Mechanics 1: Motion in a Central Force Field

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Mechanics 1: Motion in a Central Force Field"

Transcription

1 Mechanics : Motion in a Cental Foce Field We now stud the popeties of a paticle of (constant) ass oving in a paticula tpe of foce field, a cental foce field. Cental foces ae ve ipotant in phsics and engineeing. Fo eaple, the gavitional foce of attaction between two point asses is a cental foce. The Coulob foce of attaction and epulsion between chaged paticles is a cental foce. Because of thei ipotance the deseve special consideation. We begin b giving a pecise definition of cental foce, o cental foce field. Cental Foces: The Definition. Suppose that a foce acting on a paticle of ass has the popeties that: the foce is alwas diected fo towad, o awa, fo a fied point O, the agnitude of the foce onl depends on the distance fo O. Foces having these popeties ae called cental foces. The paticle is said to ove in a cental foce field. The point O is efeed to as the cente of foce. Matheaticall, F is a cental foce if and onl if: F = f() = f(), () whee = is a unit vecto in the diection of. If f() < 0 the foce is said to be attactive towads O. If f() > 0 the foce is said to be epulsive fo O. We give a geoetical illustation in Fig.. z F=f() O Figue : Geoetical illustation of a cental foce. Popeties of a Paticle Moving unde the Influence of a Cental Foce. If a paticle oves in a cental foce field then the following popeties hold:. The path of the paticle ust be a plane cuve, i.e., it ust lie in a plane.. The angula oentu of the paticle is conseved, i.e., it is constant in tie. 3. The paticle oves in such a wa that the position vecto (fo the point O) sweeps out equal aeas in equal ties. In othe wods, the tie ate of change in aea is constant. This is efeed to as the Law of Aeas. We will descibe this in oe detail, and pove it, shotl.

2 Equations of Motion fo a Paticle in a Cental Foce Field. Now we will deive the basic equations of otion fo a paticle oving in a cental foce field. Fo Popet above, the otion of the paticle ust occu in a plane, which we take as the plane, and the cente of foce is taken as the oigin. In Fig. we show the plane, as well as the pola coodinate sste in the plane. θ j O θ i cosθ sinθ Figue : Pola coodinate sste associated with a paticle oving in the plane. Since the vectoial natue of the cental foce is epessed in tes of a adial vecto fo the oigin it is ost natual (though not equied!) to wite the equations of otion in pola coodinates. In ealie lectues we deived the epession fo the acceleation of a paticle in pola coodinates: a = ( θ ) + ( θ + ṙ θ)θ. () Then, using Newton s second law, and the atheatical fo fo the cental foce given in (), we have: o ( θ ) + ( θ + ṙ θ)θ = f(), (3) ( θ ) = f(), (4) ( θ + ṙ θ) = 0. (5) These ae the basic equations of otion fo a paticle in a cental foce field. The will be the stating point fo an of ou investigations. Fo these equations we can deive a useful constant of the otion. This is done as follows. Fo (5) we have: o ( θ + ṙ θ) = ( θ + ṙ θ) = d dt ( θ) = 0, θ = constant = h. (6) This is an inteesting elation that, we will see, is elated to popeties and 3 above. Howeve, one use fo it should be appaent. If ou know the coponent of the otion it allows ou to copute the θ coponent b integation. This is anothe eaple of how constants of the otion allow us to integate the equations of otion. It also eplain wh constants of the otion ae often efeed to as integals of the otion. Now, let us etun to popet 3 above and deive the Law of Aeas.

3 Suppose that in tie t the position vecto oves fo to +. Then the aea swept out b the position vecto in this tie is appoiatel half the aea of a paalleloga with sides and. We give a poof of this: Aea of paalleloga = height, = sin θ, =, see Fig. 3. z Ȧ = aeal velocit = _ ( v ) + Δ Aea = ΔA Q θ Δ P Figue 3: Hence, A =. Dividing this epession b t, and letting t 0, gives: A li t 0 t = li t 0 t = v, o Ȧ = v. Now we need to evaluate v. Using =, we have: Theefoe we have: v = (ṙ + θθ ) = ṙ( ) + θ( θ ) = θk. The vecto: θ = Ȧ = constant. (7) Ȧ = Ȧk = θk, is called the aeal velocit. 3

4 Altenative Fos to the Basic Equations of Motion fo a Paticle in a Cental Foce Field. Recall the basic equations of otion as the will be ou stating point: we deived the following constant of the otion: ( θ ) = f(), (8) ( θ + ṙ θ) = 0. (9) θ = h = constant. (0) This constant of the otion will allow ou to deteine the θ coponent of otion, povided ou know the coponent of otion. Howeve, (8) and (9) ae coupled (nonlinea) equations fo the and θ coponents of the otion. How could ou solve the without solving fo both the and θ coponents? This is whee altenative fos of the equations of otion ae useful. Let us ewite (8) in the following fo (b dividing though b the ass ): θ = f(). () Now, using (0), () can be witten entiel in tes of : h 3 = f(). () We can use () to solve fo (t), and the use (0) to solve fo θ(t). Equation () is a nonlinea diffeential equation. Thee is a useful change of vaiables, which fo cetain ipotant cental foces, tuns the equation into a linea diffeential equation with constant coefficients, and these can alwas be solved analticall. Hee we descibe this coodinate tansfoation. Let = u. This is pat of the coodinate tansfoation. We will also use θ as a new tie vaiable. Coodinate tansfoation ae effected b the chain ule, since this allows us to epess deivatives of old coodinates in tes of the new coodinates. We have: and ṙ = d dt = d dθ dθ dt = h d dθ = h d du du dθ = hdu dθ, (3) = dṙ dt = d ( h du ) = d ( h du ) dθ dt dθ dθ dθ dt = h u d u dθ, (4) whee, in both epessions, we have used the elation θ = h at stategic points. Now θ = h 4 = h u 3. (5) Substituting this elation, along with (4) into (8), gives: o ( ) h u d u dθ h u 3 = f ( ), u d u dθ + u = f ( u) h u. (6) Now if f() = K, whee K is soe constant, (6) becoes a linea, constant coefficient equation. 4

5 Cental Foce Fields ae Consevative. Now we will show that cental foces ae consevative foces. We alead know that thee ae an ipotant iplications that will follow fo this fact, such as consevation of total eneg. If a cental foce is consevative then the wok done b the foce in oving a paticle between two points is independent of the path taken between the two points, i.e., it onl depends on the endpoints of the path. In this case we ust have: F d = dv whee V is a scala valued function (the potential). Evaluating the left-hand-side of this epession gives: F d = f() d = f()d, whee we have used the elation d = d. Theefoe, fo which it follows that: dv = f()d, V = f()d. (7) Hence, if we know the cental foce field, (7) tells us how to copute the potential. Consevation of Eneg fo a Paticle in a Cental Foce Field. Since cental foces ae consevative foces, we know that total eneg ust be conseved. Now we deive epessions fo the total eneg of a paticle of ass in a cental foce field. We will do this in two was. Fist Method. Fist we copute the kinetic eneg. The velocit is given b: and theefoe: The kinetic eneg is given b: Theefoe we have: v = ṙ + θθ, v v = v = ṙ + θ. v + V = E. ( ) ṙ + θ f()d = E. (8) Second Method. The second ethod deals diectl with the equations of otion and ealizes the epession fo the total eneg as an integal of the equations of otion. We ultipl (4) b ṙ, ultipl (5) b θ, and add the esulting two equations to obtain: o, (ṙ + θ θ + ṙ θ ) = f()ṙ = ṙ d d f()d = d d dt d d ( ) ṙ + θ = d dt dt f()d. Integating both sides of this equation with espect to tie gives: ( ) ṙ + θ f()d = E = constant. f()d = d dt f()d, You can deive this elation b noting that =, and then coputing the diffeential of this equalit. 5

Mechanics 1: Work, Power and Kinetic Energy

Mechanics 1: Work, Power and Kinetic Energy Mechanics 1: Wok, Powe and Kinetic Eneg We fist intoduce the ideas of wok and powe. The notion of wok can be viewed as the bidge between Newton s second law, and eneg (which we have et to define and discuss).

More information

2 r2 θ = r2 t. (3.59) The equal area law is the statement that the term in parentheses,

2 r2 θ = r2 t. (3.59) The equal area law is the statement that the term in parentheses, 3.4. KEPLER S LAWS 145 3.4 Keple s laws You ae familia with the idea that one can solve some mechanics poblems using only consevation of enegy and (linea) momentum. Thus, some of what we see as objects

More information

Revision Guide for Chapter 11

Revision Guide for Chapter 11 Revision Guide fo Chapte 11 Contents Student s Checklist Revision Notes Momentum... 4 Newton's laws of motion... 4 Gavitational field... 5 Gavitational potential... 6 Motion in a cicle... 7 Summay Diagams

More information

Physics 235 Chapter 5. Chapter 5 Gravitation

Physics 235 Chapter 5. Chapter 5 Gravitation Chapte 5 Gavitation In this Chapte we will eview the popeties of the gavitational foce. The gavitational foce has been discussed in geat detail in you intoductoy physics couses, and we will pimaily focus

More information

Gravitation and Kepler s Laws Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation in vectorial. Gm 1 m 2. r 2

Gravitation and Kepler s Laws Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation in vectorial. Gm 1 m 2. r 2 F Gm Gavitation and Keple s Laws Newton s Law of Univesal Gavitation in vectoial fom: F 12 21 Gm 1 m 2 12 2 ˆ 12 whee the hat (ˆ) denotes a unit vecto as usual. Gavity obeys the supeposition pinciple,

More information

12. Rolling, Torque, and Angular Momentum

12. Rolling, Torque, and Angular Momentum 12. olling, Toque, and Angula Momentum 1 olling Motion: A motion that is a combination of otational and tanslational motion, e.g. a wheel olling down the oad. Will only conside olling with out slipping.

More information

Samples of conceptual and analytical/numerical questions from chap 21, C&J, 7E

Samples of conceptual and analytical/numerical questions from chap 21, C&J, 7E CHAPTER 1 Magnetism CONCEPTUAL QUESTIONS Cutnell & Johnson 7E 3. ssm A chaged paticle, passing though a cetain egion of space, has a velocity whose magnitude and diection emain constant, (a) If it is known

More information

2. TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS OF GENERAL ANGLES

2. TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS OF GENERAL ANGLES . TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS OF GENERAL ANGLES In ode to etend the definitions of the si tigonometic functions to geneal angles, we shall make use of the following ideas: In a Catesian coodinate sstem, an

More information

So we ll start with Angular Measure. Consider a particle moving in a circular path. (p. 220, Figure 7.1)

So we ll start with Angular Measure. Consider a particle moving in a circular path. (p. 220, Figure 7.1) Lectue 17 Cicula Motion (Chapte 7) Angula Measue Angula Speed and Velocity Angula Acceleation We ve aleady dealt with cicula motion somewhat. Recall we leaned about centipetal acceleation: when you swing

More information

Physics 202, Lecture 4. Gauss s Law: Review

Physics 202, Lecture 4. Gauss s Law: Review Physics 202, Lectue 4 Today s Topics Review: Gauss s Law Electic Potential (Ch. 25-Pat I) Electic Potential Enegy and Electic Potential Electic Potential and Electic Field Next Tuesday: Electic Potential

More information

Vector Calculus: Are you ready? Vectors in 2D and 3D Space: Review

Vector Calculus: Are you ready? Vectors in 2D and 3D Space: Review Vecto Calculus: Ae you eady? Vectos in D and 3D Space: Review Pupose: Make cetain that you can define, and use in context, vecto tems, concepts and fomulas listed below: Section 7.-7. find the vecto defined

More information

Chapter 13. Vector-Valued Functions and Motion in Space 13.6. Velocity and Acceleration in Polar Coordinates

Chapter 13. Vector-Valued Functions and Motion in Space 13.6. Velocity and Acceleration in Polar Coordinates 13.6 Velocity and Acceleation in Pola Coodinates 1 Chapte 13. Vecto-Valued Functions and Motion in Space 13.6. Velocity and Acceleation in Pola Coodinates Definition. When a paticle P(, θ) moves along

More information

Review Module: Dot Product

Review Module: Dot Product MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Depatment of Physics 801 Fall 2009 Review Module: Dot Poduct We shall intoduce a vecto opeation, called the dot poduct o scala poduct that takes any two vectos and

More information

Solution Derivations for Capa #8

Solution Derivations for Capa #8 Solution Deivations fo Capa #8 1) A ass spectoete applies a voltage of 2.00 kv to acceleate a singly chaged ion (+e). A 0.400 T field then bends the ion into a cicula path of adius 0.305. What is the ass

More information

Chapter 22. Outside a uniformly charged sphere, the field looks like that of a point charge at the center of the sphere.

Chapter 22. Outside a uniformly charged sphere, the field looks like that of a point charge at the center of the sphere. Chapte.3 What is the magnitude of a point chage whose electic field 5 cm away has the magnitude of.n/c. E E 5.56 1 11 C.5 An atom of plutonium-39 has a nuclea adius of 6.64 fm and atomic numbe Z94. Assuming

More information

Review of Vectors. Appendix A A.1 DESCRIBING THE 3D WORLD: VECTORS. 3D Coordinates. Basic Properties of Vectors: Magnitude and Direction.

Review of Vectors. Appendix A A.1 DESCRIBING THE 3D WORLD: VECTORS. 3D Coordinates. Basic Properties of Vectors: Magnitude and Direction. Appendi A Review of Vectos This appendi is a summa of the mathematical aspects of vectos used in electicit and magnetism. Fo a moe detailed intoduction to vectos, see Chapte 1. A.1 DESCRIBING THE 3D WORLD:

More information

UNIT CIRCLE TRIGONOMETRY

UNIT CIRCLE TRIGONOMETRY UNIT CIRCLE TRIGONOMETRY The Unit Cicle is the cicle centeed at the oigin with adius unit (hence, the unit cicle. The equation of this cicle is + =. A diagam of the unit cicle is shown below: + = - - -

More information

Coordinate Systems L. M. Kalnins, March 2009

Coordinate Systems L. M. Kalnins, March 2009 Coodinate Sstems L. M. Kalnins, Mach 2009 Pupose of a Coodinate Sstem The pupose of a coodinate sstem is to uniquel detemine the position of an object o data point in space. B space we ma liteall mean

More information

Hour Exam No.1. p 1 v. p = e 0 + v^b. Note that the probe is moving in the direction of the unit vector ^b so the velocity vector is just ~v = v^b and

Hour Exam No.1. p 1 v. p = e 0 + v^b. Note that the probe is moving in the direction of the unit vector ^b so the velocity vector is just ~v = v^b and Hou Exam No. Please attempt all of the following poblems befoe the due date. All poblems count the same even though some ae moe complex than othes. Assume that c units ae used thoughout. Poblem A photon

More information

Unit Vectors. the unit vector rˆ. Thus, in the case at hand, 5.00 rˆ, means 5.00 m/s at 36.0.

Unit Vectors. the unit vector rˆ. Thus, in the case at hand, 5.00 rˆ, means 5.00 m/s at 36.0. Unit Vectos What is pobabl the most common mistake involving unit vectos is simpl leaving thei hats off. While leaving the hat off a unit vecto is a nast communication eo in its own ight, it also leads

More information

Gravitation. AP Physics C

Gravitation. AP Physics C Gavitation AP Physics C Newton s Law of Gavitation What causes YOU to be pulled down? THE EARTH.o moe specifically the EARTH S MASS. Anything that has MASS has a gavitational pull towads it. F α Mm g What

More information

FXA 2008. Candidates should be able to : Describe how a mass creates a gravitational field in the space around it.

FXA 2008. Candidates should be able to : Describe how a mass creates a gravitational field in the space around it. Candidates should be able to : Descibe how a mass ceates a gavitational field in the space aound it. Define gavitational field stength as foce pe unit mass. Define and use the peiod of an object descibing

More information

In the lecture on double integrals over non-rectangular domains we used to demonstrate the basic idea

In the lecture on double integrals over non-rectangular domains we used to demonstrate the basic idea Double Integals in Pola Coodinates In the lectue on double integals ove non-ectangula domains we used to demonstate the basic idea with gaphics and animations the following: Howeve this paticula example

More information

LINES AND TANGENTS IN POLAR COORDINATES

LINES AND TANGENTS IN POLAR COORDINATES LINES AND TANGENTS IN POLAR COORDINATES ROGER ALEXANDER DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS 1. Pola-coodinate equations fo lines A pola coodinate system in the plane is detemined by a point P, called the pole, and

More information

2008 Quarter-Final Exam Solutions

2008 Quarter-Final Exam Solutions 2008 Quate-final Exam - Solutions 1 2008 Quate-Final Exam Solutions 1 A chaged paticle with chage q and mass m stats with an initial kinetic enegy K at the middle of a unifomly chaged spheical egion of

More information

Chapter 3 Savings, Present Value and Ricardian Equivalence

Chapter 3 Savings, Present Value and Ricardian Equivalence Chapte 3 Savings, Pesent Value and Ricadian Equivalence Chapte Oveview In the pevious chapte we studied the decision of households to supply hous to the labo maket. This decision was a static decision,

More information

Gauss Law in dielectrics

Gauss Law in dielectrics Gauss Law in dielectics We fist deive the diffeential fom of Gauss s law in the pesence of a dielectic. Recall, the diffeential fom of Gauss Law is This law is always tue. E In the pesence of dielectics,

More information

Chapter 17 The Kepler Problem: Planetary Mechanics and the Bohr Atom

Chapter 17 The Kepler Problem: Planetary Mechanics and the Bohr Atom Chapte 7 The Keple Poblem: Planetay Mechanics and the Boh Atom Keple s Laws: Each planet moves in an ellipse with the sun at one focus. The adius vecto fom the sun to a planet sweeps out equal aeas in

More information

Chapter 13 Gravitation. Problems: 1, 4, 5, 7, 18, 19, 25, 29, 31, 33, 43

Chapter 13 Gravitation. Problems: 1, 4, 5, 7, 18, 19, 25, 29, 31, 33, 43 Chapte 13 Gavitation Poblems: 1, 4, 5, 7, 18, 19, 5, 9, 31, 33, 43 Evey object in the univese attacts evey othe object. This is called gavitation. We e use to dealing with falling bodies nea the Eath.

More information

Problem Set 6: Solutions

Problem Set 6: Solutions UNIVESITY OF ALABAMA Depatment of Physics and Astonomy PH 16-4 / LeClai Fall 28 Poblem Set 6: Solutions 1. Seway 29.55 Potons having a kinetic enegy of 5. MeV ae moving in the positive x diection and ente

More information

Moment and couple. In 3-D, because the determination of the distance can be tedious, a vector approach becomes advantageous. r r

Moment and couple. In 3-D, because the determination of the distance can be tedious, a vector approach becomes advantageous. r r Moment and couple In 3-D, because the detemination of the distance can be tedious, a vecto appoach becomes advantageous. o k j i M k j i M o ) ( ) ( ) ( + + M o M + + + + M M + O A Moment about an abita

More information

mv2. Equating the two gives 4! 2. The angular velocity is the angle swept per GM (2! )2 4! 2 " 2 = GM . Combining the results we get !

mv2. Equating the two gives 4! 2. The angular velocity is the angle swept per GM (2! )2 4! 2  2 = GM . Combining the results we get ! Chapte. he net foce on the satellite is F = G Mm and this plays the ole of the centipetal foce on the satellite i.e. mv mv. Equating the two gives = G Mm i.e. v = G M. Fo cicula motion we have that v =!

More information

The Role of Gravity in Orbital Motion

The Role of Gravity in Orbital Motion ! The Role of Gavity in Obital Motion Pat of: Inquiy Science with Datmouth Developed by: Chistophe Caoll, Depatment of Physics & Astonomy, Datmouth College Adapted fom: How Gavity Affects Obits (Ohio State

More information

The force between electric charges. Comparing gravity and the interaction between charges. Coulomb s Law. Forces between two charges

The force between electric charges. Comparing gravity and the interaction between charges. Coulomb s Law. Forces between two charges The foce between electic chages Coulomb s Law Two chaged objects, of chage q and Q, sepaated by a distance, exet a foce on one anothe. The magnitude of this foce is given by: kqq Coulomb s Law: F whee

More information

Chapter 30: Magnetic Fields Due to Currents

Chapter 30: Magnetic Fields Due to Currents d Chapte 3: Magnetic Field Due to Cuent A moving electic chage ceate a magnetic field. One of the moe pactical way of geneating a lage magnetic field (.1-1 T) i to ue a lage cuent flowing though a wie.

More information

Problems on Force Exerted by a Magnetic Fields from Ch 26 T&M

Problems on Force Exerted by a Magnetic Fields from Ch 26 T&M Poblems on oce Exeted by a Magnetic ields fom Ch 6 TM Poblem 6.7 A cuent-caying wie is bent into a semicicula loop of adius that lies in the xy plane. Thee is a unifom magnetic field B Bk pependicula to

More information

92.131 Calculus 1 Optimization Problems

92.131 Calculus 1 Optimization Problems 9 Calculus Optimization Poblems ) A Noman window has the outline of a semicicle on top of a ectangle as shown in the figue Suppose thee is 8 + π feet of wood tim available fo all 4 sides of the ectangle

More information

CHAT Pre-Calculus Section 10.7. Polar Coordinates

CHAT Pre-Calculus Section 10.7. Polar Coordinates CHAT Pe-Calculus Pola Coodinates Familia: Repesenting gaphs of equations as collections of points (, ) on the ectangula coodinate sstem, whee and epesent the diected distances fom the coodinate aes to

More information

Carter-Penrose diagrams and black holes

Carter-Penrose diagrams and black holes Cate-Penose diagams and black holes Ewa Felinska The basic intoduction to the method of building Penose diagams has been pesented, stating with obtaining a Penose diagam fom Minkowski space. An example

More information

PY1052 Problem Set 8 Autumn 2004 Solutions

PY1052 Problem Set 8 Autumn 2004 Solutions PY052 Poblem Set 8 Autumn 2004 Solutions H h () A solid ball stats fom est at the uppe end of the tack shown and olls without slipping until it olls off the ight-hand end. If H 6.0 m and h 2.0 m, what

More information

In order to master the techniques explained here it is vital that you undertake plenty of practice exercises so that they become second nature.

In order to master the techniques explained here it is vital that you undertake plenty of practice exercises so that they become second nature. Radians At school we usually lean to measue an angle in degees. Howeve, thee ae othe ways of measuing an angle. One that we ae going to have a look at hee is measuing angles in units called adians. In

More information

Deflection of Electrons by Electric and Magnetic Fields

Deflection of Electrons by Electric and Magnetic Fields Physics 233 Expeiment 42 Deflection of Electons by Electic and Magnetic Fields Refeences Loain, P. and D.R. Coson, Electomagnetism, Pinciples and Applications, 2nd ed., W.H. Feeman, 199. Intoduction An

More information

CHAPTER 5 GRAVITATIONAL FIELD AND POTENTIAL

CHAPTER 5 GRAVITATIONAL FIELD AND POTENTIAL CHATER 5 GRAVITATIONAL FIELD AND OTENTIAL 5. Intoduction. This chapte deals with the calculation of gavitational fields and potentials in the vicinity of vaious shapes and sizes of massive bodies. The

More information

On Correlation Coefficient. The correlation coefficient indicates the degree of linear dependence of two random variables.

On Correlation Coefficient. The correlation coefficient indicates the degree of linear dependence of two random variables. C.Candan EE3/53-METU On Coelation Coefficient The coelation coefficient indicates the degee of linea dependence of two andom vaiables. It is defined as ( )( )} σ σ Popeties: 1. 1. (See appendi fo the poof

More information

Learning Objectives. Decreasing size. ~10 3 m. ~10 6 m. ~10 10 m 1/22/2013. Describe ionic, covalent, and metallic, hydrogen, and van der Waals bonds.

Learning Objectives. Decreasing size. ~10 3 m. ~10 6 m. ~10 10 m 1/22/2013. Describe ionic, covalent, and metallic, hydrogen, and van der Waals bonds. Lectue #0 Chapte Atomic Bonding Leaning Objectives Descibe ionic, covalent, and metallic, hydogen, and van de Waals bonds. Which mateials exhibit each of these bonding types? What is coulombic foce of

More information

Physics 505 Homework No. 5 Solutions S5-1. 1. Angular momentum uncertainty relations. A system is in the lm eigenstate of L 2, L z.

Physics 505 Homework No. 5 Solutions S5-1. 1. Angular momentum uncertainty relations. A system is in the lm eigenstate of L 2, L z. Physics 55 Homewok No. 5 s S5-. Angula momentum uncetainty elations. A system is in the lm eigenstate of L 2, L z. a Show that the expectation values of L ± = L x ± il y, L x, and L y all vanish. ψ lm

More information

Lesson 8 Ampère s Law and Differential Operators

Lesson 8 Ampère s Law and Differential Operators Lesson 8 Ampèe s Law and Diffeential Opeatos Lawence Rees 7 You ma make a single cop of this document fo pesonal use without witten pemission 8 Intoduction Thee ae significant diffeences between the electic

More information

PHYSICS 111 HOMEWORK SOLUTION #13. May 1, 2013

PHYSICS 111 HOMEWORK SOLUTION #13. May 1, 2013 PHYSICS 111 HOMEWORK SOLUTION #13 May 1, 2013 0.1 In intoductoy physics laboatoies, a typical Cavendish balance fo measuing the gavitational constant G uses lead sphees with masses of 2.10 kg and 21.0

More information

Fluids Lecture 15 Notes

Fluids Lecture 15 Notes Fluids Lectue 15 Notes 1. Unifom flow, Souces, Sinks, Doublets Reading: Andeson 3.9 3.12 Unifom Flow Definition A unifom flow consists of a velocit field whee V = uî + vĵ is a constant. In 2-D, this velocit

More information

Analytical Proof of Newton's Force Laws

Analytical Proof of Newton's Force Laws Analytical Poof of Newton s Foce Laws Page 1 1 Intouction Analytical Poof of Newton's Foce Laws Many stuents intuitively assume that Newton's inetial an gavitational foce laws, F = ma an Mm F = G, ae tue

More information

Divergence and Curl of a Vector Function

Divergence and Curl of a Vector Function Divegence and Cul o a Vecto unction This unit is based on Section 9.7 Chapte 9. All assigned eadings and eecises ae om the tetbook Obectives: Make cetain that ou can deine and use in contet the tems concepts

More information

Transformations in Homogeneous Coordinates

Transformations in Homogeneous Coordinates Tansfomations in Homogeneous Coodinates (Com S 4/ Notes) Yan-Bin Jia Aug, 6 Homogeneous Tansfomations A pojective tansfomation of the pojective plane is a mapping L : P P defined as u a b c u au + bv +

More information

Displacement, Velocity And Acceleration

Displacement, Velocity And Acceleration Displacement, Velocity And Acceleation Vectos and Scalas Position Vectos Displacement Speed and Velocity Acceleation Complete Motion Diagams Outline Scala vs. Vecto Scalas vs. vectos Scala : a eal numbe,

More information

Chapter 26 - Electric Field. A PowerPoint Presentation by Paul E. Tippens, Professor of Physics Southern Polytechnic State University

Chapter 26 - Electric Field. A PowerPoint Presentation by Paul E. Tippens, Professor of Physics Southern Polytechnic State University Chapte 6 lectic Field A PowePoint Pesentation by Paul. Tippens, Pofesso of Physics Southen Polytechnic State Univesity 7 Objectives: Afte finishing this unit you should be able to: Define the electic field

More information

Power and Sample Size Calculations for the 2-Sample Z-Statistic

Power and Sample Size Calculations for the 2-Sample Z-Statistic Powe and Sample Size Calculations fo the -Sample Z-Statistic James H. Steige ovembe 4, 004 Topics fo this Module. Reviewing Results fo the -Sample Z (a) Powe and Sample Size in Tems of a oncentality Paamete.

More information

NURBS Drawing Week 5, Lecture 10

NURBS Drawing Week 5, Lecture 10 CS 43/585 Compute Gaphics I NURBS Dawing Week 5, Lectue 1 David Been, William Regli and Maim Pesakhov Geometic and Intelligent Computing Laboato Depatment of Compute Science Deel Univesit http://gicl.cs.deel.edu

More information

Ch. 8 Universal Gravitation. Part 1: Kepler s Laws. Johannes Kepler. Tycho Brahe. Brahe. Objectives: Section 8.1 Motion in the Heavens and on Earth

Ch. 8 Universal Gravitation. Part 1: Kepler s Laws. Johannes Kepler. Tycho Brahe. Brahe. Objectives: Section 8.1 Motion in the Heavens and on Earth Ch. 8 Univesal Gavitation Pat 1: Keple s Laws Objectives: Section 8.1 Motion in the Heavens and on Eath Objectives Relate Keple s laws of planetay motion to Newton s law of univesal gavitation. Calculate

More information

Exam 3: Equation Summary

Exam 3: Equation Summary MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Depatment of Physics Physics 8.1 TEAL Fall Tem 4 Momentum: p = mv, F t = p, Fext ave t= t f t= Exam 3: Equation Summay total = Impulse: I F( t ) = p Toque: τ = S S,P

More information

10. Collisions. Before During After

10. Collisions. Before During After 10. Collisions Use conseation of momentum and enegy and the cente of mass to undestand collisions between two objects. Duing a collision, two o moe objects exet a foce on one anothe fo a shot time: -F(t)

More information

General Physics (PHY 2130)

General Physics (PHY 2130) Geneal Physics (PHY 130) Lectue 11 Rotational kinematics and unifom cicula motion Angula displacement Angula speed and acceleation http://www.physics.wayne.edu/~apetov/phy130/ Lightning Review Last lectue:

More information

Voltage ( = Electric Potential )

Voltage ( = Electric Potential ) V-1 of 9 Voltage ( = lectic Potential ) An electic chage altes the space aound it. Thoughout the space aound evey chage is a vecto thing called the electic field. Also filling the space aound evey chage

More information

Gauss Law. Physics 231 Lecture 2-1

Gauss Law. Physics 231 Lecture 2-1 Gauss Law Physics 31 Lectue -1 lectic Field Lines The numbe of field lines, also known as lines of foce, ae elated to stength of the electic field Moe appopiately it is the numbe of field lines cossing

More information

Chapter F. Magnetism. Blinn College - Physics Terry Honan

Chapter F. Magnetism. Blinn College - Physics Terry Honan Chapte F Magnetism Blinn College - Physics 46 - Tey Honan F. - Magnetic Dipoles and Magnetic Fields Electomagnetic Duality Thee ae two types of "magnetic chage" o poles, Noth poles N and South poles S.

More information

Chapter 19: Electric Charges, Forces, and Fields ( ) ( 6 )( 6

Chapter 19: Electric Charges, Forces, and Fields ( ) ( 6 )( 6 Chapte 9 lectic Chages, Foces, an Fiels 6 9. One in a million (0 ) ogen molecules in a containe has lost an electon. We assume that the lost electons have been emove fom the gas altogethe. Fin the numbe

More information

Classical Mechanics (CM):

Classical Mechanics (CM): Classical Mechanics (CM): We ought to have some backgound to aeciate that QM eally does just use CM and makes one slight modification that then changes the natue of the oblem we need to solve but much

More information

PAN STABILITY TESTING OF DC CIRCUITS USING VARIATIONAL METHODS XVIII - SPETO - 1995. pod patronatem. Summary

PAN STABILITY TESTING OF DC CIRCUITS USING VARIATIONAL METHODS XVIII - SPETO - 1995. pod patronatem. Summary PCE SEMINIUM Z PODSTW ELEKTOTECHNIKI I TEOII OBWODÓW 8 - TH SEMIN ON FUNDMENTLS OF ELECTOTECHNICS ND CICUIT THEOY ZDENĚK BIOLEK SPŠE OŽNO P.., CZECH EPUBLIC DLIBO BIOLEK MILITY CDEMY, BNO, CZECH EPUBLIC

More information

UNIT 21: ELECTRICAL AND GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL Approximate time two 100-minute sessions

UNIT 21: ELECTRICAL AND GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL Approximate time two 100-minute sessions Name St.No. - Date(YY/MM/DD) / / Section Goup# UNIT 21: ELECTRICAL AND GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL Appoximate time two 100-minute sessions OBJECTIVES I began to think of gavity extending to the ob of the moon,

More information

TORQUE AND ANGULAR MOMENTUM IN CIRCULAR MOTION

TORQUE AND ANGULAR MOMENTUM IN CIRCULAR MOTION MISN-0-34 TORQUE AND ANGULAR MOMENTUM IN CIRCULAR MOTION shaft TORQUE AND ANGULAR MOMENTUM IN CIRCULAR MOTION by Kiby Mogan, Chalotte, Michigan 1. Intoduction..............................................

More information

9.5 Amortization. Objectives

9.5 Amortization. Objectives 9.5 Aotization Objectives 1. Calculate the payent to pay off an aotized loan. 2. Constuct an aotization schedule. 3. Find the pesent value of an annuity. 4. Calculate the unpaid balance on a loan. Congatulations!

More information

2 - ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIAL AND CAPACITANCE Page 1

2 - ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIAL AND CAPACITANCE Page 1 - ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIAL AND CAPACITANCE Page. Line Integal of Electic Field If a unit positive chage is displaced by `given by dw E. dl dl in an electic field of intensity E, wok done is Line integation

More information

PHYSICS 111 HOMEWORK SOLUTION #5. March 3, 2013

PHYSICS 111 HOMEWORK SOLUTION #5. March 3, 2013 PHYSICS 111 HOMEWORK SOLUTION #5 Mach 3, 2013 0.1 You 3.80-kg physics book is placed next to you on the hoizontal seat of you ca. The coefficient of static fiction between the book and the seat is 0.650,

More information

(a) The centripetal acceleration of a point on the equator of the Earth is given by v2. The velocity of the earth can be found by taking the ratio of

(a) The centripetal acceleration of a point on the equator of the Earth is given by v2. The velocity of the earth can be found by taking the ratio of Homewok VI Ch. 7 - Poblems 15, 19, 22, 25, 35, 43, 51. Poblem 15 (a) The centipetal acceleation of a point on the equato of the Eath is given by v2. The velocity of the eath can be found by taking the

More information

Solutions to Homework Set #5 Phys2414 Fall 2005

Solutions to Homework Set #5 Phys2414 Fall 2005 Solution Set #5 1 Solutions to Homewok Set #5 Phys414 Fall 005 Note: The numbes in the boxes coespond to those that ae geneated by WebAssign. The numbes on you individual assignment will vay. Any calculated

More information

Infinite-dimensional Bäcklund transformations between isotropic and anisotropic plasma equilibria.

Infinite-dimensional Bäcklund transformations between isotropic and anisotropic plasma equilibria. Infinite-dimensional äcklund tansfomations between isotopic and anisotopic plasma equilibia. Infinite symmeties of anisotopic plasma equilibia. Alexei F. Cheviakov Queen s Univesity at Kingston, 00. Reseach

More information

Trigonometric Functions of Any Angle

Trigonometric Functions of Any Angle Tigonomet Module T2 Tigonometic Functions of An Angle Copight This publication The Nothen Albeta Institute of Technolog 2002. All Rights Reseved. LAST REVISED Decembe, 2008 Tigonometic Functions of An

More information

PY1052 Problem Set 3 Autumn 2004 Solutions

PY1052 Problem Set 3 Autumn 2004 Solutions PY1052 Poblem Set 3 Autumn 2004 Solutions C F = 8 N F = 25 N 1 2 A A (1) A foce F 1 = 8 N is exeted hoizontally on block A, which has a mass of 4.5 kg. The coefficient of static fiction between A and the

More information

9. Mathematics Practice Paper for Class XII (CBSE) Available Online Tutoring for students of classes 4 to 12 in Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics

9. Mathematics Practice Paper for Class XII (CBSE) Available Online Tutoring for students of classes 4 to 12 in Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics Available Online Tutoing fo students of classes 4 to 1 in Physics, 9. Mathematics Class 1 Pactice Pape 1 3 1. Wite the pincipal value of cos.. Wite the ange of the pincipal banch of sec 1 defined on the

More information

Newton s Shell Theorem

Newton s Shell Theorem Newton Shell Theoem Abtact One of the pincipal eaon Iaac Newton wa motivated to invent the Calculu wa to how that in applying hi Law of Univeal Gavitation to pheically-ymmetic maive bodie (like planet,

More information

Functions of a Random Variable: Density. Math 425 Intro to Probability Lecture 30. Definition Nice Transformations. Problem

Functions of a Random Variable: Density. Math 425 Intro to Probability Lecture 30. Definition Nice Transformations. Problem Intoduction One Function of Random Vaiables Functions of a Random Vaiable: Density Math 45 Into to Pobability Lectue 30 Let gx) = y be a one-to-one function whose deiatie is nonzeo on some egion A of the

More information

Magnetic Field and Magnetic Forces. Young and Freedman Chapter 27

Magnetic Field and Magnetic Forces. Young and Freedman Chapter 27 Magnetic Field and Magnetic Foces Young and Feedman Chapte 27 Intoduction Reiew - electic fields 1) A chage (o collection of chages) poduces an electic field in the space aound it. 2) The electic field

More information

rotation -- Conservation of mechanical energy for rotation -- Angular momentum -- Conservation of angular momentum

rotation -- Conservation of mechanical energy for rotation -- Angular momentum -- Conservation of angular momentum Final Exam Duing class (1-3:55 pm) on 6/7, Mon Room: 41 FMH (classoom) Bing scientific calculatos No smat phone calculatos l ae allowed. Exam coves eveything leaned in this couse. Review session: Thusday

More information

Multiple choice questions [60 points]

Multiple choice questions [60 points] 1 Multiple choice questions [60 points] Answe all o the ollowing questions. Read each question caeully. Fill the coect bubble on you scanton sheet. Each question has exactly one coect answe. All questions

More information

Uniform Rectilinear Motion

Uniform Rectilinear Motion Engineeing Mechanics : Dynamics Unifom Rectilinea Motion Fo paticle in unifom ectilinea motion, the acceleation is zeo and the elocity is constant. d d t constant t t 11-1 Engineeing Mechanics : Dynamics

More information

Worked Examples. v max =?

Worked Examples. v max =? Exaple iction + Unifo Cicula Motion Cicula Hill A ca i diing oe a ei-cicula hill of adiu. What i the fatet the ca can die oe the top of the hill without it tie lifting off of the gound? ax? (1) Copehend

More information

Multiple choice questions [70 points]

Multiple choice questions [70 points] Multiple choice questions [70 points] Answe all of the following questions. Read each question caefull. Fill the coect bubble on ou scanton sheet. Each question has exactl one coect answe. All questions

More information

Notes on Electric Fields of Continuous Charge Distributions

Notes on Electric Fields of Continuous Charge Distributions Notes on Electic Fields of Continuous Chage Distibutions Fo discete point-like electic chages, the net electic field is a vecto sum of the fields due to individual chages. Fo a continuous chage distibution

More information

2. SCALARS, VECTORS, TENSORS, AND DYADS

2. SCALARS, VECTORS, TENSORS, AND DYADS 2. SCALARS, VECTORS, TENSORS, AND DYADS This section is a eview of the popeties of scalas, vectos, and tensos. We also intoduce the concept of a dyad, which is useful in MHD. A scala is a quantity that

More information

Chapter 4: Fluid Kinematics

Chapter 4: Fluid Kinematics Oveview Fluid kinematics deals with the motion of fluids without consideing the foces and moments which ceate the motion. Items discussed in this Chapte. Mateial deivative and its elationship to Lagangian

More information

CHAPTER 9 THE TWO BODY PROBLEM IN TWO DIMENSIONS

CHAPTER 9 THE TWO BODY PROBLEM IN TWO DIMENSIONS 9. Intoduction CHAPTER 9 THE TWO BODY PROBLEM IN TWO DIMENSIONS In this chapte we show how Keple s laws can be deived fom Newton s laws of motion and gavitation, and consevation of angula momentum, and

More information

Voltage ( = Electric Potential )

Voltage ( = Electric Potential ) V-1 Voltage ( = Electic Potential ) An electic chage altes the space aound it. Thoughout the space aound evey chage is a vecto thing called the electic field. Also filling the space aound evey chage is

More information

Pearson Physics Level 30 Unit VI Forces and Fields: Chapter 10 Solutions

Pearson Physics Level 30 Unit VI Forces and Fields: Chapter 10 Solutions Peason Physics Level 30 Unit VI Foces and Fields: hapte 10 Solutions Student Book page 518 oncept heck 1. It is easie fo ebonite to eove electons fo fu than fo silk.. Ebonite acquies a negative chage when

More information

EAS Groundwater Hydrology Lecture 13: Well Hydraulics 2 Dr. Pengfei Zhang

EAS Groundwater Hydrology Lecture 13: Well Hydraulics 2 Dr. Pengfei Zhang EAS 44600 Goundwate Hydology Lectue 3: Well Hydaulics D. Pengfei Zhang Detemining Aquife Paametes fom Time-Dawdown Data In the past lectue we discussed how to calculate dawdown if we know the hydologic

More information

Classical Lifetime of a Bohr Atom

Classical Lifetime of a Bohr Atom 1 Poblem Classical Lifetime of a Boh Atom James D. Olsen and Kik T. McDonald Joseph Heny Laboatoies, Pinceton Univesity, Pinceton, NJ 85 (Mach 7, 5) In the Boh model of the hydogen atom s gound state,

More information

Cubic Spline Interpolation by Solving a Recurrence Equation Instead of a Tridiagonal Matrix

Cubic Spline Interpolation by Solving a Recurrence Equation Instead of a Tridiagonal Matrix Matematical Metods in Science and Engineeing Cubic Spline Intepolation by Solving a Recuence Equation Instead of a Tidiagonal Matix Pete Z Revesz Depatment of Compute Science and Engineeing Univesity of

More information

Charges, Coulomb s Law, and Electric Fields

Charges, Coulomb s Law, and Electric Fields Q&E -1 Chages, Coulomb s Law, and Electic ields Some expeimental facts: Expeimental fact 1: Electic chage comes in two types, which we call (+) and ( ). An atom consists of a heavy (+) chaged nucleus suounded

More information

Chapter 2. Electrostatics

Chapter 2. Electrostatics Chapte. Electostatics.. The Electostatic Field To calculate the foce exeted by some electic chages,,, 3,... (the souce chages) on anothe chage Q (the test chage) we can use the pinciple of supeposition.

More information

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley.

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley. Chapte 5. Foce and Motion In this chapte we study causes of motion: Why does the windsufe blast acoss the wate in the way he does? The combined foces of the wind, wate, and gavity acceleate him accoding

More information

Section 5-3 Angles and Their Measure

Section 5-3 Angles and Their Measure 5 5 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS Section 5- Angles and Thei Measue Angles Degees and Radian Measue Fom Degees to Radians and Vice Vesa In this section, we intoduce the idea of angle and two measues of angles,

More information

Saturated and weakly saturated hypergraphs

Saturated and weakly saturated hypergraphs Satuated and weakly satuated hypegaphs Algebaic Methods in Combinatoics, Lectues 6-7 Satuated hypegaphs Recall the following Definition. A family A P([n]) is said to be an antichain if we neve have A B

More information

L19 Geomagnetic Field Part I

L19 Geomagnetic Field Part I Intoduction to Geophysics L19-1 L19 Geomagnetic Field Pat I 1. Intoduction We now stat the last majo topic o this class which is magnetic ields and measuing the magnetic popeties o mateials. As a way o

More information