An Infrastructure Cost Evaluation of Single and MultiAccess Networks with Heterogeneous Traffic Density


 Susanna Hardy
 2 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 An Infastuctue Cost Evaluation of Single and MultiAccess Netwoks with Heteogeneous Taffic Density Andes Fuuskä and Magnus Almgen Wieless Access Netwoks Eicsson Reseach Kista, Sweden [andes.fuuska, Abstact Taditional pefomance measues like capacity, cell adius and suppoted QoS ae often insufficient when compaing wieless netwoks with diffeent netwok achitectues and cost stuctues. Instead, in this pape, infastuctue cost is used to compae diffeent opeato deployed single and multiaccess wieless netwoks, including 3G, WLAN and poposed 4G adio access technologies. Fo this pupose a model fo the geogaphical distibution of taffic is intoduced. Despite the spatially nonunifom taffic demand, singleaccess solutions like WCDMA HighSpeed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) o LongTem 3G Evolved, with high capacity maco cellula base stations, typically yield the lowest costs pe use. In paticula this holds fo a hypothetical LongTem 3G Evolved system opeating in 450MHz spectum, which indicates the impotance of good coveage. Opeato deployed WLANonly solutions ae moe expensive even fo small factions of suppoted uses. Multiaccess solutions, combining fo example WCDMA DCH o HSDPA with WLAN, do not seem to povide bette cost efficiency than standad hieachical cell stuctues in singleaccess systems. Instead, multiaccess solutions have to be motivated by othe factos like peak data ates and spectum availability. Keywods: Infastuctue cost, Teleeconomics, multiaccess, WCDMA, 3G, LongTem 3G Evolution, 4G, WLAN I. INTRODUCTION Mobile netwok opeatos ae typically inteested in maximizing the pofit detemined by the evenue geneated by thei systems and thei costs. Taditional pefomance measues used fo singleaccess cellula systems, such as coveage and capacity, ae effective measues of the elative impovements fo specific systems. Consideing also deployment aspects and that diffeent systems typically have diffeent cost stuctue, technical measues, like spectal efficiency, ae howeve, as discussed in e.g. [1], insufficient to compae diffeent systems. Ideally both costs and evenues should be included in the analysis, as in [2], and availability of spectum, pevious assets, and othe stategic issues need to be taken into account. Due to difficulties in, e.g., pedicting end uses willingness to pay, this is quite complex. A simple initial step, fo elative compaisons only, is to compae the system cost fo equal potential evenues (to simplify; numbe of suppoted uses) and this is also the focus of this pape. Klas Johansson The Royal Institute of Technology Electum 418, S Kista, Sweden Moe specifically, the adio access netwok infastuctue cost is nomalized pe use and compaed between diffeent single and multiaccess system concepts as a function of taffic intensity pe use and elative use coveage. The system concepts compaed include the cellula systems WCDMA DCH, WCDMA HSDPA, and peliminay LongTem 3G Evolution and 4G poposals, as well as the WLAN system concepts IEEE b, a and g. Also multiaccess combinations of these, an expected chaacteistic of futue wieless netwoks [3], ae included. To evaluate the benefits of the multiaccess netwoks, a heteogeneous taffic density model is applied. Recently a numbe of wieless netwok infastuctue cost analyses fo singleaccess netwoks have been pesented, e.g. [1] and [2]. These conclude that the infastuctue cost, including both capital expenditues (CAPEX) and opeational expenditues (OPEX), is lagely popotional to the numbe of access points deployed. Equivalent cost figues pe access point, ae also pesented, which can be used to simply assess the total infastuctue cost fo a given deployment. Models of the spatial distibution of mobile uses have been pesented in e.g. [4] and [5]. This pape combines the above esults and extends the scope to cove multiaccess netwoks. In what follows, Section II biefly discusses the impact of the spatial taffic distibution on the cost efficiency of diffeent single and multiaccess system concepts, and pesents the deployment pinciples used in this study. An oveview of the adio netwok, use behavio, and economical models and assumptions is given in Section III. Numeical esults ae pesented in Section IV, followed by conclusions in Section V. II. DEPLOYMENT ASPECTS In scenaios with homogeneous, unifom taffic densities, singleaccess solutions with only one type of access point manage to maximize cost efficiency. Fo example, with a high aea taffic demand mico cellula base stations may be most cost efficient, wheeas maco base stations typically yield the lowest cost in aeas with less taffic pe aea unit. Solutions with a mix of maco, mico and pico cells, as well as multiaccess concepts, may be expected to be moe cost efficient than single access netwoks only in scenaios with heteogeneous taffic densities. Yet, this is not a sufficient condition. It is also equied that taffic peaks (hotspots) ae vey few and stong.
2 Taffic Density 1) Vaying but low (aveage) taffic density 2) Vaying and high Aveage Maco cell aea capacity Taffic Density Taffic Density 3) Stongly vaying, high, and coelated Mico cell aea capacity Figue 1. Simple example of taffic density vaiations ove space, and deployment of maco (light gey) and mico (dak gey) access points. This is explained by the following example based on maco and mico cellula base stations. Assume that a singlecaie maco cell laye is deployed fo fundamental coveage. As depicted in the fist example in Figue 1, the capacity of this netwok is sufficient to seve taffic density pattens fo which the aveage is within the maco cell aea capacity. Local aeas with taffic demands exceeding the aea capacity ae suppoted. Then, if the aveage taffic density exceeds the total aea capacity of the fist maco caie, eithe a second maco caie, additional maco base stations o mico cells can be deployed. What solution that bings the lowest cost depends on the statistical distibution of taffic. In the second example, taffic is high and stongly vaying with many elatively small peaks. Then adding a caie to the macocellula laye, o deploying maco base stations moe densely, is typically most efficient. Deploying a mico cell in each of the many local taffic density peaks would equie a lage amount of mico sites, and hence be costly, since each mico base station would have excess capacity and be pooly utilized. In situations like the one in example thee, howeve, mico cells ae motivated. Hee, the peaks in taffic density ae vey stong and athe few, so that only a few mico cells need to be deployed, and the cost fo this is lowe than that of extending the maco laye. A heteogeneous taffic density alone is thus not sufficient fo motivating mico and pico cell, o multiaccess solutions fom an infastuctue cost pespective. Thee ae also equiements on (i) a high oveall taffic density, (ii) stong vaiations in taffic density, and (iii) special spatial coelation popeties. A. Deployment Pinciple The deployment pinciple used in this study is to fist deploy maco cells fo full aea coveage, and then complement with mico o pico cells, o WLAN access points, whee it is needed fo capacity easons. In moe detail, fist, the system aea A sys is divided into N diffeent 40x40m elements. The (cente) position and the taffic geneated in element n ae denoted P n and TE n espectively. Fo each RAT, candidate access point sites ae positioned on a egula hexagonal gid, with sitetosite distances accoding to the AP cell adii. The position of AP m is denoted S m. Based on the site positions, an association between sites and taffic elements is made, so that the elements in the set S m belong to AP m. The association is done so that taffic elements ae associated with the closest site: S { n min{ d( AP, P } m} m = k k n ) = ag (1) whee d(ap k, P n ) is the distance between AP k and element n. The offeed taffic pe AP is calculated as: m T = TE (2) n In each site m, N m cells (tansceives) ae then deployed to fulfill the offeed taffic, while not exceeding the maximum numbe of cells pe AP, denoted N APmax : T N = m m min, N APmax m C, (3) whee C is the capacity pe access point of RAT. Note that if T m = 0, no access point is deployed. If T m > C, all the offeed taffic cannot be handled by RAT. In that case elements ae allocated in an inceasing ode of offeed taffic TE n until the maximum capacity pe AP C N APmax is eached. Remaining taffic that has to be seved with othe RATs (with a smalle cell adius and highe aea capacity) will then belong to elements with the highest taffic TE n. Moe fomally, the taffic elements S m ae soted in ode of offeed taffic and indexed n. The numbe of elements M max,m that ae seved by AP m is then detemined by: M M max,m = max M : TEn' C N APmax,m (4) n' = 1 Then, the offeed taffic in elements n =1.. M max m is set to zeo to detemine the offeed taffic fo the next RAT to be deployed, i.e., TE n' S m n 0 n' M = (5) TEn' n' > M max m max m Once the above deployment is completed, which esults in 100% coveage if no taffic emains afte the last RAT is deployed, the cost fo coveing smalle factions of uses is calculated. This is done though soting the access points in ode of suppoted taffic divided by the access point cost. Given the final deployment fo full coveage, deployment in this ode epesents the most cost efficient way to suppot a given taffic. It should be noted that no attempts have been made to optimize the deployment pinciple. Instead, the taget has been a simple pinciple that is easonably good and fai between system concepts. It could e.g. be noted that limiting WLAN access point positions to a egula gid is pobably not optimum, but neithe is allowing only one cell adius fo cellula maco, mico, and pico cells. This tadeoff is discussed futhe in [7].
3 Figue 2. A sample of a taffic density map and WCDMA maco and WLAN access point deployment. III. MODELS AND ASSUMPTIONS This section descibes the use behavio, system, and adio netwok models used to evaluate the diffeent system concepts. Macoscopic models ae used to enable a conceptual compaison between the concepts fo diffeent taffic densities. A. Taffic Density Models In ode to captue the effects discussed in Section II, a heteogeneous use behavio is assumed. In shot, based on the measuements and model poposed in [4] and statistics fom [6], it is assumed that the use density is lognomally distibuted aound a lagescale mean. The small scale standad deviation of this distibution is adjusted so that assumed peak values in use density ae achieved with easonable pobability. To fit the celllevel use density standad deviation to the value 0.4 (logscale) epoted in [4], a spatial coelation is assumed between elements. Refeence use densities ae ceated by multiplying typical sububan (su) and city cente (cc) population densities, 500 and inhabitants/km 2 espectively, with an assumed sevice penetation of 90% and an opeato maket shae of 30%. Uses ae futhe chaacteized by an aveage busy hou taffic intensity, measued in data geneation pe unit time. As a basis fo this, the taffic intensity of a pivate voice use duing busy hou is used. This is assumed to be 20mElang x 10kbps = 0.2kbps. Multiplying this with a facto N then foms taffic intensity efeence values. As a efeence, assuming that 0.6% of the monthly taffic is geneated duing each busy hou (typical fo voice), a 1GB/month use coesponds to 13kbps, o N = 66. Taffic density maps (10x10km) ae ceated by multiplying the use densities and peuse taffic intensities. The gay scale contou in Figue 2 depicts a ealization of taffic density geneated by the model. Note that no explicit sevice is assumed. The evaluation is applicable to all sevices fo which the system models, i.e. access point capacity and coveage, ae valid, and that ae within the capabilities of the access technology. These capabilities diffe significantly between some of the access technologies. Fo example, 4G concepts should be compaed with WCDMA only fo sevices suppoted by both netwoks. TABLE I. ACCESS POINT CHARACTERISTICS. Radius Capacity Cost Coeff. WCDMA DCH maco 1000m [39] x 1Mbps 1 (55/45%) WCDMA DCH mico 250m [12] x 1Mbps 0.45 (45/55%) WCDMA DCH pico 100m 1Mbps 0.3 (35/65%) WCDMA HS maco 1000m [39] x 2.5Mbps 1 (55/45%) WCDMA HS mico 250m [12] x 2.5Mbps 0.45 (45/55%) WCDMA HS pico 100m 2.5Mbps 0.3 (35/65%) S3G maco 1000m 3 x 15Mbps 1 (55/45%) S3G mico 250m 15Mbps 0.45 (45/55%) S3G pico 100m 15Mbps 0.3 (35/65%) S3G maco m 3 x 15Mbps 1 (55/45%) 4G 700m 3 x 100Mbps 1 (55/45%) 4G mico 175m 100Mbps 0.45 (45/55%) 4G pico 70m 1Gbps 0.3 (35/65%) 4G elay 1850m 100Mbps 6.4 (65/35%) IEEE b 40m 6Mbps 0.13 (3/97%) IEEE g 40m 22Mbps 0.13 (3/97%) IEEE a 20m 22Mbps 0.13 (3/97%) IEEE n 20m 100Mbps 0.13 (3/97%) B. System and Radio Netwok Models Access points of diffeent access technologies ae chaacteized with diffeent maximum cell adii and capacities; see Table I (heein a cell is defined as a combination of a secto and caie fequency). All figues ae fo the downlink and oughly valid fo an uban envionment without stict equiements fo indoo coveage. Howeve, with the simplified modeling used, without explicit adio netwok models, the models ae applicable fo abitay envionment, deployment and sevice scenaios fo which the system models ae valid. The WCDMA DCH and HSDSCH figues, assuming a 15MHz spectum allocation, ae taken as efeence values, and LongTem 3G Evolved [8] (hencefoth shotly denoted S3G ) and 4G figues ae deived fom these. Fo S3G, a 20MHz spectum allocation is assumed. Togethe with a spectum efficiency assumption of 0.75bps/Hz/cell, this esults in a capacity pe cell of 15Mbps. The same powe density as fo WCDMA is also assumed, esulting in the same cell adius. To investigate the impact of coveage, a hypothetical S3G system opeating in 450MHz spectum, is also studied. Its cell adius is simply based on fequency diffeence and a pathloss exponent of 3.5. Fo 4G, a 100MHz spectum is assumed, togethe with a slightly impoved spectum efficiency of 1bps/Hz/cell. This esults in a capacity pe cell of 100Mbps. A fou times lowe powe density is assumed fo the wide 4G caie than fo WCDMA. Assuming a distance attenuation exponent of 3.5, this esults in a 30% educed cell adius. Mico and pico cell capacities ae assumed equal to the macocell capacities (pe cell). The WLAN figues assume singlecell, nonintefeed access points. In coodinated multicell scenaios these figues decease some 2040% fo b and g. In noncoodinated multiopeato scenaios, the capacity is shaed equally between the opeatos. A simple 2hop egeneative elaying concept is also evaluated. It is assumed that the access point is suounded by a ing of six elay nodes, each with the same cell adius as a egula maco cell access point. This esults in an equivalent cell adius of 7 of the oiginal cell adius. The capacity is limited by the access point, and assumed to emain at 100Mbps despite the potentially favoable channel conditions towads the elay
4 Infastuctue Cost pe Month and Gbyte [ ] /month su1 Faction of Suppoted Uses 90% su10 cc1 su Taffic Density [Mbps/km2] Figue 3. Infastuctue cost pe 1GB/month use vesus taffic density fo 90% suppoted uses. nodes. Note that moe sophisticated elaying concepts than that evaluated hee exist, with potential to futhe impove coveage and capacity. The access points ae also chaacteized with the cost coefficients given in Table I. These estimate the total infastuctue cost associated with one access point, including CAPEX fo adio access netwok equipment and site build out, as well as OPEX fo site ental, tansmission, powe consumption and O&M ove a 10yea peiod, assuming a 10% discount ate. The figues build on those used in [1], whee in tun equipment cost estimates wee povided by the Gatne Goup and othe cost estimates wee based on [2]. In this study mino updates fo adio netwok contolles, powe consumption and O&M, and addition of WLAN, also based on [2], have been made. The coefficients in Table I ae nomalized to an estimated value fo a cellula maco base station, assumed to be 300k (slightly highe than in [1] due to the above modifications). The components of the cost coefficients ae futhe discussed in [1] and [2], Table I meely includes the factional CAPEX and OPEX, which in tun ae dominated by site and tansmission costs espectively. The total infastuctue cost fo geenfield opeatos can be calculated as the numbe of access points of each type multiplied with the coesponding cost coefficients. Note that this model excludes costs fo coe netwok nodes as well as costs fo spectum (due to diffeences in egulation, a geneally applicable spectum cost model is vey difficult to define). This makes the costs incemental, i.e. measuing the additional cost fo coveing a new aea, once the coe netwok and spectum is paid fo. Teminal costs, as well administative costs, e.g. fo maketing and billing, ae also excluded. IV. NUMERICAL RESULTS In this chapte numeical esults ae pesented on the fom infastuctue cost pe tansfeed data unit (1GB) and month vesus taffic density and factional coveage. In Figue 3 90% of the taffic (uses) ae suppoted and in Figue 4 only a small faction, 20%, of the uses ae seved. Some efeence levels ae maked on the taffic density axis. These ae combinations of sububan (su) o city cente (cc) envionments as defined above, and taffic intensities pe use measued in N times voice (0.2kbps). On the cost axis, a efeence level of 30 pe cc10 su g WCDMA DCH WCDMA HS DCH & 11g HS & 11g S3G S3G 450 4G 4G elay cc100 cc1000 Infastuctue Cost pe Month and Gbyte [ ] /month su1 Faction of Suppoted Uses 20% su10 cc1 su Taffic Density [Mbps/km2] Figue 4. Infastuctue cost pe 1GB/month use vesus taffic density fo 20% suppoted uses. GB and month is maked. This is a ough estimate of what a typical use is willing to spend on mobile communications today. Geneally, fo all system concepts, the infastuctue cost pe GB deceases with taffic density while the systems ae coveage limited, and flattens when the system becomes capacity limited. A. Commecially Available Systems Beginning with the g WLAN and 90% of the taffic seved, it is seen that fo low taffic densities the cost pe GB is vey high. In a sububan envionment with a voicelike taffic intensity pe use (su1), the infastuctue cost eaches /GB/month. To get down to a easonable cost pe GB ( 30), a taffic density of 10 Mbps/km 2 is equied, appoximately coesponding to su500 o cc10 scenaios. Fo a faction of suppoted uses of only 20%, as shown in Figue 4, the cost pe use fo g deceases significantly (as expected). The easonable cost of 30/GB/month is now eached at 1Mbps/km 2 instead, o oughly a cc1 scenaio. This indicates the degee of coveage that can be expected to be pofitable fo WLAN only opeatos. WCDMA DCH and HSDPA yield about 50 times lowe cost fo modeate taffic densities. These systems each 30 pe GB and month aleady at 0.2Mbps/km 2 coesponding to su10 scenaios. WCDMA HSDPA becomes capacity limited at highe taffic densities than WCDMA DCH, and theefoe yields lowe costs at high taffic densities. The cossove point between WCDMA HSDPA and g is about 100Mbps/km 2, o cc100. With 20% of the uses coveed WCDMA HSDPA is moe expensive than WLAN at 30Mbps/km 2 (su1000/cc30), wheeas with 90% coveage WLAN only systems gives a lowe cost at fist aound 100 Mbps/km 2 (cc100). The multiaccess concepts, WCDMA DCH o WCDMA HSDPA combined with g, ae seen to yield the lowest cost of the included subsystems. Howeve, the gain as compaed to, e.g., a single access WCDMA HSDPA system (with hieachical cell stuctues) is evident only at vey high taffic (> 300Mbps/km 2 ). With the models and assumptions used, thee is hence no significant multiaccess cost eduction. On the othe hand thee is neithe any loss, and thee is thus no cc10 su g WCDMA DCH WCDMA HS DCH & 11g HS & 11g S3G S3G 450 4G 4G elay cc100 cc1000
5 cost dawback fo a mobile netwok opeato deploying maco and mico cells fist, and then adding WLAN only in hotspots, as compaed to a pue WLAN opeato. It may also be noted that HSDPA alone is a bette solution than both WCDMA DCH and g fo taffic loads up to 100Mbps/km 2. B. Futue Concepts The S3G concept, with simila coveage and cost chaacteistics as WCDMA DCH and HSDPA, also yield the same cost as these concepts at low and modeate taffic densities (while the systems ae coveage limited). S3G howeve emains coveage limited fo highe taffic densities, and yields lowe costs fo taffic densities exceeding 2Mbps/km 2. S3G is also seen to be a bette altenative than WCDMA HSDPA combined with g fo the full ange of studied taffic densities. The benefit of lage coveage is also seen fom the hypothetical S3G 450 system. Due to its lage cell adius, it yields cost almost 10 times lowe cost than the othe cellula concepts fo taffic densities up to aound 2Mbps/km 2. Even fo high taffic densities it is bette than standad S3G despite the same capacity pe AP. This indicates that despite a high mean taffic, thee ae lage aeas with less taffic whee a lage coveage pe AP is impotant. The peliminay 4G concept, without elaying, is seen to suffe somewhat fom its educed coveage fo taffic loads up to about 10Mbps/km 2. Beyond this level it yields the lowest cost pe use. The 4G concept with elaying povides slightly lowe cost than 4G without elaying fo modeate taffic densities, but still highe cost than both WCDMA and S3G. C. Picing Stategy and Sevice Offeing Consequences The cost pe data unit can be mapped to a cost pe use (and sevice) in seveal ways. This is a quite complex aea, which has been subject to many studies. Value based picing is, howeve, nowadays most often used in pactice and thee is typically little elation between pice and poduction cost [9]. Yet, the (incemental) poduction cost will tell if a sevice would be pofitable o not given the end use picing possibilities.. Assuming a taffic independent cost the aveage cost pe use is given by the total infastuctue cost divided with the numbe of suppoted uses. This can also be calculated by multiplying the cost pe unit data with the aveage pe use taffic intensity. Altenatively, assuming a linealy taffic dependent cost, the cost pe individual use is given by multiplying the cost pe unit data with the individual use taffic intensity. Seveal altenatives in between these extemes of couse exist. The esults pesented hee ae valid fo all these altenatives. An inteesting obsevation is that, with the models and assumptions used, the incemental infastuctue cost fo 1GB pe month pe use can be kept below 30 fo taffic densities exceeding about 0.2Mbps/km 2. Adding magins fo excluded costs (maketing, custome cae, coe netwok and sevice platfoms, pofit, taxes, etc.) about 1Mbps/km 2 is pobably a moe ealistic value. This oughly coesponds to a city cente aea with today s voice taffic, o a sububan aea with 40 times this taffic pe use. V. CONCLUSIONS The esults of this study indicate that, with the models and assumptions used, singleaccess solutions with high capacity maco cells yield the lowest costs pe use, despite a spatially nonunifom taffic demand. Examples of such systems ae WCDMA HSDPA and the peliminay S3G concept. Opeato deployed WLANonly solutions yield high costs even if the equiement on factions of suppoted uses is small (20%). Except fo at vey high taffic, a multiaccess netwok composed of WCDMA DCH o HSDPA maco and mico cells combined with IEEE g access points do not yield lowe costs pe use than using a singleaccess WCDMA DCH o HSDPA netwok consisting of maco, mico and pico cells. This is because seveal WLAN access points ae equied in each hotspot due to the poo coveage, which esults in an excess capacity and poo utilization of each AP. A hotspot concept with bette coveage could thus lead to bette esults also fo modeate aveage taffic densities. Fo mobile netwok opeatos having a 3G license intoducing WLAN hotspots hence need to be motivated by othe factos; such as access technology capabilities and spectum. Among the 4G concepts, it is seen that a simple elaying solution with macolike elays nodes may yield impoved cost efficiency in aeas with modeate taffic demand, up to some 10s of Mbps/km 2. Fo taffic densities beyond this level, this paticula elaying solution is not motivated. The oveall lowest cost is enabled by a hypothetical highcapacity cellula system opeating in 450MHz spectum. This indicates the impotance of good coveage, which is of couse valid also fo altenative means to achieve it. Futue studies could make use of moe efined system and economical models. In paticula empiical data on taffic demand fo mobile data sevices would be useful to impove the heteogeneous taffic density model. REFERENCES [1] K. Johansson, et al., Relation between base station chaacteistics and cost stuctue in cellula netwoks, in the Poc. of IEEE Pesonal, Indoo and Mobile Communications (PIMRC), [2] F. Loizillon et al., Final esults on seamless mobile IP sevice povision economics, IST TONIC Deliveable no. 11, Oct [3] N. Niebet et al., Ambient Netwoks: An Achitectue fo Communication Netwoks Beyond 3G, in IEEE Wieless Communications, Vol. 11, Issue. 2, Apil 2004, pp [4] U. Gotzne et al., Spatial Taffic Distibution in Cellula Netwoks, in Poceedings of IEEE Vehicula Technology Confeence, [5] R. Ganesh and K. Joseph, Effect of nonunifom taffic distibutions on pefomance of a cellula CDMA system, Univesal Pesonal Communications Recod, Octobe [6] US Census Bueau, Table GCTPH1. Population, Housing Units, Aea, and Density : 2000, available at [7] K. Johansson and A. Fuuskä, Cost efficient capacity expansion stategies using multiaccess netwoks, in Poceedings of IEEE Vehicula Technology Confeence sping, [8] Thid Geneation Pateneship Poject (3GPP), RP , Poposed Study Item on Evolved UTRA and UTRAN, available at pp.og/ftp/tsg_an/tsg_ran/tsgr_26/docs/pdf/rp pdf. [9] T. T. Nagle and R. K. Holden, "The Stategy and Tactics of Picing", Second Edition, Pentice Hall, 1997.
Chapter 3 Savings, Present Value and Ricardian Equivalence
Chapte 3 Savings, Pesent Value and Ricadian Equivalence Chapte Oveview In the pevious chapte we studied the decision of households to supply hous to the labo maket. This decision was a static decision,
More informationChannel selection in ecommerce age: A strategic analysis of coop advertising models
Jounal of Industial Engineeing and Management JIEM, 013 6(1):89103 Online ISSN: 0130953 Pint ISSN: 013843 http://dx.doi.og/10.396/jiem.664 Channel selection in ecommece age: A stategic analysis of
More informationON THE (Q, R) POLICY IN PRODUCTIONINVENTORY SYSTEMS
ON THE R POLICY IN PRODUCTIONINVENTORY SYSTEMS Saifallah Benjaafa and JoonSeok Kim Depatment of Mechanical Engineeing Univesity of Minnesota Minneapolis MN 55455 Abstact We conside a poductioninventoy
More informationHEALTHCARE INTEGRATION BASED ON CLOUD COMPUTING
U.P.B. Sci. Bull., Seies C, Vol. 77, Iss. 2, 2015 ISSN 22863540 HEALTHCARE INTEGRATION BASED ON CLOUD COMPUTING Roxana MARCU 1, Dan POPESCU 2, Iulian DANILĂ 3 A high numbe of infomation systems ae available
More informationEffect of Contention Window on the Performance of IEEE 802.11 WLANs
Effect of Contention Window on the Pefomance of IEEE 82.11 WLANs Yunli Chen and Dhama P. Agawal Cente fo Distibuted and Mobile Computing, Depatment of ECECS Univesity of Cincinnati, OH 452213 {ychen,
More informationThe transport performance evaluation system building of logistics enterprises
Jounal of Industial Engineeing and Management JIEM, 213 6(4): 194114 Online ISSN: 213953 Pint ISSN: 2138423 http://dx.doi.og/1.3926/jiem.784 The tanspot pefomance evaluation system building of logistics
More informationSTUDENT RESPONSE TO ANNUITY FORMULA DERIVATION
Page 1 STUDENT RESPONSE TO ANNUITY FORMULA DERIVATION C. Alan Blaylock, Hendeson State Univesity ABSTRACT This pape pesents an intuitive appoach to deiving annuity fomulas fo classoom use and attempts
More information9:6.4 Sample Questions/Requests for Managing Underwriter Candidates
9:6.4 INITIAL PUBLIC OFFERINGS 9:6.4 Sample Questions/Requests fo Managing Undewite Candidates Recent IPO Expeience Please povide a list of all completed o withdawn IPOs in which you fim has paticipated
More informationAN IMPLEMENTATION OF BINARY AND FLOATING POINT CHROMOSOME REPRESENTATION IN GENETIC ALGORITHM
AN IMPLEMENTATION OF BINARY AND FLOATING POINT CHROMOSOME REPRESENTATION IN GENETIC ALGORITHM Main Golub Faculty of Electical Engineeing and Computing, Univesity of Zageb Depatment of Electonics, Micoelectonics,
More informationINITIAL MARGIN CALCULATION ON DERIVATIVE MARKETS OPTION VALUATION FORMULAS
INITIAL MARGIN CALCULATION ON DERIVATIVE MARKETS OPTION VALUATION FORMULAS Vesion:.0 Date: June 0 Disclaime This document is solely intended as infomation fo cleaing membes and othes who ae inteested in
More informationAn Epidemic Model of Mobile Phone Virus
An Epidemic Model of Mobile Phone Vius Hui Zheng, Dong Li, Zhuo Gao 3 Netwok Reseach Cente, Tsinghua Univesity, P. R. China zh@tsinghua.edu.cn School of Compute Science and Technology, Huazhong Univesity
More informationDefine What Type of Trader Are you?
Define What Type of Tade Ae you? Boke Nightmae srs Tend Ride By Vladimi Ribakov Ceato of Pips Caie 20 of June 2010 1 Disclaime and Risk Wanings Tading any financial maket involves isk. The content of this
More informationData Center Demand Response: Avoiding the Coincident Peak via Workload Shifting and Local Generation
(213) 1 28 Data Cente Demand Response: Avoiding the Coincident Peak via Wokload Shifting and Local Geneation Zhenhua Liu 1, Adam Wieman 1, Yuan Chen 2, Benjamin Razon 1, Niangjun Chen 1 1 Califonia Institute
More informationElectricity transmission network optimization model of supply and demand the case in Taiwan electricity transmission system
Electicity tansmission netwok optimization model of supply and demand the case in Taiwan electicity tansmission system MiaoSheng Chen a ChienLiang Wang b,c, ShengChuan Wang d,e a Taichung Banch Gaduate
More informationAn Approach to Optimized Resource Allocation for Cloud Simulation Platform
An Appoach to Optimized Resouce Allocation fo Cloud Simulation Platfom Haitao Yuan 1, Jing Bi 2, Bo Hu Li 1,3, Xudong Chai 3 1 School of Automation Science and Electical Engineeing, Beihang Univesity,
More informationAvoided emissions kgco 2eq /m 2 Reflecting surfaces 130
ANALYSIS OF GLOBAL WARMING MITIGATION BY WHITE REFLECTING SURFACES Fedeico Rossi, Andea Nicolini Univesity of Peugia, CIRIAF Via G.Duanti 67 0615 Peugia, Italy T: +9075585846; F: +90755848470; E: fossi@unipg.it
More informationEfficient Redundancy Techniques for Latency Reduction in Cloud Systems
Efficient Redundancy Techniques fo Latency Reduction in Cloud Systems 1 Gaui Joshi, Emina Soljanin, and Gegoy Wonell Abstact In cloud computing systems, assigning a task to multiple seves and waiting fo
More informationComparing Availability of Various Rack Power Redundancy Configurations
Compaing Availability of Vaious Rack Powe Redundancy Configuations By Victo Avela White Pape #48 Executive Summay Tansfe switches and dualpath powe distibution to IT equipment ae used to enhance the availability
More informationEquity compensation plans New Income Statement impact on guidance Earnings Per Share Questions and answers
Investos/Analysts Confeence: Accounting Wokshop Agenda Equity compensation plans New Income Statement impact on guidance Eanings Pe Shae Questions and answes IAC03 / a / 1 1 Equity compensation plans The
More informationYARN PROPERTIES MEASUREMENT: AN OPTICAL APPROACH
nd INTERNATIONAL TEXTILE, CLOTHING & ESIGN CONFERENCE Magic Wold of Textiles Octobe 03 d to 06 th 004, UBROVNIK, CROATIA YARN PROPERTIES MEASUREMENT: AN OPTICAL APPROACH Jana VOBOROVA; Ashish GARG; Bohuslav
More informationExam #1 Review Answers
xam #1 Review Answes 1. Given the following pobability distibution, calculate the expected etun, vaiance and standad deviation fo Secuity J. State Pob (R) 1 0.2 10% 2 0.6 15 3 0.2 20 xpected etun = 0.2*10%
More informationFinancial Planning and Riskreturn profiles
Financial Planning and Risketun pofiles Stefan Gaf, Alexande Kling und Jochen Russ Pepint Seies: 201016 Fakultät fü Mathematik und Witschaftswissenschaften UNIERSITÄT ULM Financial Planning and Risketun
More informationAn Introduction to Omega
An Intoduction to Omega Con Keating and William F. Shadwick These distibutions have the same mean and vaiance. Ae you indiffeent to thei iskewad chaacteistics? The Finance Development Cente 2002 1 Fom
More informationComparing Availability of Various Rack Power Redundancy Configurations
Compaing Availability of Vaious Rack Powe Redundancy Configuations White Pape 48 Revision by Victo Avela > Executive summay Tansfe switches and dualpath powe distibution to IT equipment ae used to enhance
More informationIlona V. Tregub, ScD., Professor
Investment Potfolio Fomation fo the Pension Fund of Russia Ilona V. egub, ScD., Pofesso Mathematical Modeling of Economic Pocesses Depatment he Financial Univesity unde the Govenment of the Russian Fedeation
More informationSoftware Engineering and Development
I T H E A 67 Softwae Engineeing and Development SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS DYNAMICS MODELING AS STATE MACHINE Leonid Lyubchyk, Vasyl Soloshchuk Abstact: Softwae development pocess modeling is gaining
More informationTowards Realizing a Low Cost and Highly Available Datacenter Power Infrastructure
Towads Realizing a Low Cost and Highly Available Datacente Powe Infastuctue Siam Govindan, Di Wang, Lydia Chen, Anand Sivasubamaniam, and Bhuvan Ugaonka The Pennsylvania State Univesity. IBM Reseach Zuich
More informationA framework for the selection of enterprise resource planning (ERP) system based on fuzzy decision making methods
A famewok fo the selection of entepise esouce planning (ERP) system based on fuzzy decision making methods Omid Golshan Tafti M.s student in Industial Management, Univesity of Yazd Omidgolshan87@yahoo.com
More informationLoyalty Rewards and Gift Card Programs: Basic Actuarial Estimation Techniques
Loyalty Rewads and Gift Cad Pogams: Basic Actuaial Estimation Techniques Tim A. Gault, ACAS, MAAA, Len Llaguno, FCAS, MAAA and Matin Ménad, FCAS, MAAA Abstact In this pape we establish an actuaial famewok
More informationMultiband Microstrip Patch Antenna for Microwave Applications
IOSR Jounal of Electonics and Communication Engineeing (IOSRJECE) ISSN: 22782834, ISBN: 22788735. Volume 3, Issue 5 (Sep.  Oct. 2012), PP 4348 Multiband Micostip Patch Antenna fo Micowave Applications
More informationest using the formula I = Prt, where I is the interest earned, P is the principal, r is the interest rate, and t is the time in years.
9.2 Inteest Objectives 1. Undestand the simple inteest fomula. 2. Use the compound inteest fomula to find futue value. 3. Solve the compound inteest fomula fo diffeent unknowns, such as the pesent value,
More informationA Comparative Analysis of Data Center Network Architectures
A Compaative Analysis of Data Cente Netwok Achitectues Fan Yao, Jingxin Wu, Guu Venkataamani, Suesh Subamaniam Depatment of Electical and Compute Engineeing, The Geoge Washington Univesity, Washington,
More informationHow Much Should a Firm Borrow. Effect of tax shields. Capital Structure Theory. Capital Structure & Corporate Taxes
How Much Should a Fim Boow Chapte 19 Capital Stuctue & Copoate Taxes Financial Risk  Risk to shaeholdes esulting fom the use of debt. Financial Leveage  Incease in the vaiability of shaeholde etuns that
More informationThere is considerable variation in health care utilization and spending. Geographic Variation in Health Care: The Role of Private Markets
TOMAS J. PHILIPSON Univesity of Chicago SETH A. SEABUY AND Copoation LEE M. LOCKWOOD Univesity of Chicago DANA P. GOLDMAN Univesity of Southen Califonia DAIUS N. LAKDAWALLA Univesity of Southen Califonia
More informationAdaptive Queue Management with Restraint on NonResponsive Flows
Adaptive Queue Management wi Restaint on NonResponsive Flows Lan Li and Gyungho Lee Depatment of Electical and Compute Engineeing Univesity of Illinois at Chicago 85 S. Mogan Steet Chicago, IL 667 {lli,
More informationQuestions & Answers Chapter 10 Software Reliability Prediction, Allocation and Demonstration Testing
M13914 Questions & Answes Chapte 10 Softwae Reliability Pediction, Allocation and Demonstation Testing 1. Homewok: How to deive the fomula of failue ate estimate. λ = χ α,+ t When the failue times follow
More informationTHE DISTRIBUTED LOCATION RESOLUTION PROBLEM AND ITS EFFICIENT SOLUTION
IADIS Intenational Confeence Applied Computing 2006 THE DISTRIBUTED LOCATION RESOLUTION PROBLEM AND ITS EFFICIENT SOLUTION Jög Roth Univesity of Hagen 58084 Hagen, Gemany Joeg.Roth@Fenunihagen.de ABSTRACT
More informationManual ultrasonic inspection of thin metal welds
Manual ultasonic inspection of thin metal welds Capucine Capentie and John Rudlin TWI Cambidge CB1 6AL, UK Telephone 01223 899000 Fax 01223 890689 Email capucine.capentie@twi.co.uk Abstact BS EN ISO 17640
More informationResearch on Risk Assessment of the Transformer Based on Life Cycle Cost
ntenational Jounal of Smat Gid and lean Enegy eseach on isk Assessment of the Tansfome Based on Life ycle ost Hui Zhou a, Guowei Wu a, Weiwei Pan a, Yunhe Hou b, hong Wang b * a Zhejiang Electic Powe opoation,
More informationA Capacitated Commodity Trading Model with Market Power
A Capacitated Commodity Tading Model with Maket Powe Victo MatínezdeAlbéniz Josep Maia Vendell Simón IESE Business School, Univesity of Navaa, Av. Peason 1, 08034 Bacelona, Spain VAlbeniz@iese.edu JMVendell@iese.edu
More informationConcept and Experiences on using a Wikibased System for Softwarerelated Seminar Papers
Concept and Expeiences on using a Wikibased System fo Softwaeelated Semina Papes Dominik Fanke and Stefan Kowalewski RWTH Aachen Univesity, 52074 Aachen, Gemany, {fanke, kowalewski}@embedded.wthaachen.de,
More informationThe impact of migration on the provision. of UK public services (SRG.10.039.4) Final Report. December 2011
The impact of migation on the povision of UK public sevices (SRG.10.039.4) Final Repot Decembe 2011 The obustness The obustness of the analysis of the is analysis the esponsibility is the esponsibility
More informationHigh Availability Replication Strategy for Deduplication Storage System
Zhengda Zhou, Jingli Zhou College of Compute Science and Technology, Huazhong Univesity of Science and Technology, *, zhouzd@smail.hust.edu.cn jlzhou@mail.hust.edu.cn Abstact As the amount of digital data
More informationNBER WORKING PAPER SERIES FISCAL ZONING AND SALES TAXES: DO HIGHER SALES TAXES LEAD TO MORE RETAILING AND LESS MANUFACTURING?
NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES FISCAL ZONING AND SALES TAXES: DO HIGHER SALES TAXES LEAD TO MORE RETAILING AND LESS MANUFACTURING? Daia Bunes David Neumak Michelle J. White Woking Pape 16932 http://www.nbe.og/papes/w16932
More informationHubs, Bridges, and Switches
Hubs, Bidges, and Switches Used fo extending LANs in tems of geogaphical coveage, numbe of nodes, administation capabilities, etc. Diffe in egads to: m collision domain isolation m laye at which they opeate
More informationConverting knowledge Into Practice
Conveting knowledge Into Pactice Boke Nightmae srs Tend Ride By Vladimi Ribakov Ceato of Pips Caie 20 of June 2010 2 0 1 0 C o p y i g h t s V l a d i m i R i b a k o v 1 Disclaime and Risk Wanings Tading
More informationSpirotechnics! September 7, 2011. Amanda Zeringue, Michael Spannuth and Amanda Zeringue Dierential Geometry Project
Spiotechnics! Septembe 7, 2011 Amanda Zeingue, Michael Spannuth and Amanda Zeingue Dieential Geomety Poject 1 The Beginning The geneal consensus of ou goup began with one thought: Spiogaphs ae awesome.
More informationThe Impact of Radio Propagation Models on Ad Hoc Networks Performances
Jounal of Compute Science 8 (5): 752760, 2012 ISSN 15493636 2012 Science Publications The Impact of Radio Popagation Models on Ad Hoc Netwoks Pefomances 1 Rhattoy, A. and 2 A. Zatni 1 Depatment of Compute,
More informationTrading Volume and Serial Correlation in Stock Returns in Pakistan. Abstract
Tading Volume and Seial Coelation in Stock Retuns in Pakistan Khalid Mustafa Assistant Pofesso Depatment of Economics, Univesity of Kaachi email: khalidku@yahoo.com and Mohammed Nishat Pofesso and Chaiman,
More informationDIFFERENT TYPES OF HUMAN HEAD SHAPES FOR CELLULAR PHONE EXPOSURE ON ELECTROMAGNETIC ABSORPTION
DIFFERENT TYPES OF HUMAN HEAD SHAPES FOR CELLULAR PHONE EXPOSURE ON ELECTROMAGNETIC ABSORPTION Mohammad Rashed Iqbal Fauque* #1, Mohammad Taiqul Islam* 2, Nobahiah Misan* #3 * Institute of Space Science
More informationThe Predictive Power of Dividend Yields for Stock Returns: Risk Pricing or Mispricing?
The Pedictive Powe of Dividend Yields fo Stock Retuns: Risk Picing o Mispicing? Glenn Boyle Depatment of Economics and Finance Univesity of Cantebuy Yanhui Li Depatment of Economics and Finance Univesity
More informationApplication of the VISEVA demand generation software to Berlin using publicly available behavioral data
Justen, Beuck, Nagel 1 Application of the VISEVA demand geneation softwae to Belin using publicly available behavioal data Submission date: 15Nov06 Wods: 5973 Figues and tables: 6 ( = 1500 Wods) Total:
More information867 Product Transfer and Resale Report
867 Poduct Tansfe and Resale Repot Functional Goup ID=PT Intoduction: This X12 Tansaction Set contains the fomat and establishes the data contents of the Poduct Tansfe and Resale Repot Tansaction Set (867)
More informationDatabase Management Systems
Contents Database Management Systems (COP 5725) D. Makus Schneide Depatment of Compute & Infomation Science & Engineeing (CISE) Database Systems Reseach & Development Cente Couse Syllabus 1 Sping 2012
More informationAn Analysis of Manufacturer Benefits under Vendor Managed Systems
An Analysis of Manufactue Benefits unde Vendo Managed Systems Seçil Savaşaneil Depatment of Industial Engineeing, Middle East Technical Univesity, 06531, Ankaa, TURKEY secil@ie.metu.edu.t Nesim Ekip 1
More informationChapter 2 Valiant LoadBalancing: Building Networks That Can Support All Traffic Matrices
Chapte 2 Valiant LoadBalancing: Building etwoks That Can Suppot All Taffic Matices Rui ZhangShen Abstact This pape is a bief suvey on how Valiant loadbalancing (VLB) can be used to build netwoks that
More informationEvaluating the impact of Blade Server and Virtualization Software Technologies on the RIT Datacenter
Evaluating the impact of and Vitualization Softwae Technologies on the RIT Datacente Chistophe M Butle Vitual Infastuctue Administato Rocheste Institute of Technology s Datacente Contact: chis.butle@it.edu
More informationTracking/Fusion and Deghosting with Doppler Frequency from Two Passive Acoustic Sensors
Tacking/Fusion and Deghosting with Dopple Fequency fom Two Passive Acoustic Sensos Rong Yang, Gee Wah Ng DSO National Laboatoies 2 Science Pak Dive Singapoe 11823 Emails: yong@dso.og.sg, ngeewah@dso.og.sg
More informationOptimizing Content Retrieval Delay for LTbased Distributed Cloud Storage Systems
Optimizing Content Retieval Delay fo LTbased Distibuted Cloud Stoage Systems Haifeng Lu, Chuan Heng Foh, Yonggang Wen, and Jianfei Cai School of Compute Engineeing, Nanyang Technological Univesity, Singapoe
More informationGravitational Mechanics of the MarsPhobos System: Comparing Methods of Orbital Dynamics Modeling for Exploratory Mission Planning
Gavitational Mechanics of the MasPhobos System: Compaing Methods of Obital Dynamics Modeling fo Exploatoy Mission Planning Alfedo C. Itualde The Pennsylvania State Univesity, Univesity Pak, PA, 6802 This
More informationModeling and Verifying a Price Model for Congestion Control in Computer Networks Using PROMELA/SPIN
Modeling and Veifying a Pice Model fo Congestion Contol in Compute Netwoks Using PROMELA/SPIN Clement Yuen and Wei Tjioe Depatment of Compute Science Univesity of Toonto 1 King s College Road, Toonto,
More informationIBM Research Smarter Transportation Analytics
IBM Reseach Smate Tanspotation Analytics Laua Wynte PhD, Senio Reseach Scientist, IBM Watson Reseach Cente lwynte@us.ibm.com INSTRUMENTED We now have the ability to measue, sense and see the exact condition
More informationApproximation Algorithms for Data Management in Networks
Appoximation Algoithms fo Data Management in Netwoks Chistof Kick Heinz Nixdof Institute and Depatment of Mathematics & Compute Science adebon Univesity Gemany kueke@upb.de Haald Räcke Heinz Nixdof Institute
More informationFinancing Terms in the EOQ Model
Financing Tems in the EOQ Model Habone W. Stuat, J. Columbia Business School New Yok, NY 1007 hws7@columbia.edu August 6, 004 1 Intoduction This note discusses two tems that ae often omitted fom the standad
More informationQuestions for Review. By buying bonds This period you save s, next period you get s(1+r)
MACROECONOMICS 2006 Week 5 Semina Questions Questions fo Review 1. How do consumes save in the twopeiod model? By buying bonds This peiod you save s, next peiod you get s() 2. What is the slope of a consume
More informationPromised LeadTime Contracts Under Asymmetric Information
OPERATIONS RESEARCH Vol. 56, No. 4, July August 28, pp. 898 915 issn 3364X eissn 15265463 8 564 898 infoms doi 1.1287/ope.18.514 28 INFORMS Pomised LeadTime Contacts Unde Asymmetic Infomation Holly
More informationTiming Synchronization in High Mobility OFDM Systems
Timing Synchonization in High Mobility OFDM Systems Yasamin Mostofi Depatment of Electical Engineeing Stanfod Univesity Stanfod, CA 94305, USA Email: yasi@wieless.stanfod.edu Donald C. Cox Depatment of
More informationValuation of Floating Rate Bonds 1
Valuation of Floating Rate onds 1 Joge uz Lopez us 316: Deivative Secuities his note explains how to value plain vanilla floating ate bonds. he pupose of this note is to link the concepts that you leaned
More informationThe Impacts of Congestion on Commercial Vehicle Tours
Figliozzi 1 The Impacts of Congestion on Commecial Vehicle Tous Miguel Andes Figliozzi Potland State Univesity Maseeh College of Engineeing and Compute Science figliozzi@pdx.edu 5124 wods + 7 Tables +
More informationContinuous Compounding and Annualization
Continuous Compounding and Annualization Philip A. Viton Januay 11, 2006 Contents 1 Intoduction 1 2 Continuous Compounding 2 3 Pesent Value with Continuous Compounding 4 4 Annualization 5 5 A Special Poblem
More informationarxiv:1110.2612v1 [qfin.st] 12 Oct 2011
Maket inefficiency identified by both single and multiple cuency tends T.Toká 1, and D. Hováth 1, 1 Sos Reseach a.s., Stojáenská 3, 040 01 Košice, Slovak Republic Abstact axiv:1110.2612v1 [qfin.st] 12
More informationThe Incidence of Social Security Taxes in Economies with Partial. Compliance: Evidence from the SS Reform in Mexico
The Incidence of Social Secuity Taxes in Economies ith Patial Compliance: Evidence fom the SS Refom in Mexico Gecia M. Maufo Abstact Looking at impovements in social secuity benefits in Mexico, this pape
More informationCloud Service Reliability: Modeling and Analysis
Cloud Sevice eliability: Modeling and Analysis YuanShun Dai * a c, Bo Yang b, Jack Dongaa a, Gewei Zhang c a Innovative Computing Laboatoy, Depatment of Electical Engineeing & Compute Science, Univesity
More informationFXA 2008. Candidates should be able to : Describe how a mass creates a gravitational field in the space around it.
Candidates should be able to : Descibe how a mass ceates a gavitational field in the space aound it. Define gavitational field stength as foce pe unit mass. Define and use the peiod of an object descibing
More informationJapan s trading losses reach JPY20 trillion
IEEJ: Mach 2014. All Rights Reseved. Japan s tading losses each JPY20 tillion Enegy accounts fo moe than half of the tading losses YANAGISAWA Akia Senio Economist Enegy Demand, Supply and Foecast Goup
More informationInstituto Superior Técnico Av. Rovisco Pais, 1 1049001 Lisboa Email: virginia.infante@ist.utl.pt
FATIGUE LIFE TIME PREDICTIO OF POAF EPSILO TB30 AIRCRAFT  PART I: IMPLEMETATIO OF DIFERET CYCLE COUTIG METHODS TO PREDICT THE ACCUMULATED DAMAGE B. A. S. Seano 1, V. I. M.. Infante 2, B. S. D. Maado
More informationIgnorance is not bliss when it comes to knowing credit score
NET GAIN Scoing points fo you financial futue AS SEEN IN USA TODAY SEPTEMBER 28, 2004 Ignoance is not bliss when it comes to knowing cedit scoe By Sanda Block USA TODAY Fom Alabama comes eassuing news
More informationINVESTIGATION OF FLOW INSIDE AN AXIALFLOW PUMP OF GV IMP TYPE
1 INVESTIGATION OF FLOW INSIDE AN AXIALFLOW PUMP OF GV IMP TYPE ANATOLIY A. YEVTUSHENKO 1, ALEXEY N. KOCHEVSKY 1, NATALYA A. FEDOTOVA 1, ALEXANDER Y. SCHELYAEV 2, VLADIMIR N. KONSHIN 2 1 Depatment of
More informationMulticriteria analysis in telecommunications
Poceedings of the 37th Hawaii Intenational Confeence on System Sciences  2004 Multiciteia analysis in telecommunications Janusz Ganat and Andze P. Wiezbicki National Institute of Telecommunications Szachowa
More informationReduced Pattern Training Based on Task Decomposition Using Pattern Distributor
> PNN05P762 < Reduced Patten Taining Based on Task Decomposition Using Patten Distibuto ShengUei Guan, Chunyu Bao, and TseNgee Neo Abstact Task Decomposition with Patten Distibuto (PD) is a new task
More informationThe LCOE is defined as the energy price ($ per unit of energy output) for which the Net Present Value of the investment is zero.
Poject Decision Metics: Levelized Cost of Enegy (LCOE) Let s etun to ou wind powe and natual gas powe plant example fom ealie in this lesson. Suppose that both powe plants wee selling electicity into the
More informationOverencryption: Management of Access Control Evolution on Outsourced Data
Oveencyption: Management of Access Contol Evolution on Outsouced Data Sabina De Capitani di Vimecati DTI  Univesità di Milano 26013 Cema  Italy decapita@dti.unimi.it Stefano Paaboschi DIIMM  Univesità
More informationUNIVERSIDAD DE CANTABRIA TESIS DOCTORAL
UNIVERSIDAD DE CANABRIA Depatamento de Ingenieía de Comunicaciones ESIS DOCORAL Cyogenic echnology in the Micowave Engineeing: Application to MIC and MMIC Vey Low Noise Amplifie Design Juan Luis Cano de
More informationExperiment 6: Centripetal Force
Name Section Date Intoduction Expeiment 6: Centipetal oce This expeiment is concened with the foce necessay to keep an object moving in a constant cicula path. Accoding to Newton s fist law of motion thee
More informationFinancial Derivatives for Computer Network Capacity Markets with QualityofService Guarantees
Financial Deivatives fo Compute Netwok Capacity Makets with QualityofSevice Guaantees Pette Pettesson pp@kth.se Febuay 2003 SICS Technical Repot T2003:03 Keywods Netwoking and Intenet Achitectue. Abstact
More informationAutomatic Testing of Neighbor Discovery Protocol Based on FSM and TTCN*
Automatic Testing of Neighbo Discovey Potocol Based on FSM and TTCN* Zhiliang Wang, Xia Yin, Haibin Wang, and Jianping Wu Depatment of Compute Science, Tsinghua Univesity Beijing, P. R. China, 100084 Email:
More informationSupply chain information sharing in a macro prediction market
Decision Suppot Systems 42 (2006) 944 958 www.elsevie.com/locate/dss Supply chain infomation shaing in a maco pediction maket Zhiling Guo a,, Fang Fang b, Andew B. Whinston c a Depatment of Infomation
More informationOptimal Peer Selection in a FreeMarket PeerResource Economy
Optimal Pee Selection in a FeeMaket PeeResouce Economy Micah Adle, Rakesh Kuma, Keith Ross, Dan Rubenstein, David Tune and David D Yao Dept of Compute Science Univesity of Massachusetts Amhest, MA; Email:
More informationGESTÃO FINANCEIRA II PROBLEM SET 1  SOLUTIONS
GESTÃO FINANCEIRA II PROBLEM SET 1  SOLUTIONS (FROM BERK AND DEMARZO S CORPORATE FINANCE ) LICENCIATURA UNDERGRADUATE COURSE 1 ST SEMESTER 20102011 Chapte 1 The Copoation 113. What is the diffeence
More informationMETHODOLOGICAL APPROACH TO STRATEGIC PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION
ETHODOOGICA APPOACH TO STATEGIC PEFOANCE OPTIIZATION ao Hell * Stjepan Vidačić ** Željo Gaača *** eceived: 4. 07. 2009 Peliminay communication Accepted: 5. 0. 2009 UDC 65.02.4 This pape pesents a matix
More informationHow do investments in heat pumps affect household energy consumption?
Discussion Papes Statistics Noway Reseach depatment No. 737 Apil 203 Bente Halvosen and Bodil Meethe Lasen How do investments in heat pumps affect household enegy consumption? Discussion Papes No. 737,
More informationPower Monitoring and Control for Electric Home Appliances Based on Power Line Communication
I²MTC 2008 IEEE Intenational Instumentation and Measuement Technology Confeence Victoia, Vancouve Island, Canada, May 12 15, 2008 Powe Monitoing and Contol fo Electic Home Appliances Based on Powe Line
More informationReferral service and customer incentive in online retail supply Chain
Refeal sevice and custome incentive in online etail supply Chain Y. G. Chen 1, W. Y. Zhang, S. Q. Yang 3, Z. J. Wang 4 and S. F. Chen 5 1,,3,4 School of Infomation Zhejiang Univesity of Finance and Economics
More informationSelfAdaptive and ResourceEfficient SLA Enactment for Cloud Computing Infrastructures
2012 IEEE Fifth Intenational Confeence on Cloud Computing SelfAdaptive and ResouceEfficient SLA Enactment fo Cloud Computing Infastuctues Michael Maue, Ivona Bandic Distibuted Systems Goup Vienna Univesity
More informationSignificant value in diagnostic information
U.S. Centalized Oveview Tom Adkins Vice Pesident Sales and Maketing Centalized, USA 1 Centalized Significant value in diagnostic infomation Diagnostic analysis of blood and othe body fluids pefomed in
More informationPerformance Analysis of an Inverse Notch Filter and Its Application to F 0 Estimation
Cicuits and Systems, 013, 4, 1171 http://dx.doi.og/10.436/cs.013.41017 Published Online Januay 013 (http://www.scip.og/jounal/cs) Pefomance Analysis of an Invese Notch Filte and Its Application to F 0
More informationProducts of the Second Pillar Pension
Óbuda Univesity ebulletin Vol. 4, No. 1, 2014 Poducts of the Second Pilla Pension Jana Špiková Depatent of Quantitative Methods and Infoation Systes, Faculty of Econoics, Matej Bel Univesity Tajovského
More informationAn application of stochastic programming in solving capacity allocation and migration planning problem under uncertainty
An application of stochastic pogamming in solving capacity allocation and migation planning poblem unde uncetainty YinYann Chen * and HsiaoYao Fan Depatment of Industial Management, National Fomosa Univesity,
More informationReview Graph based Online Store Review Spammer Detection
Review Gaph based Online Stoe Review Spamme Detection Guan Wang, Sihong Xie, Bing Liu, Philip S. Yu Univesity of Illinois at Chicago Chicago, USA gwang26@uic.edu sxie6@uic.edu liub@uic.edu psyu@uic.edu
More informationQoSConstrained Resource Allocation for a GridBased Multiple Source Electrocardiogram Application
QoSConstained Resouce Allocation fo a GidBased Multiple Souce Electocadiogam Application Dong Su Nam 1,5, ChanHyun Youn 1,3, Bong Hwan Lee 2, Gai Cliffod 3, and Jennife Healey 4 1 School of Engineeing,
More information