collaboration Based on Negotiation and Bargain Power for Single Retailer And Single Supplier
Poceeding of the Intenational MultiConfeence of Enginee and Compute Scientit 20 Vol II,, Mach , 20, Hong Kong Optimizing Supply Chain Collaboation Baed on Negotiation and Bagain Powe fo Single Retaile
More informationVector Calculus: Are you ready? Vectors in 2D and 3D Space: Review
Vecto Calculus: Ae you eady? Vectos in D and 3D Space: Review Pupose: Make cetain that you can define, and use in context, vecto tems, concepts and fomulas listed below: Section 7.7. find the vecto defined
More informationLesson 2 Power Factor Improvement, Harmonic Reduction, Filter
Lesson 2 Powe Facto Impovement, Hamonic Reduction, Filte 1. Powe Facto Impovement Fo phasecontolled opeation in both single phase full wave half and full contolled bidge convetes, the displacement facto
More informationModelling and Simulation of Four Quadrant Operation of Three Phase Brushless DC Motor With Hysteresis Current Controller
ISSN (Pint) : 30 375 Vol., Issue, June 03 Modelling and Simulation of Fou Quadant Opeation of Thee Phase Bushless DC Moto With Hysteesis Cuent Contolle Sanita C S, J T Kuncheia PG Student [IDAC], Dept.
More informationDeflection of Electrons by Electric and Magnetic Fields
Physics 233 Expeiment 42 Deflection of Electons by Electic and Magnetic Fields Refeences Loain, P. and D.R. Coson, Electomagnetism, Pinciples and Applications, 2nd ed., W.H. Feeman, 199. Intoduction An
More informationCoordination and Risk Sharing with Considering Supply Chain External Quality Fault
COMPUTER MODELLING & NEW TECHNOLOGIES 14 18(1C) 44545 Abtact Coodination and Rik Shaing with Conideing Supply Chain Extenal Quality Fault Li Yongfei 1,* 1 School of Economic and Management, Xian Univeity
More informationSECTION 53 Angles and Their Measure
53 Angle and Thei Meaue 357 APPLICATIONS Appoximating. Poblem 93 and 9 efe to a equence of numbe geneated a follow: If an nd egula polygon i incibed in a cicle of adiu, then it can be hown that the aea
More informationINITIAL MARGIN CALCULATION ON DERIVATIVE MARKETS OPTION VALUATION FORMULAS
INITIAL MARGIN CALCULATION ON DERIVATIVE MARKETS OPTION VALUATION FORMULAS Vesion:.0 Date: June 0 Disclaime This document is solely intended as infomation fo cleaing membes and othes who ae inteested in
More informationThe Essence of the Electromagnetic Wave is Not Energy
The Eence of the Electomagnetic Wave i Not Enegy Zeng Qingping Ai Foce Rada Academy Pofeo cienceum@yahoocn Abtact The cutomay opinion i: electic ave o light ave i enegy, TYang expeiment i the intefeence
More informationPurchase and rental subsidies in durablegood oligopolies* 1
Hacienda Pública Epañola / Review of Public Economic, 3(/05): 40 05, Intituto de Etudio Ficale DOI: 0.7866/HPERPE.5.. Puchae and ental ubidie in duablegood oligopolie* AMAGOIA SAGASTA JOSÉ M. USATEGUI
More informationCOMPARISON OF SCALAR AND VECTOR CONTROL STRATEGIES OF INDUCTION MOTORS
HUNGARIAN JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY VESZPRÉM Vol. 9() pp. 6570 (0) COMPARISON OF SCALAR AND VECTOR CONTROL STRATEGIES OF INDUCTION MOTORS G. KOHLRUSZ, D. FODOR Univeity of Pannonia, Faculty of Engineeing,
More informationContinuous Compounding and Annualization
Continuous Compounding and Annualization Philip A. Viton Januay 11, 2006 Contents 1 Intoduction 1 2 Continuous Compounding 2 3 Pesent Value with Continuous Compounding 4 4 Annualization 5 5 A Special Poblem
More informationForces & Magnetic Dipoles. r r τ = μ B r
Foces & Magnetic Dipoles x θ F θ F. = AI τ = U = Fist electic moto invented by Faaday, 1821 Wie with cuent flow (in cup of Hg) otates aound a a magnet Faaday s moto Wie with cuent otates aound a Pemanent
More information1D STEADY STATE HEAT
D SEADY SAE HEA CONDUCION () Pabal alukda Aociate Pofeo Depatment of Mecanical Engineeing II Deli Email: pabal@mec.iitd.ac.in Palukda/MecIID emal Contact eitance empeatue ditibution and eat flow line
More informationAN IMPLEMENTATION OF BINARY AND FLOATING POINT CHROMOSOME REPRESENTATION IN GENETIC ALGORITHM
AN IMPLEMENTATION OF BINARY AND FLOATING POINT CHROMOSOME REPRESENTATION IN GENETIC ALGORITHM Main Golub Faculty of Electical Engineeing and Computing, Univesity of Zageb Depatment of Electonics, Micoelectonics,
More informationSamples of conceptual and analytical/numerical questions from chap 21, C&J, 7E
CHAPTER 1 Magnetism CONCEPTUAL QUESTIONS Cutnell & Johnson 7E 3. ssm A chaged paticle, passing though a cetain egion of space, has a velocity whose magnitude and diection emain constant, (a) If it is known
More informationStrength Analysis and Optimization Design about the key parts of the Robot
Intenational Jounal of Reseach in Engineeing and Science (IJRES) ISSN (Online): 23209364, ISSN (Pint): 23209356 www.ijes.og Volume 3 Issue 3 ǁ Mach 2015 ǁ PP.2529 Stength Analysis and Optimization Design
More informationParameter Identification of DC Motors
Paamete dentification of DC Moto utho: Dipl.ng. ngo öllmecke dvantage of the Paamete dentification Method Saving time and money in the teting poce: no anical coupling neceay Full infomation: Entie chaacteitic
More informationThe Role of Gravity in Orbital Motion
! The Role of Gavity in Obital Motion Pat of: Inquiy Science with Datmouth Developed by: Chistophe Caoll, Depatment of Physics & Astonomy, Datmouth College Adapted fom: How Gavity Affects Obits (Ohio State
More informationThe transport performance evaluation system building of logistics enterprises
Jounal of Industial Engineeing and Management JIEM, 213 6(4): 194114 Online ISSN: 213953 Pint ISSN: 2138423 http://dx.doi.og/1.3926/jiem.784 The tanspot pefomance evaluation system building of logistics
More informationThe Doppler Effect in Warning Signals: Perceptual Investigations into Aversive Reactions Related to Pitch Changes
The Dopple Effect in Waning Signals: Peceptual Investigations into Avesive Reactions Related to Pitch Changes Clemens KuhnRahloff & Matin Neukom Institute fo Compute Music and Sound Technology (ICST,
More informationA Discussion about a Startup Procedure of a DoublyFed Induction Generator System
1 A Dicuion about a Statup Pocedue o a DoublyFed Induction Geneato Sytem J. L. Da Silva*, R. G. de Oliveia*, S. R Silva*, B. Rabelo** and W. Homann** *Fedeal Univeity O Mina Geai/Electic Engineeing Reeach
More informationMagnetic Bearing with Radial Magnetized Permanent Magnets
Wold Applied Sciences Jounal 23 (4): 495499, 2013 ISSN 18184952 IDOSI Publications, 2013 DOI: 10.5829/idosi.wasj.2013.23.04.23080 Magnetic eaing with Radial Magnetized Pemanent Magnets Vyacheslav Evgenevich
More informationExam 3: Equation Summary
MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Depatment of Physics Physics 8.1 TEAL Fall Tem 4 Momentum: p = mv, F t = p, Fext ave t= t f t= Exam 3: Equation Summay total = Impulse: I F( t ) = p Toque: τ = S S,P
More informationApplication Note, V1.0, July 2006 AP16097 XC164. Different PWM Waveforms Generation for 3Phase AC Induction Motor with XC164CS.
Application Note, V1.0, July 006 AP16097 XC164 Diffeent PWM Wavefom Geneation fo 3Phae AC Induction Moto with XC164CS Micocontolle Edition 0060804 Publihed by Infineon echnologie AG 8176 München, Gemany
More informationDecisionDriven Fixed Income Attribution
Reeach am (Yanqiu) Zhong +44 (0)20 3134 7577 yanqiu.zhong@baclay.com Diecto, Index, otfolio & Rik Solution DeciionDiven Fixed Income Attibution  Match Attibution ith Invetment DeciionMaking oce Octobe
More informationChapter 3 Savings, Present Value and Ricardian Equivalence
Chapte 3 Savings, Pesent Value and Ricadian Equivalence Chapte Oveview In the pevious chapte we studied the decision of households to supply hous to the labo maket. This decision was a static decision,
More informationSIMULATION OF GAS TURBINES OPERATING IN OFFDESIGN CONDITION
SIMULAION OF GAS URBINES OPERAING IN OFFDESIGN CONDIION Analdo Walte: awalte@fem.unicamp.b Univesity of Campinas Dept. of Enegy DE/FEM/Unicamp P.O. Box 6122  ZIP code 13083970  Bazil Abstact. In many
More informationUsing Model Checking to Analyze Network Vulnerabilities
Uing Model Checking to Analyze Netwok Vulneabilitie Ronald W. Ritchey Paul Ammann * National Secuity Team Infomation and Softwae Engineeing Depatment Booz Allen & Hamilton Geoge Maon Univeity Fall Chuch,
More informationPhysics 235 Chapter 5. Chapter 5 Gravitation
Chapte 5 Gavitation In this Chapte we will eview the popeties of the gavitational foce. The gavitational foce has been discussed in geat detail in you intoductoy physics couses, and we will pimaily focus
More informationA framework for the selection of enterprise resource planning (ERP) system based on fuzzy decision making methods
A famewok fo the selection of entepise esouce planning (ERP) system based on fuzzy decision making methods Omid Golshan Tafti M.s student in Industial Management, Univesity of Yazd Omidgolshan87@yahoo.com
More informationRevision Guide for Chapter 11
Revision Guide fo Chapte 11 Contents Student s Checklist Revision Notes Momentum... 4 Newton's laws of motion... 4 Gavitational field... 5 Gavitational potential... 6 Motion in a cicle... 7 Summay Diagams
More informationGravitational Mechanics of the MarsPhobos System: Comparing Methods of Orbital Dynamics Modeling for Exploratory Mission Planning
Gavitational Mechanics of the MasPhobos System: Compaing Methods of Obital Dynamics Modeling fo Exploatoy Mission Planning Alfedo C. Itualde The Pennsylvania State Univesity, Univesity Pak, PA, 6802 This
More informationON THE (Q, R) POLICY IN PRODUCTIONINVENTORY SYSTEMS
ON THE R POLICY IN PRODUCTIONINVENTORY SYSTEMS Saifallah Benjaafa and JoonSeok Kim Depatment of Mechanical Engineeing Univesity of Minnesota Minneapolis MN 55455 Abstact We conside a poductioninventoy
More informationDetermining solar characteristics using planetary data
Detemining sola chaacteistics using planetay data Intoduction The Sun is a G type main sequence sta at the cente of the Sola System aound which the planets, including ou Eath, obit. In this inestigation
More informationPredictive Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Based on Optimization Model Algorithmic Control
Pedictive Contol of Pemanent Magnet Synchonous Moto Based on Optimization Model Algoithmic Contol 1 Chen Junshuo, 2 Liu Jinglin, 3 Zhang Ying *1, Chen Junshuo School of Automation, Nothwesten Ploytechnical
More informationMultiband Microstrip Patch Antenna for Microwave Applications
IOSR Jounal of Electonics and Communication Engineeing (IOSRJECE) ISSN: 22782834, ISBN: 22788735. Volume 3, Issue 5 (Sep.  Oct. 2012), PP 4348 Multiband Micostip Patch Antenna fo Micowave Applications
More informationEffect of Contention Window on the Performance of IEEE 802.11 WLANs
Effect of Contention Window on the Pefomance of IEEE 82.11 WLANs Yunli Chen and Dhama P. Agawal Cente fo Distibuted and Mobile Computing, Depatment of ECECS Univesity of Cincinnati, OH 452213 {ychen,
More informationApplications of the Doubly Fed Induction Machine (DFIM)
Application of the Doubly Fed Induction Machine (DFIM) Autho: Gonzalo Abad 1 Miguel Ángel Rodíguez 2 Gzegoz Iwanki 3 1 Unieity of Mondagon, Spain 2 Ingeteam Tanmiion & Ditibution S.A., Spain. 3 Waaw Unieity
More informationAn Epidemic Model of Mobile Phone Virus
An Epidemic Model of Mobile Phone Vius Hui Zheng, Dong Li, Zhuo Gao 3 Netwok Reseach Cente, Tsinghua Univesity, P. R. China zh@tsinghua.edu.cn School of Compute Science and Technology, Huazhong Univesity
More informationNewton s Shell Theorem
Newton Shell Theoem Abtact One of the pincipal eaon Iaac Newton wa motivated to invent the Calculu wa to how that in applying hi Law of Univeal Gavitation to pheicallyymmetic maive bodie (like planet,
More informationOPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BRUSHLESS DC MOTORS
OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BRUSHLESS DC MOTORS Ronald De Fou Depatment of Electical & Compute Engineeing, The Univesity of the West Indies St. Augustine, Tinidad defou@eng.uwi.tt Emily Ramouta Univesity
More informationComparing Availability of Various Rack Power Redundancy Configurations
Compaing Availability of Vaious Rack Powe Redundancy Configuations By Victo Avela White Pape #48 Executive Summay Tansfe switches and dualpath powe distibution to IT equipment ae used to enhance the availability
More informationPAN STABILITY TESTING OF DC CIRCUITS USING VARIATIONAL METHODS XVIII  SPETO  1995. pod patronatem. Summary
PCE SEMINIUM Z PODSTW ELEKTOTECHNIKI I TEOII OBWODÓW 8  TH SEMIN ON FUNDMENTLS OF ELECTOTECHNICS ND CICUIT THEOY ZDENĚK BIOLEK SPŠE OŽNO P.., CZECH EPUBLIC DLIBO BIOLEK MILITY CDEMY, BNO, CZECH EPUBLIC
More informationAdvanced Control of Active Filters. in a Battery Charger Application. Martin Bojrup
Advanced Contol of Active Filtes in a Battey Chage Application Matin Bojup Lund 999 ii Cove pictue Measuement on the dynamic esponse of the MRI hamonic filte contolle: load cuent (top), esulting line cuent
More informationInstituto Superior Técnico Av. Rovisco Pais, 1 1049001 Lisboa Email: virginia.infante@ist.utl.pt
FATIGUE LIFE TIME PREDICTIO OF POAF EPSILO TB30 AIRCRAFT  PART I: IMPLEMETATIO OF DIFERET CYCLE COUTIG METHODS TO PREDICT THE ACCUMULATED DAMAGE B. A. S. Seano 1, V. I. M.. Infante 2, B. S. D. Maado
More informationResearch on Risk Assessment of the Transformer Based on Life Cycle Cost
ntenational Jounal of Smat Gid and lean Enegy eseach on isk Assessment of the Tansfome Based on Life ycle ost Hui Zhou a, Guowei Wu a, Weiwei Pan a, Yunhe Hou b, hong Wang b * a Zhejiang Electic Powe opoation,
More informationDesign of Wind Energy System on the Building Tower Applications
ISSN(Online): 398753 ISSN (Pint) :34767 (An ISO 397: 7 Cetified Oganization) Vol. 4, Issue, Febuay 5 Design of Wind Enegy System on the Building owe Applications D.Anusha, L V Suesh Kuma, G.V. Nagesh
More informationManual ultrasonic inspection of thin metal welds
Manual ultasonic inspection of thin metal welds Capucine Capentie and John Rudlin TWI Cambidge CB1 6AL, UK Telephone 01223 899000 Fax 01223 890689 Email capucine.capentie@twi.co.uk Abstact BS EN ISO 17640
More informationHEALTHCARE INTEGRATION BASED ON CLOUD COMPUTING
U.P.B. Sci. Bull., Seies C, Vol. 77, Iss. 2, 2015 ISSN 22863540 HEALTHCARE INTEGRATION BASED ON CLOUD COMPUTING Roxana MARCU 1, Dan POPESCU 2, Iulian DANILĂ 3 A high numbe of infomation systems ae available
More informationThe Detection of Obstacles Using Features by the Horizon View Camera
The Detection of Obstacles Using Featues b the Hoizon View Camea Aami Iwata, Kunihito Kato, Kazuhiko Yamamoto Depatment of Infomation Science, Facult of Engineeing, Gifu Univesit aa@am.info.gifuu.ac.jp
More informationAvoided emissions kgco 2eq /m 2 Reflecting surfaces 130
ANALYSIS OF GLOBAL WARMING MITIGATION BY WHITE REFLECTING SURFACES Fedeico Rossi, Andea Nicolini Univesity of Peugia, CIRIAF Via G.Duanti 67 0615 Peugia, Italy T: +9075585846; F: +90755848470; E: fossi@unipg.it
More informationLab M4: The Torsional Pendulum and Moment of Inertia
M4.1 Lab M4: The Tosional Pendulum and Moment of netia ntoduction A tosional pendulum, o tosional oscillato, consists of a disklike mass suspended fom a thin od o wie. When the mass is twisted about the
More informationIn order to master the techniques explained here it is vital that you undertake plenty of practice exercises so that they become second nature.
Radians At school we usually lean to measue an angle in degees. Howeve, thee ae othe ways of measuing an angle. One that we ae going to have a look at hee is measuing angles in units called adians. In
More informationMULTIPLE SOLUTIONS OF THE PRESCRIBED MEAN CURVATURE EQUATION
MULTIPLE SOLUTIONS OF THE PRESCRIBED MEAN CURVATURE EQUATION K.C. CHANG AND TAN ZHANG In memoy of Pofesso S.S. Chen Abstact. We combine heat flow method with Mose theoy, supe and subsolution method with
More informationA THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF NATURAL AND APPLIED SCIENCES OF MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY BARIŞ TUĞRUL ERTUĞRUL
SENSORESS VECTOR CONTRO OF INDUCTION MOTOR BASED ON FUX AND SPEED ESTIMATION A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOO OF NATURA AND APPIED SCIENCES OF MIDDE EAST TECHNICA UNIVERSITY BY BARIŞ TUĞRU ERTUĞRU
More informationNUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE
19 Jul 04 NMR.1 NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE In this expeiment the phenomenon of nuclea magnetic esonance will be used as the basis fo a method to accuately measue magnetic field stength, and to study magnetic
More informationPerformance Analysis of an Inverse Notch Filter and Its Application to F 0 Estimation
Cicuits and Systems, 013, 4, 1171 http://dx.doi.og/10.436/cs.013.41017 Published Online Januay 013 (http://www.scip.og/jounal/cs) Pefomance Analysis of an Invese Notch Filte and Its Application to F 0
More informationChannel selection in ecommerce age: A strategic analysis of coop advertising models
Jounal of Industial Engineeing and Management JIEM, 013 6(1):89103 Online ISSN: 0130953 Pint ISSN: 013843 http://dx.doi.og/10.396/jiem.664 Channel selection in ecommece age: A stategic analysis of
More informationEthernetbased and functionindependent vehicle controlplatform
Ethenetbaed and independent vehicle contolplatfom motivation, idea and technical concept fulfilling quantitative afetyequiement fom ISO26262 Andea Zikle, Michael Ambute, Ludge Fiege, Gunte Feitag,
More informationUNIVERSIDAD DE CANTABRIA TESIS DOCTORAL
UNIVERSIDAD DE CANABRIA Depatamento de Ingenieía de Comunicaciones ESIS DOCORAL Cyogenic echnology in the Micowave Engineeing: Application to MIC and MMIC Vey Low Noise Amplifie Design Juan Luis Cano de
More informationThe Tradeoff between Intra and Intergenerational Equity in Climate Policy: Can Carbon Leakage be Justified?
CREE Woking Pape 9/2012 The Tadeoff between Inta and Integeneational Equity in Climate Policy: Can Cabon Leakage be Jutified? Snoe Kvendokk, Eic Nævdal and Linda Nøtbakken The CREE Cente acknowledge
More information(3) Bipolar Transistor Current Sources
B73 lectonics Analysis & Design (3) Bipola Tansisto Cuent Souces Leaning utcome Able to descibe and: Analyze and design a simple twotansisto BJT cuentsouce cicuit to poduce a given bias cuent. Analyze
More informationSmart Antenna Array Calibration Procedure Including Amplitude and Phase Mismatch and Mutual Coupling Effects
Smat Antenna Aay alibation Pocedue Including Amplitude and Phase Mismatch and Mutual oupling Effects Kapil R. Dandeka, Hao Ling, and Guanghan Xu Univesity of Texas at Austin, Dept. of Elec. And omp. Eng.
More informationHomework Solutions Unit 4: Chapter 22 CMPSC 465
Homeok Solution Unit : Chapte CMPSC 65 Diclaime: Thi i a daft of olution that ha been pepaed b the TA and the intucto make no guaantee that olution peented hee contain the leel of detail that ould be expected
More informationCoordinate Systems L. M. Kalnins, March 2009
Coodinate Sstems L. M. Kalnins, Mach 2009 Pupose of a Coodinate Sstem The pupose of a coodinate sstem is to uniquel detemine the position of an object o data point in space. B space we ma liteall mean
More informationSemipartial (Part) and Partial Correlation
Semipatial (Pat) and Patial Coelation his discussion boows heavily fom Applied Multiple egession/coelation Analysis fo the Behavioal Sciences, by Jacob and Paticia Cohen (975 edition; thee is also an updated
More informationSeventh Edition DYNAMICS 15Ferdinand P. Beer E. Russell Johnston, Jr. Lecture Notes: J. Walt Oler Texas Tech University
Seenth 15Fedinand P. ee E. Russell Johnston, J. Kinematics of Lectue Notes: J. Walt Ole Texas Tech Uniesity Rigid odies CHPTER VECTOR MECHNICS FOR ENGINEERS: YNMICS 003 The McGawHill Companies, Inc. ll
More informationExperiment 6: Centripetal Force
Name Section Date Intoduction Expeiment 6: Centipetal oce This expeiment is concened with the foce necessay to keep an object moving in a constant cicula path. Accoding to Newton s fist law of motion thee
More informationXIIth PHYSICS (C2, G2, C, G) Solution
XIIth PHYSICS (C, G, C, G) 6 Solution. A 5 W, 0 V bulb and a 00 W, 0 V bulb ae connected in paallel acoss a 0 V line nly 00 watt bulb will fuse nly 5 watt bulb will fuse Both bulbs will fuse None of
More informationTracking/Fusion and Deghosting with Doppler Frequency from Two Passive Acoustic Sensors
Tacking/Fusion and Deghosting with Dopple Fequency fom Two Passive Acoustic Sensos Rong Yang, Gee Wah Ng DSO National Laboatoies 2 Science Pak Dive Singapoe 11823 Emails: yong@dso.og.sg, ngeewah@dso.og.sg
More informationApplication Note. 8bit Microcontrollers. AVR494: AC Induction Motor Control Using the constant V/f Principle and a Natural PWM Algorithm
AVR494: AC Induction Moto Contol Uing the contant V/f Pinciple and a Natual PWM Algoithm Featue Coteffective and flexible phae induction moto dive Inteupt diven Low memoy and computing equiement 8bit
More informationSolutions to Homework Set #5 Phys2414 Fall 2005
Solution Set #5 1 Solutions to Homewok Set #5 Phys414 Fall 005 Note: The numbes in the boxes coespond to those that ae geneated by WebAssign. The numbes on you individual assignment will vay. Any calculated
More informationInduction Motor Diagnosis in Variable Speed Drives
Univeity of Bologna FACULTY OF ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Ph.D. in Electical Engineeing XXII Cycle Powe Electonic, Electical Machine and Dive (INGIND/32) Induction Moto Diagnoi in
More informationThe impact of migration on the provision. of UK public services (SRG.10.039.4) Final Report. December 2011
The impact of migation on the povision of UK public sevices (SRG.10.039.4) Final Repot Decembe 2011 The obustness The obustness of the analysis of the is analysis the esponsibility is the esponsibility
More informationAP Physics Electromagnetic Wrap Up
AP Physics Electomagnetic Wap Up Hee ae the gloious equations fo this wondeful section. F qsin This is the equation fo the magnetic foce acting on a moing chaged paticle in a magnetic field. The angle
More informationSo we ll start with Angular Measure. Consider a particle moving in a circular path. (p. 220, Figure 7.1)
Lectue 17 Cicula Motion (Chapte 7) Angula Measue Angula Speed and Velocity Angula Acceleation We ve aleady dealt with cicula motion somewhat. Recall we leaned about centipetal acceleation: when you swing
More informationest using the formula I = Prt, where I is the interest earned, P is the principal, r is the interest rate, and t is the time in years.
9.2 Inteest Objectives 1. Undestand the simple inteest fomula. 2. Use the compound inteest fomula to find futue value. 3. Solve the compound inteest fomula fo diffeent unknowns, such as the pesent value,
More informationThe force between electric charges. Comparing gravity and the interaction between charges. Coulomb s Law. Forces between two charges
The foce between electic chages Coulomb s Law Two chaged objects, of chage q and Q, sepaated by a distance, exet a foce on one anothe. The magnitude of this foce is given by: kqq Coulomb s Law: F whee
More informationEvaluating the impact of Blade Server and Virtualization Software Technologies on the RIT Datacenter
Evaluating the impact of and Vitualization Softwae Technologies on the RIT Datacente Chistophe M Butle Vitual Infastuctue Administato Rocheste Institute of Technology s Datacente Contact: chis.butle@it.edu
More informationTiming Synchronization in High Mobility OFDM Systems
Timing Synchonization in High Mobility OFDM Systems Yasamin Mostofi Depatment of Electical Engineeing Stanfod Univesity Stanfod, CA 94305, USA Email: yasi@wieless.stanfod.edu Donald C. Cox Depatment of
More informationAn Infrastructure Cost Evaluation of Single and MultiAccess Networks with Heterogeneous Traffic Density
An Infastuctue Cost Evaluation of Single and MultiAccess Netwoks with Heteogeneous Taffic Density Andes Fuuskä and Magnus Almgen Wieless Access Netwoks Eicsson Reseach Kista, Sweden [andes.fuuska, magnus.almgen]@eicsson.com
More information4a 4ab b 4 2 4 2 5 5 16 40 25. 5.6 10 6 (count number of places from first nonzero digit to
. Simplify: 0 4 ( 8) 0 64 ( 8) 0 ( 8) = (Ode of opeations fom left to ight: Paenthesis, Exponents, Multiplication, Division, Addition Subtaction). Simplify: (a 4) + (a ) (a+) = a 4 + a 0 a = a 7. Evaluate
More informationSTUDENT RESPONSE TO ANNUITY FORMULA DERIVATION
Page 1 STUDENT RESPONSE TO ANNUITY FORMULA DERIVATION C. Alan Blaylock, Hendeson State Univesity ABSTRACT This pape pesents an intuitive appoach to deiving annuity fomulas fo classoom use and attempts
More informationTHE PRINCIPLE OF THE ACTIVE JMC SCATTERER. Seppo Uosukainen
THE PRINCIPLE OF THE ACTIVE JC SCATTERER Seppo Uoukaie VTT Buildig ad Tapot Ai Hadlig Techology ad Acoutic P. O. Bo 1803, FIN 02044 VTT, Filad Seppo.Uoukaie@vtt.fi ABSTRACT The piciple of fomulatig the
More informationTheory and practise of the gindex
Theoy and pactise of the gindex by L. Egghe (*), Univesiteit Hasselt (UHasselt), Campus Diepenbeek, Agoalaan, B3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium Univesiteit Antwepen (UA), Campus Die Eiken, Univesiteitsplein,
More informationELECTRİC DRİVE SYSTEMS AND MATLAB APPLICATIONS
EECTRİC DRİVE SYSTEMS AND MATAB Assist. Pof. D. H. İbahim OKUMUŞ Engineeing Faculty Electical & Electonics Engineeing Depatment (D. Nik Rumzi Nik Idis in des notlaından alınmıştı) 1 Contents 1. Intoduction
More informationYang, Jin (2011) Fault analysis and protection for wind power generation systems. PhD thesis.
Yang, Jin (011) Fault analyi and potection fo wind powe geneation ytem. PhD thei. http://thee.gla.ac.uk/40/ Copyight and moal ight fo thi thei ae etained by the autho A copy can be downloaded fo peonal
More informationThe LCOE is defined as the energy price ($ per unit of energy output) for which the Net Present Value of the investment is zero.
Poject Decision Metics: Levelized Cost of Enegy (LCOE) Let s etun to ou wind powe and natual gas powe plant example fom ealie in this lesson. Suppose that both powe plants wee selling electicity into the
More informationQuestions & Answers Chapter 10 Software Reliability Prediction, Allocation and Demonstration Testing
M13914 Questions & Answes Chapte 10 Softwae Reliability Pediction, Allocation and Demonstation Testing 1. Homewok: How to deive the fomula of failue ate estimate. λ = χ α,+ t When the failue times follow
More information