ELECTRİC DRİVE SYSTEMS AND MATLAB APPLICATIONS


 Esmond Owens
 1 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 EECTRİC DRİVE SYSTEMS AND MATAB Assist. Pof. D. H. İbahim OKUMUŞ Engineeing Faculty Electical & Electonics Engineeing Depatment (D. Nik Rumzi Nik Idis in des notlaından alınmıştı) 1
2 Contents 1. Intoduction to Electical Dives Rotational Systems, oad couplings, Enegy elationship Quadant opeation Steadystate and dynamic opeation 2. DC moto dives Review of dc motos and chaacteistics Single and theephase thyisto convete cicuits. Tansisto switchedmode convetes. Analysis of convete and dc moto cicuits. Effects of discontinuous conduction on dive. 3. Field oiented contol of induction moto dives Spacevecto epesentation of machine mmfs, voltages, and cuents. Dynamic analysis of the induction moto using the synchonously otating efeence fame; Condition fo alignment of the diectaxis with otoflux axis. Indiect otoflux oiented contol stuctue. Effect of oto timeconstant on FOC. 2
3 4. Synchonous moto dives Review of synchonous motos and chaacteistics Salient and nonsalient pole machines; Reluctance motos Pefomance unde Voltage Souce Invete (VSI) dive Pefomance unde Cuent Souce Invete (CSI) dive oad commutated dive. 5. Application of symmetical component theoy to the opeation of induction motos 5.1 Example of an asymmetical connection (constant voltage type) 5.2 The geneal poblem (phase voltages not constant) 5.3 Connections with line and phase impedances 5.4 Connection with idle phase 6. Opeating anges of the thee phase induction moto 6.1 Plugging 6.2 Motoing 6.3 Induction geneating 3
4 Text Books and Refeences Fo futhe eading, the following books may be consulted: 1. Electic Dives  Ion Boldea, S.A.Nasa, Cc Pess lc, Powe Semiconducto Contolled Dives  G. K. Dubey, Pentice Hall, Fundamentals of Electic Dives M. A. ElShakawi, Thompson eaning, Electic Machines and Dives G. R. Slemon, Addison Wesley, Powe Electonic Contol of AC Motos J. M. D. Muphy and G. G. Tunbull, Pegamon Pess, Powe Electonics and Moto Dives W. Shephed,. N. Hulley and D. T. W. iang, Cambidge Univesity Pess, 2nd edition, Electic Dives N. Mohan, MNPERE, Minneapolis, USA, Vas P., "Sensoless Vecto and Diect Toque Contol", 1998, Oxfod Univesity Pess 8. Mohan N., Undeland T.M., Robbins W.P., " Powe Electonics; Convetes, Applications and Design", 1995, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 9. Wildi T., "Electical Machines, Dives, and Powe Systems", 1991, Speika Entepises td. 10. Pillai S.K. "Fist Couse on Electical Dives", 1982, Wiley Easten TD 4
5 11. Hancock N.N, "Elektik Powe Utilization ", 1967, Si Isaac Pitman and Sons td. 12. Bose B.K., "Powe Electonics and AC Dives", 1986, Pintice Hall 13. Subahmanyam V., "Thyisto Contol of Electic Dives", 1986, Tata McGawHill 14. Muphy J.M., "Thyisto Contol of AC Motos", 1973, Pegamon Pess Sen P.C., "Thyisto DC Dives", 1981, John Willey and Sons td. 15. Goss H., "Electical Dives fo Machine Tools", 1983, Siemens 16. Halıcı Kemal, "Elektik Motolai ile Tahik", 1969, Yildiz Univesitesi 17. Unalan E., "Elektikle Tahik", 1967, ITU 18. Kaynak O., "Tah'k Sistemlei", 1986, Bogazici Univesitesi 19. Badu O., "Elektik Kumanda Develei", 1978, MEB Yayini 20. Asik E., "Bantli Konveyole", TMMOB Makine Muhendislei Odasi Yayini (Yayin No:98) 5
6 Desin intenet sitesi: 6
7 Electical Dives Dives ae systems employed fo motion contol Requie pime moves Dives that employ electic motos as pime moves ae known as Electical Dives 7
8 Electical Dives About 50% of electical enegy used fo dives Can be eithe used fo fixed speed o vaiable speed 75%  constant speed, 25% vaiable speed (expanding) MEP 1522 will be coveing vaiable speed dives 8
9 What is a vaiable speed dive? The basic function of a vaiable speed dive (VSD) is to contol the flow of enegy fom the mains to the pocess. To contol the flow of enegy toque and speed theefoe must be contolled. MAINS Toque, Speed Enegy Convesion (Vaiable Speed Dive System) VSD OAD 9
10 Example on VSD application Constant speed Vaiable Speed Dives Supply moto valve pump Powe In Powe out Powe loss Mainly in valve 1 0
11 Example on VSD application Constant speed Vaiable Speed Dives valve Supply moto pump Supply PEC moto pump Powe In Powe out Powe In Powe out Powe loss Mainly in valve Powe loss 1 1
12 Example on VSD application Constant speed Vaiable Speed Dives valve Supply moto pump Supply PEC moto pump Powe In Powe out Powe In Powe out Powe loss Mainly in valve Powe loss 1 2
13 Conventional electic dives (vaiable speed) Bulky Inefficient inflexible 1 3
14 Moden electic dives (With powe electonic convetes) Small Efficient Flexible 1 4
15 Moden electic dives Utility inteface Renewable enegy Machine design Speed sensoless Machine Theoy Intedisciplinay Seveal eseach aea Expanding Nonlinea contol Realtime contol DSP application PFC Speed sensoless Powe electonic convetes 1 5
16 Components in electic dives e.g. Single dive  sensoless vecto contol fom Hitachi 1 6
17 Components in electic dives e.g. Multidives system fom ABB 1 7
18 Components in electic dives Motos DC motos  pemanent magnet wound field AC motos induction, synchonous (IPMSM, SMPSM), bushless DC Applications, cost, envionment Powe souces DC batteies, fuel cell, photovoltaic  unegulated AC Single thee phase utility, wind geneato  unegulated Powe pocesso To povide a egulated powe supply Combination of powe electonic convetes Moe efficient Flexible Compact ACDC DCDC DCAC ACAC 1 8
19 Components in electic dives Contol unit Complexity depends on pefomance equiement analog noisy, inflexible, ideally has infinite bandwidth. digital immune to noise, configuable, bandwidth is smalle than the analog contolle s DSP/micopocesso flexible, lowe bandwidth  DSPs pefom faste opeation than micopocessos (multiplication in single cycle), can pefom complex estimations 1 9
20 Oveview of AC and DC dives Extacted fom Boldea & Nasa 2 0
21 Oveview of AC and DC dives DC motos: Regula maintenance, heavy, expensive, speed limit Easy contol, decouple contol of toque and flux AC motos: ess maintenance, light, less expensive, high speed Coupling between toque and flux vaiable spatial angle between oto and stato flux 2 1
22 Oveview of AC and DC dives Befoe semiconducto devices wee intoduced (<1950) AC motos fo fixed speed applications DC motos fo vaiable speed applications Afte semiconducto devices wee intoduced (1950s) Vaiable fequency souces available AC motos in vaiable speed applications Coupling between flux and toque contol Application limited to medium pefomance applications fans, blowes, compessos scala contol High pefomance applications dominated by DC motos tactions, elevatos, sevos, etc 2 2
23 Oveview of AC and DC dives Afte vecto contol dives wee intoduced (1980s) AC motos used in high pefomance applications elevatos, tactions, sevos AC motos favoable than DC motos howeve contol is complex hence expensive Cost of micopocesso/semiconductos deceasing pedicted 30 yeas ago AC motos would take ove DC motos 2 3
24 Classification of IM dives (Buja, Kamiekowski, Diect toque contol of PWM invetefed AC motos  a suvey, IEEE Tansactions on Industial Electonics,
25 Elementay pinciples of mechanics v x Newton s law F m M F f F m F f d Mv dt inea motion, constant M v 2 d d x Fm Ff M M 2 dt dt Ma Fist ode diffeential equation fo speed Second ode diffeential equation fo displacement 2 5
26 Elementay pinciples of mechanics Rotational motion T e, m T l J With constant J,  Nomally is the case fo electical dives T e T l d J dt m T e T l J d dt m J d 2 dt 2 Fist ode diffeential equation fo angula fequency (o velocity) Second ode diffeential equation fo angle (o position) 2 6
27 toque (Nm) EECTRİC DRİVE SYSTEMS AND MATAB speed (ad/s) Elementay pinciples of mechanics Fo constant J, d J dt d dt m m T e d Tl J dt Toque dynamic pesent duing speed tansient Angula acceleation (speed) m The lage the net toque, the faste the acceleation is
28 Elementay pinciples of mechanics Combination of otational and tanslational motions F l M F e T e, T l v F e F l dv M dt T e = (F e ), T l = (F l ), v = T e T l 2 d M dt 2 M  Equivalent moment inetia of the linealy moving mass 2 8
29 Elementay pinciples of mechanics effect of geaing Motos designed fo high speed ae smalle in size and volume ow speed applications use gea to utilize high speed motos Moto T e m oad 1, T l1 m1 n 1 J 2 J 1 n 2 m2 oad 2, T l2 2 9
30 Elementay pinciples of mechanics effect of geaing Moto T e m oad 1, T l1 m1 n 1 J 2 m2 J 1 n 2 oad 2, T l2 Moto T e m Equivalent oad, T lequ J equ J 1 a 2 2 J T lequ = T l1 + a 2 T l2 2 J equ a 2 = n 1 /n 2 3 0
31 SPEED Moto steady state toquespeed chaacteistic Synchonous mch Induction mch Sepaately / shunt DC mch Seies DC TORQUE By using powe electonic convetes, the moto chaacteistic can be change at will 3 1
32 oad steady state toquespeed chaacteistic Fictional toque (passive load) SPEED T~ 2 T~ C T~ Exist in all motoload dive system simultaneously In most cases, only one o two ae dominating Exists when thee is motion TORQUE Coulomb fiction Viscous fiction Fiction due to tubulent flow 3 2
33 oad steady state toquespeed chaacteistic Constant toque, e.g. gavitational toque (active load) SPEED Gavitational toque Vehicle dive TORQUE T e T gm F T = F = g M sin 3 3
34 oad steady state toquespeed chaacteistic Hoist dive Speed Toque Gavitational toque 3 4
35 oad and moto steady state toque At constant speed, T e = T l Steady state speed is at point of intesection between T e and T l of the steady state toque chaacteistics Toque T e T l Steady state speed Speed 35
36 Toque and speed pofile speed (ad/s) 100 Speed pofile t (ms) The system is descibed by: T e T load = J(d/dt) + B J = 0.01 kgm2, B = 0.01 Nm/ads1 and T load = 5 Nm. What is the toque pofile (toque needed to be poduced)? 3 6
37 Toque and speed pofile speed (ad/s) 100 T d J dt B e T l t (ms) 0 < t <10 ms Te = 0.01(0) (0) + 5 Nm = 5 Nm 10ms < t <25 ms Te = 0.01(100/0.015) +0.01( t) + 5 = ( t) Nm 25ms < t< 45ms Te = 0.01(0) (100) + 5 = 6 Nm 45ms < t < 60ms Te = 0.01(100/0.015) ( t) + 5 = t 3 7
38 Toque and speed pofile speed (ad/s) 100 Speed pofile Toque (Nm) t (ms) toque pofile t (ms)
39 Toque and speed pofile Toque (Nm) 70 J = kgm2, B = 0.1 Nm/ads1 and T load = 5 Nm t (ms) 65 Fo the same system and with the moto toque pofile given above, what would be the speed pofile? 3 9
40 Themal consideations Unavoidable powe losses causes tempeatue incease Insulation used in the windings ae classified based on the tempeatue it can withstand. Motos must be opeated within the allowable maximum tempeatue Souces of powe losses (hence tempeatue incease):  Conducto heat losses (i 2 R)  Coe losses hysteesis and eddy cuent  Fiction losses beaings, bush windage 4 0
41 Themal consideations Electical machines can be oveloaded as long thei tempeatue does not exceed the tempeatue limit Accuate pediction of tempeatue distibution in machines is complex hetogeneous mateials, complex geometical shapes Simplified assuming machine as homogeneous body Ambient tempeatue, T o p 1 Input heat powe (losses) Themal capacity, C (Ws/ o C) Suface A, (m 2 ) Suface tempeatue, T ( o C) p 2 Emitted heat powe (convection) 4 1
42 Themal consideations Powe balance: dt C dt p 1 p 2 Heat tansfe by convection: p2 A(T T o ), whee is the coefficient of heat tansfe Which gives: d 1 T dt A T C p C With T(0) = 0 and p 1 = p h = constant, T ph A 1 e t /, whee C A 4 2
43 Themal consideations T p h A ph T A 1 e t / Heating tansient T(0) T t T T(0) e t / Cooling tansient t 4 3
44 Themal consideations The duation of oveloading depends on the modes of opeation: Continuous duty oad toque is constant Continuous ove extended duty peiod multiple Steady state tempeatue Shot eached time intemittent duty Peiodic intemittent duty Nominal output powe chosen equals o exceeds continuous load T p 1n p 1n A osses due to continuous load t 4 4
45 Themal consideations Shot time intemittent duty Opeation consideably less than time constant, Moto allowed to cool befoe next cycle Moto can be oveloaded until maximum tempeatue eached 4 5
46 Themal consideations Shot time intemittent duty p 1s p 1 p1n T p 1s A T max p 1n A t 1 t 4 6
47 Themal consideations Shot time intemittent duty T p p 1s 1n 1 p A1 e p1 n p1s t1/ t 1 / 1n p1s 1 1e e t / A 1 t 1 T max p 1n A T p A 1s t / 1 e t 1 t 4 7
48 Themal consideations Peiodic intemittent duty oad cycles ae epeated peiodically Motos ae not allowed to completely cooled Fluctuations in tempeatue until steady state tempeatue is eached 4 8
49 Themal consideations Peiodic intemittent duty p1 heating coolling heating coolling heating coolling t 4 9
50 Themal consideations Peiodic intemittent duty p Example of a simple case p 1 ectangula peiodic patten p n = 100kW, nominal powe M = 800kg = 0.92, nominal efficiency T = 50 o C, steady state tempeatue ise due to p n 1 p o pn 1 9kW Also, A 180 W / C T 50 1 If we assume moto is solid ion of specific heat c FE =0.48 kws/kg o C, themal capacity C is given by C = c FE M = 0.48 (800) = 384 kws/ o C Finally, themal time constant = /180 = 35 minutes 5 0
51 Themal consideations Peiodic intemittent duty Example of a simple case p 1 ectangula peiodic patten Fo a duty cycle of 30% (peiod of 20 mins), heat losses of twice the nominal, x
52 Toquespeed quadant of opeation 2 T ve +ve P m ve T +ve 1 +ve P m +ve T 3 4 T ve ve P m +ve T +ve ve P m ve 5 2
53 4quadant opeation m T e m T e Diection of positive (fowad) speed is abitay chosen Diection of positive toque will poduce positive (fowad) speed Quadant 2 Fowad baking Quadant 3 Revese motoing Quadant 1 Fowad motoing Quadant 4 Revese baking T e T m T e m 5 3
54 Ratings of convetes and motos Toque Tansient toque limit Continuous toque limit Powe limit fo tansient toque Powe limit fo continuous toque Maximum speed limit Speed 5 4
55 Steadystate stability 5 5
56 DC MOTOR DRIVES
57 Contents Intoduction Tends in DC dives Pinciples of DC moto dives Modeling of Convetes and DC moto Phasecontolled Rectifie DCDC convete (Switchmode) Modeling of DC moto Closedloop speed contol Cascade Contol Stuctue Closedloop speed contol  an example Toque loop Speed loop Summay
58 INTRODUCTION DC DRIVES: Electic dives that use DC motos as the pime moves DC moto: industy wokhose fo decades Dominates vaiable speed applications befoe PE convetes wee intoduced Will AC dive eplaces DC dive? Pedicted 30 yeas ago DC stong pesence easy contol huge numbes AC will eventually eplace DC at a slow ate
59 Intoduction DC Motos Advantage: Pecise toque and speed contol without sophisticated electonics Seveal limitations: Regula Maintenance Heavy Spaking Expensive Speed limitations
60 Intoduction DC Motos  2 pole Roto Stato
61 Intoduction DC Motos  2 pole Amatue eaction Amatue mmf poduces flux which distots main flux poduce by field X X X X X Mechanical commutato to maintain amatue cuent diection
62 Intoduction Amatue eaction Flux at one side of the pole may satuate Zeo flux egion shifted Flux satuation, effective flux pe pole deceases Amatue mmf distots field flux age machine employs compensation windings and intepoles
63 Intoduction R a a f R f + i a + i f + V t _ e a _ V f _ v t R a i a di a dt e a v f R f i f di f dt Te k t i a Electic toque e a k E Amatue back e.m.f.
64 Intoduction Amatue cicuit: V t R a i a di a dt e a In steady state, V t R k V T t a I a E Theefoe steady state speed is given by, R a a k 2 Thee possible methods of speed contol: Field flux Amatue voltage V t Amatue esistance Ra T T e
65 Intoduction k V T t R a k 2 T T e Vt k T T Vaying V t V t Requies vaiable DC supply T e
66 Intoduction k V T t R a k 2 T T e Vt k T T Vaying V t V t Requies vaiable DC supply T e
67 Intoduction V t (k T ) RaTe k T Vaying V t T Constant T Requies vaiable DC supply T e
68 Intoduction V t V t V t (k T (k ) T ) I RaTe k a T R a Vaying V t V t,ated Constant T I a R a base
69 Intoduction k V T t R a k 2 T T e Vaying R a Vt k T T R a Simple contol osses in extenal esisto T e
70 Intoduction k V T t R a k 2 T T e Vaying Vt k T T Not possible fo PM moto Maximum toque capability educes T e
71 Intoduction Amatue voltage contol : etain maximum toque capability Field flux contol (i.e. flux educed) : educe maximum toque capability Fo wide ange of speed contol 0 to base amatue voltage, above base field flux eduction Amatue voltage contol Field flux contol T e Maximum Toque capability base
72 Intoduction T e Maximum Toque capability base
73 Intoduction P T e Constant toque Constant powe P max base 0 to base amatue voltage, above base field flux eduction P = E a I a,max = k a I a,max P max = E a I a,max = k a base I a,max 1/
74 MODEING OF CONVERTERS AND DC MOTOR POWER EECTRONICS CONVERTERS Used to obtain vaiable amatue voltage Efficient Ideal : lossless Phasecontolled ectifies (AC DC) DCDC switchmode convetes(dc DC)
75 Modeling of Convetes and DC moto Phasecontolled ectifie (AC DC) 3phase supply + V t i a Q2 Q3 Q1 Q4 T
76 Modeling of Convetes and DC moto Phasecontolled ectifie 3 phase supply + V t 3phase supply Q2 Q3 Q1 Q4 T
77 Modeling of Convetes and DC moto Phasecontolled ectifie 3phase supply F1 R2 + V a  R1 F2 Q2 Q3 Q1 Q4 T
78 Modeling of Convetes and DC moto Phasecontolled ectifie (continuous cuent) Fiing cicuit fiing angle contol Establish elation between v c and V t i ef +  cuent contolle v c fiing cicuit contolled ectifie + V t
79 Modeling of Convetes and DC moto Phasecontolled ectifie (continuous cuent) Fiing angle contol linea fiing angle contol v t 180 v c v v c t 180 V a 2V m v c cos 180 v t Cosinewave cossing contol v c v cos s V a 2V m v v c s
80 Modeling of Convetes and DC moto Phasecontolled ectifie (continuous cuent) Steady state: linea gain amplifie Cosine wave cossing method Tansient: sample with zeo ode hold convete T G H (s) T 10 ms fo 1phase 50 Hz system 3.33 ms fo 3phase 50 Hz system
81 Modeling of Convetes and DC moto Phasecontolled ectifie (continuous cuent) T d Output voltage Contol signal Cosinewave cossing T d Delay in aveage output voltage geneation 0 10 ms fo 50 Hz single phase system
82 Modeling of Convetes and DC moto Phasecontolled ectifie (continuous cuent) Model simplified to linea gain if bandwidth (e.g. cuent loop) much lowe than sampling fequency ow bandwidth limited applications ow fequency voltage ipple high cuent ipple undesiable
83 Modeling of Convetes and DC moto Switch mode convetes T1 + V t  Q2 Q3 Q1 Q4 T
84 Switch mode convetes Modeling of Convetes and DC moto T1 T2 D1 D2 + V t  Q2 Q1 Q3 Q4 Q1 T1 and D2 T Q2 D1 and T2
85 Modeling of Convetes and DC moto Switch mode convetes T1 D1 + V t  D3 T3 Q2 Q3 Q1 Q4 T T4 D4 D2 T2
86 Modeling of Convetes and DC moto Switch mode convetes Switching at high fequency Reduces cuent ipple Inceases contol bandwidth Suitable fo high pefomance applications
87 Modeling of Convetes and DC moto Switch mode convetes  modeling + V dc V dc v ti v c q q 1 0 when v c > v ti, uppe switch ON when v c < v ti, lowe switch ON
88 Modeling of Convetes and DC moto Switch mode convetes aveaged model T ti v c q d d 1 T ti t T t ti qdt t T on ti V dc V t V t 1 T ti dt 0 ti V dc dt dv dc
89 Modeling of Convetes and DC moto Switch mode convetes aveaged model d V ti,p 0 V ti,p v c d 0.5 v 2V c ti,p V t 0.5V dc V 2V dc ti,p v c
90 Modeling of Convetes and DC moto Switch mode convetes small signal model V t (s) V 2V dc ti,p v c (s) 2quadant convete V t (s) V V dc ti,p v c (s) 4quadant convete
91 Modeling of Convetes and DC moto DC moto sepaately excited o pemanent magnet v t i a R a a di a dt e a T e T l d J dt m T e = k t i a e e = k t Extact the dc and ac components by intoducing small petubations in V t, i a, e a, T e, T and m ac components ~ ~ di v~ dt ~ T ~ k ( i ) a t ia R ~ a a e a e~ e e k E E a ( ~ ) dc components V t I a R T k e a E I E a E e k E a T ~ e T ~ B ~ d( ~ ) J dt T e T B( )
92 Modeling of Convetes and DC moto DC moto small signal model Pefom aplace Tansfomation on ac components ~ ~ di v~ dt a t ia R ~ a a e a V t (s) = I a (s)r a + a sia + E a (s) T ~ e k E ~ ( i a ) T e (s) = k E I a (s) e~ e k E ( ~ ) E a (s) = k E (s) T ~ e T ~ B ~ d( ~ ) J dt T e (s) = T (s) + B(s) + sj(s)
93 Modeling of Convetes and DC moto DC moto small signal model T l (s) (s) Va R a s a  I a (s) T e (s) k 1 (s ) T + B sj k E
94 COSEDOOP SPEED CONTRO Cascade contol stuctue position speed contolle contolle + + * * T* toque contolle convete Moto tacho k T The contol vaiable of inne loop (e.g. toque) can be limited by limiting its efeence value It is flexible oute loop can be eadily added o emoved depending on the contol equiements 1/s
95 COSEDOOP SPEED CONTRO Design pocedue in cascade contol stuctue Inne loop (cuent o toque loop) the fastest lagest bandwidth The oute most loop (position loop) the slowest smallest bandwidth Design stats fom toque loop poceed towads oute loops
96 COSEDOOP SPEED CONTRO Closedloop speed contol an example OBJECTIVES: Fast esponse lage bandwidth Minimum oveshoot good phase magin (>65 o ) Zeo steady state eo vey lage DC gain BODE POTS METHOD Obtain linea small signal model Design contolles based on linea small signal model Pefom lage signal simulation fo contolles veification
97 COSEDOOP SPEED CONTRO Closedloop speed contol an example Pemanent magnet moto s paametes Ra = 2 a = 5.2 mh B = 1 x10 4 kg.m 2 /sec k e = 0.1 V/(ad/s) V d = 60 V f s = 33 khz PI contolles J = 152 x 10 6 kg.m 2 k t = 0.1 Nm/A V ti = 5 V Switching signals fom compaison of v c and tiangula wavefom
98 COSEDOOP SPEED CONTRO Toque contolle design v ti q + T c + Toque contolle V dc q k t DC moto T e (s) +  Toque contolle Convete V V dc ti,peak V a (s) R a s a T l (s) I a (s) T (s) k e  1 (s ) T B sj + k E
99 Phase (deg) Magnitude (db) COSEDOOP SPEED CONTRO Toque contolle design Openloop gain 150 Bode Diagam Fom: Input Point To: Output Point compensated k pt = 90 k it = compensated Fequency (ad/sec)
100 COSEDOOP SPEED CONTRO Speed contolle design Assume toque loop unity gain fo speed bandwidth << Toque bandwidth * + Speed T* 1 T 1 contolle B sj Toque loop
101 Phase (deg) Magnitude (db) COSEDOOP SPEED CONTRO Speed contolle Openloop gain 150 Bode Diagam Fom: Input Point To: Output Point 100 k ps = compensated k is = compensated Fequency (Hz)
102 COSEDOOP SPEED CONTRO age Signal Simulation esults Speed Toque
103 COSEDOOP SPEED CONTRO DESIGN EXAMPE SUMMARY Speed contol by: amatue voltage (0 b ) and field flux ( b ) Powe electonics convetes to obtain vaiable amatue voltage Phase contolled ectifie small bandwidth lage ipple Switchmode DCDC convete lage bandwidth small ipple Contolle design based on linea small signal model Powe convetes  aveaged model DC moto sepaately excited o pemanent magnet Closedloop speed contol design based on Bode plots Veify with lage signal simulation
104 EECTRIC DRIVES INDUCTION MOTOR steadystate model (squiel cage)
105 Constuction 120 o c a 120 o b b c a 120 o Stato 3phase winding Roto squiel cage / wound
106 Constuction Single N tun coil caying cuent i Spans 180 o elec a Pemeability of ion >> o all MMF dop appea in aigap a Ni / 2 Ni / 2  /2 /2
107 Distibuted winding coils ae distibuted in seveal slots Constuction N c fo each slot (3N c i)/2 (N c i)/2  /2 /2
108 Distibuted winding (fullpitch) Constuction The esultant MMF is the total contibution of MMF fom each coil Consideing only the spacefundamental component, Concentated Distibuted Distibuted space fundamental Concentated space fundamental
109 Phase a sinusoidal distibuted winding F() Ai gap mmf 2
110 Sinusoidal winding fo each phase poduces space sinusoidal MMF and flux Sinusoidal cuent excitation (with fequency s ) in a phase poduces space sinusoidal standing wave MMF Combination of 3 standing waves esulted in MMF wave otating at: s 2 p 2f p numbe of poles f supply fequency
111
112 Rotating flux induced: emf in stato winding (known as back emf) Emf in oto winding Roto flux otating at synchonous fequency Roto cuent inteact with flux poducing toque Roto AWAYS otate at fequency less than synchonous, i.e. at slip speed: sl = s Ratio between slip speed and synchonous speed known as slip s s s
113 Stato voltage equation: V s = R s I s + j(2f) ls I s + E ag E ag aigap voltage o back emf E ag = k f ag Roto voltage equation: E = R I + js(2f)l E induced emf in oto cicuit E /s = (R / s) I + j(2f)l
114 Pe phase equivalent cicuit + R s ls l I s + + I V s I m m E ag E /s R /s Rs R ls l m s stato winding esistance oto winding esistance stato leakage inductance oto leakage inductance mutual inductance slip
115 We know E g and E elated by The oto paametes efeed to stato ae: E E s Whee a is the winding tun atio g a I a(i '), R R a 2 ', l a l 2 ' oto voltage equation becomes E g = (R / s) I + j(2f) l I
116 Pe phase equivalent cicuit R s I s ls l I + m + R /s V s E ag I m R s R ls l m I stato winding esistance oto winding esistance efeed to stato stato leakage inductance oto leakage inductance efeed to stato mutual inductance oto cuent efeed to stato
117 Powe and Toque Powe is tansfeed fom stato to oto via ai gap, known as aigap powe P ag 3I '2 R s ' 3I '2 R ' 3I '2 R s ' 1 s ost in oto winding Conveted to mechanical powe = (1 s)p ag
118 Powe and Toque Mechanical powe, P m = T em But, s s = s  = (1s) s P ag = T em s T em P ag s 3I '2 R s s ' Theefoe toque is given by: 3R ' Tem s s R s R ' s 2 V 2 s X X ' 2 ls l
119 Powe and Toque Pull out Toque (T max ) T ated T em T s max m 3 s s R R 2 s s R X X 2 R 2 s ls V 2 s X ls l X l 2 s 0 ated s s m 1 0
120 Steady state pefomance The steady state pefomance can be calculated fom equivalent cicuit, e.g. using Matlab R s I s ls l I + m + R /s V s E ag I m
121 Steady state pefomance R s I s ls l I + m + R /s V s E ag I m e.g. 3 phase squiel cage IM V = 460 V R s = 0.25 R =0.2 = s = 0.5/(2*pi*50) f = 50Hz p = 4 m =30/(2*pi*50)
122 I EECTRİC DRİVE SYSTEMS AND MATAB Is Toque Steady state pefomance
123 Toque Steady state pefomance
124 Efficiency Steady state pefomance (1s)
125 EECTRIC DRIVES Dynamic Model of Induction Machine
126 WHY NEED DYNAMIC MODE? In an electic dive system, the machine is pat of the contol system elements To be able to contol the dynamics of the dive system, dynamic behavio of the machine need to be consideed Dynamic behavio of of IM can be descibed using dynamic model of IM
127 WHY NEED DYNAMIC MODE? Dynamic model complex due to magnetic coupling between stato phases and oto phases Coupling coefficients vay with oto position oto position vay with time Dynamic behavio of IM can be descibed by diffeential equations with time vaying coefficients
128 Magnetic axis of phase B DYNAMIC MODE, 3PHASE MODE i bs a c b Magnetic axis of phase A b i as Magnetic axis of phase C i cs a c Simplified equivalent stato winding
129 DYNAMIC MODE 3phase model stato, b oto, a oto, b stato, a oto, c stato, c
130 DYNAMIC MODE 3phase model et s look at phase a Flux that links phase a is caused by: Flux poduced by winding a Flux poduced by winding b Flux poduced by winding c
131 DYNAMIC MODE 3phase model et s look at phase a The elation between the cuents in othe Flux phases poduced and the by winding b flux poduced by these cuents that linked phase a ae Flux poduced by winding c elated by mutual inductances
132 DYNAMIC MODE 3phase model et s look at phase a as as,s as, as i as abs i bs acs i cs as,a i a as,b i b as,c i c Mutual inductance between phase a and phase b of stato Mutual inductance Mutual inductance between phase Mutual a of inductance Mutual inductance between phase a and stato and phase between a of phase between a of phase a of phase c of oto stato and phase stato b and of phase c of oto Web: oto hiokumus.ktu.edu.t
133 DYNAMIC MODE 3phase model v abcs = R s i abcs + d( abcs )/dt  stato voltage equation v abc = R i abc + d( abc )/dt  oto voltage equation v abcs v v v as bs cs i abcs i i i as bs cs abcs as bs cs v abc v v v a b c i abc i i i a b c abc a b c abcs flux (caused by stato and oto cuents) that links stato windings abc flux (caused by stato and oto cuents) that links oto windings
134 DYNAMIC MODE 3phase model abcs abcs,s abcs, abc abc, abc,s Flux linking stato winding due to stato cuent abcs,s as abs acs abs bs bcs acs bcs cs i i i Flux linking stato winding due to oto cuent as bs cs abcs, as,a bs,a cs,a as,b bs,b cs,b as,c bs,c cs,c i i i a b c
135 DYNAMIC MODE 3phase model Similaly we can wite flux linking oto windings caused by oto and stato cuen Flux linking oto winding due to oto cuent abc, a ab ac ab b bc ac bc c i i i a b c Flux linking oto winding due to stato cuent abc,s a,as b,as c,as a,bs b,bs c,bs a,cs b,cs c,cs i i i as bs cs
136 DYNAMIC MODE 3phase model The self inductances consist of magnetising and leakage inductances as = ms + ls bs = ms + ls cs = ms + ls The magnetizing inductance ms, accounts fo the flux poduce by the espective phases, cosses the aigap and links othe windings The leakage inductance ls, accounts fo the flux poduce by the espective phases, but does not coss the aigap and links only itself
137 DYNAMIC MODE 3phase model It can be shown that the magnetizing inductance is given by ms o N 2 s l g 4 It can be shown that the mutual inductance between stato phases is given by: l g 4 2 o abs bcs acs ons cos120 abs bcs acs o N 2 s l g 8 2 ms
138 DYNAMIC MODE 3phase model The mutual inductances between stato phases (and oto phases) can be witten in tems of magnetising inductances abcs,s ms ms 2 ms 2 ls ms ms 2 ms 2 ls ms ms 2 ms 2 ls i i i as bs cs
Space Vector Modulated Direct Torque Controlled (DTC SVM) Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive
Waaw niveity of Technology Faculty of Electical Engineeing Intitute of Contol and Indutial Electonic Ph.D. Thei acin Żelechowki,. Sc. Space Vecto odulated Diect Toque Contolled (DTC SV) Invete Fed Induction
More informationOn the Algorithmic Implementation of Multiclass Kernelbased Vector Machines
Jounal of Machine Leaning Reseach 2 (2001) 265292 Submitted 03/01; Published 12/01 On the Algoithmic Implementation of Multiclass Kenelbased Vecto Machines Koby Camme Yoam Singe School of Compute Science
More informationCloud Service Reliability: Modeling and Analysis
Cloud Sevice eliability: Modeling and Analysis YuanShun Dai * a c, Bo Yang b, Jack Dongaa a, Gewei Zhang c a Innovative Computing Laboatoy, Depatment of Electical Engineeing & Compute Science, Univesity
More informationTHE CARLO ALBERTO NOTEBOOKS
THE CARLO ALBERTO NOTEBOOKS Meanvaiance inefficiency of CRRA and CARA utility functions fo potfolio selection in defined contibution pension schemes Woking Pape No. 108 Mach 2009 Revised, Septembe 2009)
More informationCHAPTER 9 THE TWO BODY PROBLEM IN TWO DIMENSIONS
9. Intoduction CHAPTER 9 THE TWO BODY PROBLEM IN TWO DIMENSIONS In this chapte we show how Keple s laws can be deived fom Newton s laws of motion and gavitation, and consevation of angula momentum, and
More informationSelfAdaptive and ResourceEfficient SLA Enactment for Cloud Computing Infrastructures
2012 IEEE Fifth Intenational Confeence on Cloud Computing SelfAdaptive and ResouceEfficient SLA Enactment fo Cloud Computing Infastuctues Michael Maue, Ivona Bandic Distibuted Systems Goup Vienna Univesity
More informationInstituto Superior Técnico Av. Rovisco Pais, 1 1049001 Lisboa Email: virginia.infante@ist.utl.pt
FATIGUE LIFE TIME PREDICTIO OF POAF EPSILO TB30 AIRCRAFT  PART I: IMPLEMETATIO OF DIFERET CYCLE COUTIG METHODS TO PREDICT THE ACCUMULATED DAMAGE B. A. S. Seano 1, V. I. M.. Infante 2, B. S. D. Maado
More informationSupporting Efficient Topk Queries in TypeAhead Search
Suppoting Efficient Topk Queies in TypeAhead Seach Guoliang Li Jiannan Wang Chen Li Jianhua Feng Depatment of Compute Science, Tsinghua National Laboatoy fo Infomation Science and Technology (TNList),
More informationEU import restrictions on genetically modified feeds: impacts on Spanish, EU and global livestock sectors
Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agaia y Alimentaia (INIA) Spanish Jounal of Agicultual Reseach 2010 8(1), 317 Available online at www.inia.es/sja ISSN: 1695971X EU impot estictions
More informationOn the winnertakeall principle in innovation races
On the winnetakeall pinciple in innovation aces VincenzoDenicolòandLuigiAlbetoFanzoni Univesity of Bologna, Italy Novembe 2007 Abstact What is the optimal allocation of pizes in an innovation ace? Should
More informationRecovering RiskNeutral Densities from Exchange Rate Options: Evidence in Turkey
CENTRAL BANK OF THE REPUBLIC OF TURKEY WORKING PAPER NO: 10/03 Recoveing RiskNeutal Densities fom Exchange Rate Options: Evidence in Tukey Mach 2010 Halil İbahim AYDIN Ahmet DEĞERLİ Pına ÖZLÜ Cental Bank
More informationDevelopment of Mathematical Model for MarketOriented Cloud Computing
Intenational Jounal of Compute Applications (0975 8887) Volume 9 No.11, Novembe 2010 Development of Mathematical Model fo MaketOiented Cloud Computing K.Mukhejee Depatment of Compute Science & Engineeing.
More informationAccuracy at the Top. Abstract
Accuacy at the Top Stephen Boyd Stanfod Univesity Packad 64 Stanfod, CA 94305 boyd@stanfod.edu Mehya Mohi Couant Institute and Google 5 Mece Steet New Yok, NY 00 mohi@cims.nyu.edu Coinna Cotes Google Reseach
More informationMaketoorder, Maketostock, or Delay Product Differentiation? A Common Framework for Modeling and Analysis
aetoode, aetostoc, o Dela Poduct Dieentiation? A Common Famewo o odeling and Analsis Diwaa Gupta Saiallah Benjaaa Univesit o innesota Depatment o echanical Engineeing inneapolis, N 55455 Second evision,
More informationThey aim to select the best services that satisfy the user s. other providers infrastructures and utility services to run
EndtoEnd Qo Mapping and Aggegation fo electing Cloud evices Raed Kaim, Chen Ding, Ali Mii Depatment of Compute cience Ryeson Univesity, Toonto, Canada 2kaim@yeson.ca, cding@scs.yeson.ca, ali.mii@yeson.ca
More informationMULTIPLE SOLUTIONS OF THE PRESCRIBED MEAN CURVATURE EQUATION
MULTIPLE SOLUTIONS OF THE PRESCRIBED MEAN CURVATURE EQUATION K.C. CHANG AND TAN ZHANG In memoy of Pofesso S.S. Chen Abstact. We combine heat flow method with Mose theoy, supe and subsolution method with
More informationDirect Back EMF Detection Method for Sensorless Brushless DC. (BLDC) Motor Drives. Jianwen Shao. Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the
Direct Back EMF Detection Method for Sensorless Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor Drives by Jianwen Shao Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and the State University in partial
More informationBALDOR ELECTRIC COMPANY SERVO CONTROL FACTS A HANDBOOK EXPLAINING THE BASICS OF MOTION
BALDOR ELECTRIC COMPANY SERVO CONTROL FACTS A HANDBOOK EXPLAINING THE BASICS OF MOTION MN1205 TABLE OF CONTENTS TYPES OF MOTORS.............. 3 OPEN LOOP/CLOSED LOOP..... 9 WHAT IS A SERVO..............
More informationOverview of Missile Flight Control Systems
Overview of Missile Flight Control Systems Paul B. Jackson he flight control system is a key element that allows the missile to meet its system performance requirements. The objective of the flight control
More informationSliding Mode Control Applied To UPS Inverter Using Norm of the State Error
Sliding Mode Control Applied To UPS Inverter Using Norm of the State Error Hamza A. M. Makhamreh Submitted to the Institute of Graduate Studies and Research in partial fulfillment of the requirements for
More informationApplication Note AN1077
PFC Converter Design with R50 One Cycle Control C By R. Brown, M. Soldano, nternational Rectifier Table of Contents Page ntroduction... One Cycle Control for PFC Applications... R50 Detailed Description...3
More informationSmarter Transportation: The power of Big Data and Analytics
Smate Tanspotation: The powe of Big Data and Analytics EicMak Huitema, Global Smate Tanspotation Leade IBM 1 Intelligent Tanspot Systems (ITS) fo the futue 2 BECAUSE WE WANT IT FOR THE FUTURE. How? The
More informationThe Lucas Paradox and the Quality of Institutions: Then and Now
Diskussionsbeitäge des Fachbeeichs Witschaftswissenschaft de Feien Univesität Belin Volkswitschaftliche Reihe 2008/3 The Lucas Paadox and the Quality of Institutions: Then and Now Moitz Schulaick und Thomas
More informationDOCUMENT RESUME. Schacht, Robert M.; Baldwin, Julie TITLE
DOCUMENT RESUME ED 415 045 RC 021 260 AUTHOR Schacht Robet M.; Baldwin Julie TITLE The Vocational Rehabilitation of Ameican Indians Who Have Alcohol o Dug Abuse Disodes. Executive Summay. INSTITUTION Nothen
More informationPower Control with Thyristors and Triacs
CHAPTER 6 Power Control with Thyristors and Triacs 6.1 Using Thyristors and Triacs 6.2 Thyristor and Triac Applications 6.3 HiCom Triacs 485 Using Thyristors and Triacs 487 6.1.1 Introduction to Thyristors
More informationDOE FUNDAMENTALS HANDBOOK ELECTRICAL SCIENCE Volume 4 of 4
DOEHDBK1011/492 JUNE 1992 DOE FUNDAMENTALS HANDBOOK ELECTRICAL SCIENCE Volume 4 of 4 U.S. Department of Energy Washington, D.C. 20585 FSC6910 Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release;
More informationHALL EFFECT SENSING AND APPLICATION
HALL EFFECT SENSING AND APPLICATION MICRO SWITCH Sensing and Control 7DEOHRI&RQWHQWV Chapter 1 Hall Effect Sensing Introduction... 1 Hall Effect Sensors... 1 Why use the Hall Effect... 2 Using this Manual...
More informationHip Hop solutions of the 2N Body problem
Hip Hop solutions of the N Boy poblem Esthe Baabés baabes@ima.ug.es Depatament Infomàtica i Matemàtica Aplicaa, Univesitat e Giona. Josep Maia Cos cos@eupm.upc.es Depatament e Matemàtica Aplicaa III, Univesitat
More informationPID Control. 6.1 Introduction
6 PID Control 6. Introduction The PID controller is the most common form of feedback. It was an essential element of early governors and it became the standard tool when process control emerged in the
More informationUser Guide. Programming instructions for Models EZHR17EN, EZHR23ENHC, and EZ4AXIS
User Guide Programming instructions for Models EZHR17EN, EZHR23ENHC, and EZ4AXIS Command Set document A50 Manual revision 1.0 May 2, 2011 Important Notices Life and Safety Policy AllMotion, Inc. products
More information