PLANNING FOR COASTLINE CHANGE


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1 COSALC COAST AND BEACH STABILITY IN THE CARIBBEAN ISLANDS PLANNING FOR COASTLINE CHANGE 1 COASTAL DEVELOPMENT SETBACK GUIDELINES IN ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA y Dr. Gillin Cmers. June, Environment n Development in Costl Regions n Smll islns University of Puerto Rio Se Grnt College Progrm
2 LIST OF CONTENTS Pge 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND Generl Conepts Governing Costl Development Setks Existing Costl Development Setks in Antigu n Bru METHODOLOGY Setk Guielines for Cliffe Costs Setk Guielines for Low Roky Shores Setk Guielines for Smll Offshore Cys Setk Guielines for Mngrove Costlines Setk Guielines for Sn n Stone Behes COASTAL DEVELOPMENT SETBACKS IN ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA CONCLUDING REMARKS List of Tles Referenes Appenix I. Detile Methoology for the Clultion of Setks t ehes Appenix II. Setk Clultions for Iniviul Behes in Antigu n Bru Conitions for the Development of Ln Ajent to the Shore n on... 5 Sumerge n Relime Lns 2. Setk Distnes for Behes in Antigu n Bru Setk Ctegories for Behes in Antigu n Bru List of Figures 1. Reommene Constrution on Dune Beh Setk Ctegories in Antigu Beh Setk Ctegories in Bru i
3 Aknowlegments I woul like to thnk the stff of the Development Control Authority, the Fisheries Division n the Environment Unit of the government of Antigu n Bru, together with the Environmentl Awreness Group n Dr. D. Thoms of the Unite Ntions Centre for Humn Settlements for their ssistne with the preprtion n review of this report. I woul lso like to thnk Dr. A. Suzyumov of UNESCO s Costs n Smll Islns Unit for reviewing the report. Crhill By, Antigu, Septemer, Builings onstrute on the eh re extremely vulnerle to storm n hurrine mge n their positioning so lose to the wter my le to the ultimte loss of the eh. ii
4 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Costlines, n ehes in prtiulr, re ynmi fsthnging systems whih re vitlly importnt to the tourismoriente eonomy of Antigu n Bru, s well s to other smll Crien islns. The pruent use of ostl evelopment setks, whih estlish sfe istne etween the upper limit of wve tion n new evelopment, provies for eh preservtion, reution of erosion, s well s improve ess, vists n privy for eh users n property owners. This report evelops ostl setk guielines for Antigu n Bru. These setks pply to ll evelopment: houses, hotels, vills, ommeril uilings, whether me of woo or ement, irports, ros n swimming pools. For liffe osts, the setk is 50 feet (15 m) from the liff ege. On low roky shores, the setk is 100 feet (30 m) from the nturl vegettion line. Setks for ehes hve een etermine for iniviul ehes se on historil hnges over the lst thirty yers, mesure hnges over the pst six yers, preite impts of mjor hurrine (se on the mesure impt of Hurrine Luis in 1995), preite hnge ue to se level rise, n other ftors inluing ostl form, mn s tivities n plnning onsiertions. Setks re mesure from the line of permnent vegettion, the tree line or sru line. Bse on these setks, ehes hve een groupe into four tegories for ese of implementtion: Ctegory 1 Ctegory 2 Ctegory 3 Ctegory 4 setk is 60 feet (18 m) lnwr of the line of permnent vegettion; setk is 100 feet (30 m) lnwr of the line of permnent vegettion; setk is 130 feet (40 m) lnwr of the line of permnent vegettion; setk is 300 feet (91 m) lnwr of the line of permnent vegettion. One exeption hs een me for eh rs/resturnts, (efine s smll iniviul uilings me of woo n with no onrete fountions, to e use exlusively s resturnts n/or rs) on the grouns tht their eonomi viility epens on their proximity to the eh. The setk for these strutures is 25 feet (8 m) lnwr of the vegettion line. Most of the ehes in Antigu fll into Ctegories 1 n 2, while three ehes fll into Ctegory 3. The ehes long the south n west ost of Bru fll into Ctegories 3 n 4, with the exeption of the sn r from Low By to the southern en of Corington Lgoon, where no evelopment shoul tke ple. Behes long the est ost of Bru re in Ctegory 2. On osts fringe y mngroves n wetlns, speifi setk etermintion must wit ompletion of n ongoing mngrove inventory n prioritiztion projet. In the mentime it is reommene tht evelopment in suh res shoul refully follow the guielines in the Development Control Authority Regultions (1996, No. 20). If evelopment is permitte on smll sny ys, it is reommene tht it e restrite to wooen pile strutures. This is euse of the vulnerility of these sny ys to tropil storms n hurrines. Implementtion of these setk guielines will provie the plnning uthorities in Antigu n Bru with frmework whih will filitte ostl evelopment n reue eh erosion. Awreness n eution of the puli n speil interest groups is vitl omponent of the suessful implementtion of these setks. 1
5 2. INTRODUCTION Behes re mong the most ynmi systems in nture, they show visile hnges over hours, ys, months n yers. They lso represent one of the most importnt nturl n eonomi resoures of smll isln sttes suh s Antigu n Bru where the tourism inustry is the minsty of the eonomy n is still very muh eh orientte. The upmrket fous of the tourism inustry mkes it prtiulrly sensitive to the qulity of these resoures. Yet in Antigu n Bru, s hs een seen in other Crien islns, the growth of the tourism inustry, whih epens lrgely on the ehes, often retes prolems for those sme ehes. All too often, evelopers wish to position their properties s lose s possile to the wter, hving little regr for sesonl eh hnges or the infrequent, yet tstrophi hurrines. It is not only tourism properties whih re positione jent to the eh or ostline, ut other infrstruture s well, suh s houses, ros, irports n ommeril properties. The vist of long white sn ehes, sn unes, plm trees n ler lue wters is essentil for the tourism inustry n is prt of the nturl heritge of the people of Antigu n Bru. Forwr plnning through the use of ostl evelopment setks n ssist in ensuring tht suh vists re not reple y ugly rok revetments, groynes n nrrow eh strips. One of the ominnt hrteristis of ehes is their onstnt hnges in form, shpe n sometimes the very mteril of whih they re ompose. The est wy to onserve ehes is to llow them the spe to move  in sewr iretion when sn is uiling up (retion) n in lnwr iretion uring erosion phses. The pruent use of ostl evelopment setks or estlishing sfe istne etween uilings n the tive eh zone n ensure tht spe is provie for eh to move nturlly, oth uring norml events n infrequent hurrines, therey ensuring the eh is onserve for ll to enjoy n tht ostl infrstruture remins intt. The purpose of this report is to prepre set of guielines for ostl evelopment setks in Antigu n Bru. This report is primrily resse to plnners n ostl mnger. The projet is prt of regionl projet "Plnning for Costline Chnge" n is fune y UNESCO through their Environment n Development in Costl Regions n Smll Islns enevour n y the University of Puerto Rio Se Grnt College Progrm through their MultiProgrm n Regionl Development fility. A generi methoology hs een evelope for ostl setk etermintion (Cmers, 1997) n hs lrey een pplie in one Crien territory, Anguill (Cmers, 1996). Within the projet Plnning for Costline Chnge this sme methoology is eing pte to Antigu n Bru, Nevis n St. Lui. Antigu n Bru is the sujet of this present report. 2
6 3. BACKGROUND 3.1 Generl Conepts Governing Costl Development Setks Costl setk provisions ensure tht evelopment is prohiite in protete zone jent to the wter's ege. A ostl evelopment setk my e efine s presrie istne to ostl feture, suh s the line of permnent vegettion, within whih ll or ertin types of evelopment re prohiite. Costl evelopment setks hve severl funtions: They provie uffer zones etween the oen n ostl infrstruture, within whih the eh zone my expn or ontrt nturlly, without the nee for sewlls n other strutures, whih my imperil n entire eh system. Thus in this sense they my tully reue eh erosion. They reue mge to ehfront property uring high wve events, e.g. hurrines. They provie improve vists n ess long the eh. They provie privy for the oupiers of ostl property n lso for persons enjoying the eh s reretionl resoure. Most Crien islns use high wter mrk s the seline for mesurement. The plnning stnrs evelope for the ountries elonging to the Orgniztion of Estern Crien Sttes (OECS) (Wson & Nurse, 1994) use the high wter mrk s the seline for mesurement. However, there re severl prolems with the use of this riterion. For instne the position of the high wter mrk vries from y to y, sometimes its position n hnge y more thn 30 feet () from one y to the next, prtiulrly if there is winter swell event. It is lso somewht sujetive unless efine y n urte vertil height, whih is not the se in the Crien islns. Thus evelopers n plnners my iffer in the interprettion of high wter mrk s seline. 3.2 Existing Costl Development Setks in Antigu n Bru In Antigu n Bru, the ostl setk istne use to e 50 feet (15 m) from the high wter mrk. However, the Ln Development n Control Regultions (1996, No. 20) me y the Minister uner setion 23 of the Ln Development n Control At Cp. 235 presrie new onitions for evelopment lose to the shoreline, see Tle 1. Prt A of the Thir Sheule of these regultions esries onitions for the evelopment of the shoreline n sumerge lns, n Prt B els with for relime ln. Prt D presries new setk istnes, speifilly no uiling shll e loser thn 100 feet (30 m) to the high wter mrk. However, these Regultions hve only reently een ente in Antigu n Bru n re therefore in the preliminry stges of implementtion y the Development Control Authority. Furthermore, they pper to e ritrrily etermine n therefore iffiult to justify n explin to evelopers. 3
7 Costl evelopment setks hve to e refully esigne. From eh ynmis perspetive, lrge setks re enefiil, however, from eveloper's viewpoint, these setks leve lot of vlule ln tie up n unville for evelopment, n they my meet with onsierle resistne. For instne in Nevis, very generous setks (300 feet / 90 m from the high wter mrk) hve not een fully implemente minly euse people onsier them unrelisti (Roinson, 1997). Hurrine Luis, Ctegory 4 hurrine, whih psse over Antigu n Bru in Septemer, 1995, helpe to hnge some of tht thinking. There ws rmti shoreline erosion (Blk et l., 1996, Cmers, 1996). However, puli memory of suh events is often very short. Some ountries utilize vrile setks whih mke llownes for nturl vritions in shoreline trens from one eh to nother. So on ehes tht re eroing the ostl evelopment setk will e greter thn on stle ehes or on those ehes tht re uilingup (reting). For exmple, in South Crolin in the U.S.A., the with of the setk is presrie s istne 40 times the nnul erosion rte mesure from the most sewr une (Ntionl Reserh Counil, 1990). Sine there is nee for further evelopment in the ostl zone in the interests of the ountry's eonomi welleing whih is t lest prtilly epenent on the tourism inustry, setk poliies must e esigne to ensure tht new evelopment is sustinle. Thus new evelopment shoul not threten the integrity of the ostl mrine environment whih is the fountion of the tourism inustry. The onept of vrile setks, whih mke llownes for ifferenes in the ehviour, hrteristis, erosionl history n use of ehes, n est fulfill this funtion in Antigu n Bru s well s in other Crien islns. However, it must e reognize tht it is one mtter for plnners to presrie setks, ut in orer for them to e suessful, groups suh s rhitets, rftsmen, evelopers n the generl puli, must e shown the rtionle n the nee for suh plnning tools. As with other fets of ostl re mngement, the nee for eution, prtiiption n ommunition is of prmount importne. 4
8 Tle 1. Conitions for the Development of Ln Ajent to the Shore n on Sumerge n Relime Lns. (Antigu n Bru Ln Development n Control Regultions 1996, No. 20). Prt A Shoreline n Sumerge Lns 1. Any pplition for evelopment jent to the shoreline or on ln whih is wholly or prtilly sumerge t some or ll times will require the following itionl t n e sujet to the following onitions: (i) (ii) (iii) A written report y ompetent professionl esriing the previling environmentl onitions inluing the eology, hyrogeology, n wter movements in reltion to the ln n jent properties. A report ontining the ext esription of the ln to whih the pplition refers inluing mps, photogrphs, topogrphi ontours n susurfe profiles in suh etil s is pproprite to the sope n omplexity of the ln n the propose evelopment. A report ontining omplete esription of the propose evelopment efining preisely the moifitions, ltertions n onstrution methos, with etils of the proeures propose for supervision n ontrol of the propose evelopment. 2. No sn shll e remove from ny ln wholly or prtilly sumerge, or eing ner to ny eh without speifi prior written pprovl of the Authority. 3. The pplint shll within six months of ompletion of the evelopment to whih this prt pplies sumit to the Authority report whih will esrie in etil the tul work rrie out on the ln, the movement of erth n the environmentl onitions of the ln inluing the properties jent to the ln. 4. The provisions of Prt D in this Sheule (whih reltes to setks) re lso pplile to ln to whih this prt of this Sheule pplies. Prt B Relime Ln 1. A permit for the evelopment of ny relime ln shll inlue onition tht fter ompletion of the evelopment, the ln shll hve minimum elevtion of five feet ove the high wter mrk 5. With respet to ln etween shoreline n ro: Prt D Setks from Bounries (i) (ii) (iii) No uiling shll e permitte unless the lot on whih it is intene to stn is t lest 150 feet in istne from the ro to the men shoreline mesure from the high wter mrk t right ngles to the nerest ege of the ro rightofwy. No uiling shll e loser thn 100 feet (30 m) to the high wter mrk. Setks t liffs shll e t the isretion of the Authority. 5
9 4. METHODOLOGY Bse on the ostl form of the smll Crien islns, five mjor ostl types n e ientifie in Antigu n Bru: 1. liffs; 2. low roky shores; 3. smll sny offshore ys; 4. mngrove ostlines; 5. sn or stone ehes. Setk guielines re evelope for eh ostline type. The methoology utilizes geomorphologil, geologil, oenogrphi n eologil hrteristis s well s oserve rtes of hnge n soioeonomi ftors. 4.1 Setk Guielines for Cliffe Costs Geologil omposition n wve proesses re mjor ftors etermining liff retret. "Hr" rok liffs ompose of volni n limestone roks will generlly eroe muh more slowly thn liffs ompose of "soft" roks suh s lys n snstones, where erosion rtes my e s high s severl yrs/metres yer. Cliff retret rtes re generlly higher on winwr osts where win n wve tion is more intense. Cliff erosion is usully not grul proess, ut suen one s lrge loks ollpse espeilly in frture roks suh s limestone. Geologilly Antigu my e ivie into three setions (Multer et l 1986): the Southwestern Volni Group where the Bsl Volni Suite exists (this overs the ostline from Bllst By to Mmor By); the Centrl Plin Group whih onsists of seimentry roks n some volnis (this overs the northwest ostline from St. John's to Wetherills Point n the southest ostline in the Willoughy By re); the Northestern Uplns whih re me up of the Antigu Formtion, group of limestone roks (this overs the ostline from Wetherills Point to Lynh Point in Willoughy By). The Centrl Plin Group of seimentry roks re softer n more vulnerle to erosion. However, there re very few ostl liffs in this geologil formtion, only t Corison Point n Wetherills Point on the northwest ost n roun Willoughy By in the southest. The limestone liffs in the northest n volni liffs in the southwest my e onsiere "hr rok liffs n hve not een ifferentite for the purposes of setks. So therefore lnket guieline of 50 feet (15 m) from the liff ege is reommene for evelopment lose to ostl liffs. Bru onsists of low Pleistoene limestones overlppe y moern reef n sn eposits. Most of the ln surfe is less thn 25 feet (8 m) high. The Highlns ner the est ost re the only re of signifint height rehing more thn 100 feet (30 m). Sine these re ompose of limestone, the sme guieline of 50 feet (15 m) from the liff ege is reommene for evelopment here. However, it must e rememere tht liff ollpse is suen proess with lrge setions of liff flling t one time. So the ove reommention shoul e regre s minimum. 6
10 On liffs in Antigu n Bru, ll new evelopments shoul e set k minimum of 50 feet (15 m) from the liff ege. 4.2 Setk Guielines for Low Roky Shores In Antigu, these shores re usully ompose of limestone or sometimes volni rok, while in Bru they re me of limestone. Generlly they show low levels of retret, however, evelopment in these res is vulnerle to sewter inuntion uring tropil storms n hurrines, thus setk of 100 feet (30 m) from the vegettion line is reommene. On some winwr osts, there my e no tree of sru line, in suh ses the shru/grss ege is the strting point for mesurement of the setk istne. On low roky shores, ll new evelopment shoul e set k minimum of 100 feet (30 m) from the nturl vegettion line. 4.3 Setk Guielines for Smll Offshore Cys There re severl smll offshore ys in the North Soun re off the northestern ost of Antigu n in the northern setion of Bru. Most of the ys in the North Soun re re roky or t lest hve rok se. One exeption is Mien Isln in North Soun whih ws forme wirh mteril rege from the Airport projet. Sny ys in prtiulr, re very vulnerle formtions, they my temporrily or permnently ispper uring mjor hurrine. Furthermore, they my reform fter the hurrine in ifferent lotion. For these resons it is reommene tht if evelopment is permitte on these sny ys, then it shoul onsist of smll iniviul uilings me of woo n with no onrete fountions. Atul setk istnes shoul e etermine using setk vlues for nery ehes on the minln. On roky ys, the sme setks s esrie for low roky shores on the minln of Antigu n Bru shoul e pplie, see Setion 4.2. On smll sny offshore ys, if new evelopment is permitte, it shoul onsist of smll iniviul uilings me of woo n with no onrete fountions. 4.4 Setk Guielines for Mngrove Costlines Muh of the estern ost of Antigu, extening from Brnle Point ner the irport to Nonsuh By onsists of mngrove ostline. It hs een estimte tht more thn 11% of Antigu's ostline onsists of mngroves/wetlns (Cmers, 1991). These wetln systems my onsist of nrrow ns of fringing mngroves or extensive mngrove forests extening severl hunre yrs inln s t Fithes Creek or to the est of Prhm. Similrly in Bru there re extensive wetln systems on the northern prt of Got Isln n t the northern en of Corington Lgoon. Development in wetln res requires speil onsiertion. Wetlns, esies eing immensely importnt eologilly n eonomilly from fisheries perspetive, lso ply n importnt role in pollution reution, formtion of new ln n the protetion ostl res uring storms n hurrines. As with ehes, it is impossile to provie just one lnket setk istne for ll mngrove res. Eh wetln re is ifferent  physilly, eologilly n eonomilly. 7
11 Furthermore, the onept of the permnent tree line s the seline for mesurement my hve to e reonsiere in these ostl forests. A wetln inventory is eing prepre y the Environmentl Awreness Group in Antigu n Bru uner the GEF Smll Grnts Progrm entitle Informtion Gthering for Wetlns Conservtion. This inventory will list n ssess ll the wetln res n will lso prioritize the wetlns in terms of physil, eologil n soioeonomi hrteristis. This inventory is sheule for ompletion y the en of One omplete, the government of Antigu n Bru will e in position to etermine whih wetln res shoul or shoul not e evelope, n if evelopment is to e permitte, the with n the nture of pproprite uffer zones n setks. Furthermore, the Fisheries Division re reviewing list of propose mrine reserves, these inlue the following: Hnson By n the Flshes, Pinhing By, Yorks Slt Pon, Johnson s Point to Ol Ro Bluff, Willoughy By/Christin Cove, Are etween Green Isln n Inin Town Point, Boon Point to Inin Town Bru Lgoon inluing the Bir Sntury. If n when these reserves re esignte, then speil onitions relting to evelopment in these res will previl. Sine these two projets, the wetlns inventory n the mrine reserve esigntion, re in progress, further etile reommentions regring ostl evelopment in wetln res must wit the ompletion of these projets. However, in the mentime it is reommene tht ny persons wishing to evelop ln in wetln res shoul e vise to refully follow the guielines li out in Prt A of the Thir Sheule of the Regultions for the Ln Development Control At, see Tle 1. Furthermore, it is reommene tht the Fisheries Division n the Environment Unit shoul e fully involve in the review of suh pplitions. 4.5 Setk Guielines for Sn n Stone Behes Due to the omplexity of ehes n their hnges, s well s their importne for tourism, reretion n evelopment, setks hve een etermine iniviully on eh y eh sis in Antigu n Bru. This llows for greter setks on eroing ehes whih will in turn provie for the preservtion of ehes, protetion of ehfront property n the reution of erosion use y ertin eh protetion strutures. Furthermore, suh setks will reue the nee for eh protetion mesures. The line of "permnent" vegettion hs een use s the seline for mesurement. This is the tree line or sru line n n e esily efine n gree y ifferent oservers. Also it shows only slight hnge prt from the reltively rre tropil storms n hurrines. Fetures suh s high wter mrk vry oring to the til yle n re very sujetive espeilly when use y untrine oservers. 8
12 The line of permnent vegettion is use s the seline for setk etermintion for ehes. Some ehes re ke y sn unes. Sn unes re reservoirs of sn whih supply the eh with sn uring tropil storms n hurrines, thus they re temporry fetures. New evelopment shoul lwys e ple lnwr of the primry une, see Figure 1. Sometimes there is no tree line in sn une res, inste the unes re overe with grss n vines. In suh ses the seline for mesurement will e the rest (top) of the primry (most sewr) une. It is essentil to mintin the primry une intt n free of evelopment. The setk pplies to ll permnent evelopment e.g. houses, hotels, vills, ommeril uilings, whether woo or ement, swimming pools n ros. Figure 1. Reommene Constrution on Dune. The primry une hs een left intt. The uiling hs een uilt on piles so s to llow the uninterrupte flow of floowter n hs een positione ehin the primry une. (Figure pte from the U.S. Deprtment of Housing n Urn Development, 1981). No evelopment shoul e permitte sewr of the seline, tht is the permnent vegettion line, with the ovious exeptions of jetties n oking filities. In Antigu one setk vlue ws lulte for eh eh. However, in Bru the ostline is not ivie y rok helns into seprte ehes. So in Bru the ostline ws ivie into setions. Setks hve een evelope for iniviul ehes se on the following formul: is the projete hnge in ostline position over the next 30 yers se on reore hnges etween 1968 n 1997 in Antigu n 1958 n 1997 in Bru; is the projete hnge in ostline position likely to result from mjor hurrine; 9
13 is the represents other ftors inluing eologil, plnning n soil onsiertions. In Antigu, eril photogrphs from 1968 n 1991 were ompre to etermine historil ostline hnges. In Bru the photogrphs from 1958 n 1991 were ompre. Beh monitoring hs een ongoing in Antigu sine 1991 n in Bru sine 1995 n is onute y the Fisheries Division within the regionl Cost n Beh Stility in the Crien Islns (COSALC) projet. Trens from these two t sets were use to projet ostline hnges over the next 30 yers ( in the ove formul). In most, ut not ll, ses the historil t from the eril photogrphs ws use to etermine minly euse of the longer time perio. However, there were some exeptions, see Appenix I n the speifi t for eh eh in Appenix II. Dt from the eh monitoring progrmme were use to etermine the hnges in the ln ege or une ege tht ourre s result of Hurrine Luis in This provie the sis for the projete hnge from mjor hurrine, in the ove formul. It is ntiipte tht Antigu n Bru will e impte y t lest one mjor hurrine in the next 30 yers. (This oes not men tht the hurrine entre hs to pss iretly over the ountry ut rther tht it will pss lose enough to use severe mge). As se level rises, low sny shorelines retret inln. The Bruun Rule (1962) ws use to ompute this hnge, in the ove eqution. This ftor is somewht speultive sine there is no long term tie guge t in Antigu n Bru. However, for the purposes of this report n on the sis of historil tie guge t for other prts of the Crien, it hs een ssume tht the se level will rise in Antigu n Bru y 1 feet (0.3 m) over the next 100 yers. See lso Appenix I. The ftor in the ove eqution represents omintion of the following: ostline shpe n how sheltere eh is from inoming wves; ostl fetures suh s sn spits n rs; offshore fetures suh s orl reefs; mn s tivities suh s sn mining, offshore reging; plnning onsiertions suh s lot size, ntionl prk esigntions. While the inorportion of these ftors involves qulittive eisions, they re nevertheless too importnt to e omitte. Appenix I ontins more etile isussion of these prmeters n the methoology. 5. COASTAL DEVELOPMENT SETBACKS IN ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA Blnket setks hve een etermine for liffe osts n low roky shores, these re: on liffe osts, the setk is 50 feet (15 m) from the liff ege; on low roky shores, the setk is 100 feet (30 m) from the nturl vegettion line. For ostlines fringe y mngroves n wetlns, setks will e etermine for iniviul systems se on the ongoing mngrove inventory n the reltive importne of prtiulr mngrove systems. As with ehes, there will e ifferent setks for iniviul mngrove systems. Until the mngrove inventory is omplete (en of 1998/eginning of 1999), it is reommene tht the Ln 10
14 Development Control Authority Regultions (1996, No. 20) shoul e pplie to ll pplitions eling with evelopment in wetlns, espeilly Prts A n B of the Thir Sheule, see lso Tle 1. It is further reommene tht uring the review proess, pplitions for evelopment in wetlns shoul e referre to the Fisheries Division n the Environment Unit. Speifi setks hve een etermine for iniviul ehes in Antigu n Bru. In ll ses these re mesure lnwrs of the line of permnent vegettion (tree line/sru line). These setks pply to ll types of evelopment  houses, hotels, vills, ommeril uilings, whether woo or onrete, ros n swimming pools. However, speil provision hs een me for smll iniviul uilings me of woo n with no onrete fountions to e use exlusively for the purpose of eh resturnts n/or rs, on the grouns tht their eonomi viility epens on their proximity to the eh. In the pst they hve sometimes een permitte on the eh itself, however, these strutures shoul e set k t lest 25 feet (8 m ) lnwrs of the vegettion line. Tle 2 shows the setks for speifi ehes in Antigu n Bru. Setks hve een lulte for ll the mjor ehes in Antigu. However, there re some smller ehes where no speifi setk hs een etermine. For these ehes, setks shoul e etermine on the sis of the vlue for the nerest jent eh provie they hve similr hrteristis. Appenix II etils how the setk ws lulte for eh eh. While Tle 2 gives speifi setk vlue for eh eh, this my provie too muh etil n prove iffiult to implement from plnning perspetive. The t hve therefore een groupe into four ifferent tegories s follows: Ctegory 1 Ctegory 2 Ctegory 3 Ctegory 4 Setk 60 feet (18 m) lnwr of the line of permnent vegettion; Setk 100 feet (30 m) lnwr of the line of permnent vegettion; Setk 130 feet (40 m) lnwr of the line of permnent vegettion; Setk 300 feet (91 m) lnwr of the line of permnent vegettion. 11
15 Tle 2. Setk Distnes for Behes in Antigu n Bru Beh/Costl Setion Setk istne in feet Setk istne in metres Beh/Costl Setion Setk istne in feet Setk istne in metres ANTIGUA Crlisle By Dikenson By Renezvous By West Runwy By Renezvous By Est Fort Jmes Deep By (Colony Hotel) Bllst By Flmouth Pillr Rok By Pigeon Point Deep By Mmor By Glley By Hlfmoon By Lning By Exhnge By Hwksill By Long By Yorks By Duthmn By Stony Horn By Jerwok Mosquito Cove Blkrok By Lignumvite By BARBUDA Vlley Churh By Low By Ffryes By Plmetto Point Drkwoo Beh Dulin Hotel  Jetty Cr Hill By Coo Point Morris By Governor By Curtin Bluff In eh tegory the setk is the minimum eptle, greter setks shoul lwys e enourge. Tle 3 lists the ehes uner the vrious tegories n Figures 2 n 3 show mps with the setk tegories in Antigu n Bru. 12
16 Tle 3. Setk Ctegories for Behes in Antigu n Bru Ctegory 1 Setk = 60 feet (18 m) Ctegory 2 Setk = 100 feet (30 m) Ctegory 3 Setk = 130 feet (40 m) Ctegory 4 Setk = 300 feet (91 m) No Development Ctegory ANTIGUA ANTIGUA ANTIGUA BARBUDA BARBUDA Bllst By, Pillr Rok By, Deep By, Hwksill By, Stony Horn By, Cr Hill By, Curtin Bluff By, Crlisle By, Renezvous By West, Renezvous By Est, Deep By (Colony Hotel), Flmouth, Mmor By, Exhnge By, Long By, Duthmn By, Blkrok By. Dikenson By, Runwy By, Fort Jmes, Glley By, Lning By, Yorks By, Mosquito Cove, Lignumvite By, Ffryes By, Pigeon Point, Hlfmoon By, Jerwok. BARBUDA Est ost ehes from Spnish Point to Hog Point. Vlley Churh By, Drkwoo Beh, Morris By. BARBUDA Dulin Hotel to Airstrip ner Coo Point, Governor By. Coo Point spit, Plmetto Point spit (promontory), sn r west of Corington Lgoon n north of Low By. Sn r west of the Corington Lgoon etween Low By n the southern en of the lgoon. 13
17 Figure 2. Beh Setk Ctegories in Antigu. Key BB Bllst By EB Exhnge By MB Mmor By BRB Blk Rok By F Flmouth MC Mosquito Cove CB Crlisle By FB Ffryes By MoB Morris By CBB Curtin Bluff By FJ Fort Jmes PP Pigeon Point CHB Cr Hill By GB Glley By PRB Piller Rok By DB Drkwoo By HB Hwksill By RBE Renezvous By Est DB/ Deep By/ HMB Hlfmoon By RuB Runwy By CBH Colony Beh Hotel J Jerwok RBW Renezvous By West DeB Deep By LB Lning By SHB Stony Horn By DiB Dikenson By LoB Long By VCB Vlley Churh By DuB Duthmn By LVB Lignumvite By YB Yorks Beh 14
18 Figure 3. Beh Setk Ctegories in Bru. 15
19 In Antigu most of the ehes fll into the two lower setk tegories: 60 feet (18 m) n 100 feet (30 m). Three ehes: Vlley Churh By, Drkwoo Beh n Morris By fll into Ctegory 3, 130 feet (40 m). In ll ses the setk istne is to e mesure from the line of permnent vegettion. In Bru the setk istnes re higher. This is minly funtion of the low lying, expose nture of Bru s ostline. (In Antigu, the ostline is very inente n mny of the ehes lie t the he of sheltere ys). Furthermore, long the west ost of Bru n t ples on the south ost, the ostline is me up of sn rs n sn spits. These fetures re very vulnerle to hnges uring tropil storms n hurrines. Thus in Bru, the south ost, with the exeption of Coo Point n Plmetto Point (see Figure 3) flls into the Ctegory 3 setk group, 130 feet (40 m). Coo Point n Plmetto Point fll into Ctegory 4, 300 feet (91 m). Agin setk istnes re mesure from the line of permnent vegettion. The sn r seprting the Corington Lgoon from the se is very nrrow in ples (less thn 50 m) n tropil storms n hurrines result in hnnels eing ut through this nrrow r to the lgoon. While the hnnels usully eome fille with sn n ispper in the months fter the storm event, the r must nevertheless e regre s temporry formtion n is not suitle for permnent evelopment. In prtiulr no evelopment shoul e permitte etween Low By n the southern en of Corington Lgoon, see Figure 3. The setion of the r north of Low By is wier (mximum feet, 600 m) n here the reommene minimum setk is 300 feet (91 m) from the line of permnent vegettion n ny evelopment shoul e restrite to wooen pile strutures with no onrete fountions. Setk istnes hve een estimte only for the low lying prts of the est n north ost of Bru. Along prts of the est ost there is sn terre, feet (60 90 m)wie, elow limestone liff. Mny of the ehes here re protete with orl reefs. It is reommene tht evelopment here e lote minimum of 100 feet (30 m) from the line of permnent vegettion (Ctegory 2). These setk tegories will llow for ese of implementtion y the Development Control Authority in Antigu n Bru. For speifi pplitions, plnners n refer to Tle 1 to otin the speifi setk vlue for eh, n to Appenix II for etils on the wy in whih the setk ws lulte s well s speifi t on reent hurrine mge n eh hnges uring the pst six yers. One the setk stnrs re inorporte into Antigu n Bru s plnning legisltion n the evelopment pln, it is reommene tht they e pplie on fixe sis with evitions eing llowe only in very exeptionl irumstnes. Plnners my exerise some flexiility in ses where the lulte setk for prtiulr eh/eh setion is less thn the tegory vlue. For instne Hlfmoon By flls into Ctegory 2, so the setk here shoul e 100 feet (30 m). However, referene to Tle 3 n Appenix II shows tht the speifi setk lultion for Hlfmoon By is 82 feet (25 m). Thus plnner reviewing n pplition for this eh my eie to ommote eveloper s wish to uil loser to the eh y relxing the setk to the 82 feet (25 m) vlue. Suh ommotion shoul only e permitte where the lulte setk for prtiulr eh is less thn the tegory vlue ssigne to tht eh. These setks, whih n e fully justifie n expline to evelopers, shoul filitte future ostl evelopment. However, it must e emphsize tht ny setk poliy must e omine with n eution n wreness mpign so tht memers of the puli s well s speil interest groups suh s rhitets, ontrtors n politiins, fully unerstn the nee for suh setks. 16
20 6. CONCLUDING REMARKS The propose setks for ostl evelopment provie frmework in whih the Development Control Authority n work to ensure tht ostl evelopment in Antigu n Bru is sustinle n tht eh erosion is reue. It is reommene tht the government of Antigu n Bru inorporte these setk guielines into their plnning regultions s soon s the Physil Development Bill, t present uner onsiertion, is psse into lw. It is envisge tht the setks n e revise s the eh monitoring progrmme onute y the Fisheries Division ontinues n s other informtion eomes ville. As Antigu n Bru move towrs eveloping n integrte ostl re mngement pproh, the implementtion n further revision of these setk guielines will provie n importnt tool. 17
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