State-Funded Indigent Defense Services, 1999

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1 9 U.S. Deprtment of Justie Offie of Justie Progrms Revise, // th Bureu of Justie Sttistis Speil Report Ntionl Survey of Inigent Defense Systems, 999 Septemer 2, NCJ Fune Inigent Defense Servies, 999 By Crol J. DeFrnes, Ph.D. BJS Sttistiin In 999 governments provie 9% or more of the funing for inigent riminl efense servies in 2 s, n inrese of 4 s sine 982. In of these s, the government provie % of the funing for inigent riminl efense servies. Highlights -fune inigent riminl efense servies, 999 Of the remining s with fune progrms, 7 inite lso reeiving some Feerl money to fun inigent efense servies; 3 s reporte support from fountion grnts or lient o-pys n olletions; n inite its lrgest ounty use portion of its own money to fun inigent riminl efense servies. This report presents finings from t ollete s prt of the Ntionl Survey of Inigent Defense Systems (NSIDS). The Bureu of Justie Sttistis (BJS) with funing from the Bureu of Justie Assistne onute NSIDS in A previous report esrie inigent riminl efense servies in the Ntion's most populous ounties. 2 Informtion for Mryln ws tken from the wesite for the Mryln Mnul t <http://www.mrhives.stte.m.us>. 2 Inigent Defense Servies in Lrge Counties, 999, BJS Bulletin, vemer 2, NCJ In 999, 2 governments fune virtully ll inigent riminl efense servies; 2 s h omintion of n ounty funs; n 9 s relie solely on ounty funs. The 2 s, ounting for 27% of the U.S. popultion, spent $662 million on inigent riminl efense servies in 999, more thn oule the totl mount in 982 in onstnt ollrs. Puli efener progrms of the 2 s fune puli efener progrms. Over 726, riminl ses were reeive y the puli efener progrms in the 7 s reporting riminl selo t. Assigne ounsel progrms 9 s provie inigent efense servies through ssigne ounsel progrms. Ten s mintine roster of privte ttorneys who oul e ppointe to represent inigent riminl efennts. Five of the ten s h forml proeures for removing ttorneys from the roster. Contrt ttorney progrms s fune ontrt ttorney progrms. Contrts were ministere to puli efener offies, lw firms, iniviul solo prtitioners, nonprofit orgniztions, or groups of privte ttorneys or lw firms. Five s reporte ompetitively iing for inigent riminl efense servies.

2 This report exmines the hrteristis n opertions of -fune inigent efense systems. -level informtion is reporte for the 2 s where virtully ll of the funing for inigent riminl efense servies t the tril level omes from the government. 3 The eentrlize nture n iverse wys of elivering inigent efense servies mke olleting informtion ntionwie iffiult. Beuse of their more entrlize n uniform nture, informtion on -fune systems is esier to otin. The 2 s exmine in this report provie the most omprehensive -level informtion ollete on inigent riminl efense servies sine the 98 s. 4 The 2 s inlue in this report ounte for 27% of the U.S. popultion in 999 n 25% of Prt Uniform Crime Report (UCR) offenses reporte to the polie in These 2 s mke up the lrgest single tegory of funing soures for tril-level inigent riminl efense servies (figure ). Although eh of the 2 governments fune inigent riminl efense 3 In 999 ounty governments in nine s (Arizon, Cliforni, Iho, Illinois, Mihign, Pennsylvni, South Dkot, Texs, n Uth) entirely fune inigent riminl efense servies. In the remining 4 s inigent efense reeive prtil funing (2) or virtully ll funing (2) from governments. See Improving Criminl Justie Systems Through Expne Strtegies n Innovtive Collortions: Report of the Ntionl Symposium on Inigent Defense, Offie of Justie Progrms, Mrh 2, NCJ 8344, Appenix 6, t <http://www.ojp. usoj.gov/inigentefense/ijs.pf> 4 Ntionl Criminl Defense Systems Stuy, BJS, Septemer 986, NCJ 9472, n Criminl Defense for the Poor, 986, BJS Bulletin, Septemer 988, NCJ The 999 popultion estimtes were tken from <http://www.ensus.gov/ popultion/estimtes/stte/st-99-.txt> Prt UCR offense reporte to the polie were tken trom Crime in the Unite s: 999, FBI, tle 4. Funing soures for inigent riminl efense servies, 999 servies, the 2 s elivere these servies in vriety of wys (ox on pge 3). For exmple, Mine elivere the mjority of its inigent riminl efense servies through n ssigne ounsel progrm. primrily use system of wre ontrts. Minnesot n New Mexio i not hve ssigne ounsel progrms ut inste relie on sttewie puli efener progrms n ontrt ttorney progrms. Even within speifi progrm types, the orgniztion of the progrms vrie. For exmple, 6 of the 9 s with puli efener progrms h sttewie systems tht elivere inigent riminl efense servies through lol rnhes or offies. Typilly, one hief or stte puli efener h oversight for the entire progrm. In the remining three s, the government provie the funing ut the puli efener progrms were lolly estlishe. Counties or juiil Funing soures County (9) Primrily ounty (8) n ounty (5) Primrily stte (6) (2) Court fees () Soure: Improving Criminl Justie System Through Expne Strtegies n Innovtive Collortions: Report of the Ntionl Symposium on Inigent Defense, Offie of Justie Progrms, Mrh 2, NCJ 8344, Appenix 6, <http://www.ojp.usoj.gov/inigentefense/ ijs.pf>. istrits within the operte seprte puli efener progrms, with eh progrm hee y hief puli efener. 6 Expenitures for inigent riminl efense servies In 982 the 2 s inlue in this report spent n estimte $25 million (in 999 ollrs) on ll inigent efense servies (tle ). In 999 these sme 2 s h inigent riminl efense expenitures of pproximtely $662 million, lmost 3 times the 982 totl mount. New Jersey, the most populous of the 2 s, spent the most ($73 million) on inigent riminl 6 This informtion is from review of the sttutes for the 9 s n from Improving Criminl Justie Systems Through Expne Strtegies n Innovtive Collortions: Report of the Ntionl Symposium on Inigent Defense, Offie of Justie Progrms, Mrh 2, NCJ 8344, Appenies 6 n 7, t <http:// ijs.pf>. 2 -Fune Inigent Defense Servies, 999

3 A nslrie The Tle. -fune inigent riminl efense servies, 982 n 999 Alsk Coloro Connetiut Delwre Hwii Mine Mryln* Msshusetts Minnesot New Hmpshire New Jersey New Mexio rth Crolin Rhoe Isln Virgini West Virgini 999 resient popultion 69,5 4,56,33 3,282,3 753,538,85,497 2,869,43,253,4 5,7,634 6,75,69 4,775,58 5,468,338,2,34 8,43,42,739,844 7,65,789 3,36,54 99,89 583,74 6,872,92,86,928 5,25,446 inigent efense expenitures (in 999 riminl ollrs) efense $6,84,323 4,66,38 7,89,926 3,9,692 6,4,,24,59,879,5 7,726,555 22,597,34 7,979,266 7,68,92 3,75,72 33,97,538 6,872,523 8,992,97 2,85,2 2,243,255 3,233,254 5,47,93 5,94,557 23,42,445 $,46,4 3,394,83 25,95,5 7,36,7 7,539,68 3,72,729 6,999,82 39,286,33 62,2, 46,4, 28,22,699,667,77 72,975, 22,895,4 62,68,384 32,564,39 6,5,7 5,829,246 67,48,333 22,454,9 6,59, totl inigent riminl efense operting expenitures per, popultion $ ,65,979 $25,675,376 $66,847,937 *Fisl yer 999 totl operting expenitures for the Mryln Puli Defener Offie were tken from the Mryln Arhives On-line t: <http://www.mrhives.stte.m.us/ms/mmnul/25in/html/ 6pu.html.> Soures: 982 expeniture t tken from Ntionl Criminl Defense Systems Stuy, BJS, Septemer 986, NCJ The 982 expeniture t were juste for infltion n presente in 999 ollrs. 999 popultion estimtes me from the Census Bureu wesite, <http://www.ensus.gov/popultion/www/estimtes/sttepop.html>. efense servies while, the smllest of the 2 s, spent the lest ($6 million). In terms of per pit spening, Alsk spent the most ($9) n the lest ($5). All 2 s exept Mine n expene funs for some form of puli efener progrm (tle 2). Most s (9) lso supporte ssigne ounsel progrms. Eleven s inite expenitures for ontrt ttorney progrms. Tle 2. Expenitures for -fune inigent riminl efense servies, y type of progrm, 999 Alsk $9,96,4 $,5, Coloro 22,763,529 8,322,77 Connetiut 22,872,2 955,,267,95 Delwre 7,36,7 Hwii 7,539,68 3,73,47 8,5,79 9,43,893 Mine 5,995,458 74, Mryln 39,286,33 Msshusetts,583, 5,67, Minnesot 27,664, ,59 New Hmpshire 8,7, ,75,753,83 New Jersey 72,975, New Mexio,68,3 7,79, rth Crolin,78,864 39,73,75 329,469 3,932,598 24,966,324 Rhoe Isln 5,,,5,7 4,329,845,96,8 32,6 Virgini 5,887,28 38,586,442 West Virgini 8,773,436 3,32,392 38,4,452 7,22,63 5,968,84 Puli efener Type of progrm Assigne ounsel $337,977,423 $9,48,756 Contrt ttorney $53,42,54 te: puli efener expenitures for Mryln were tken from the Mryln Arhives On-line t <http://www. mrhives.stte.m.us/ms/mmnul/25in/html/6pu. html>. Amounts for puli efener, ssigne ounsel, n ontrt progrms my not sum to totl riminl expenitures in tle. Informtion not provie or not known. Expenitures for the puli efener progrms reflet omine informtion for the Alsk Puli Defener Ageny n the Offie of Puli Avoy. Expenitures exlue onflit ses in whih the puli efener hs onflit of interest or n overlo of ses or in whih the puli efener or other primry progrm is otherwise unle to hnle. Minnesot oul not isggregte expenitures y type of progrm. New Jersey reporte expenitures for onflit ses n speilty ses suh s those involving the eth penlty n use n neglet, s well s ssigne ounsel expenitures, with puli efener expenitures. Types of inigent efense servies Three primry wys of proviing inigent efense servies hve emerge throughout the Ntion. s n lolities use these methos of elivering inigent efense servies either singly or in omintion. This report uses the following tegories to esrie inigent riminl efense servies. Iniviul progrms my use slightly ifferent terminology. Puli efener slrie stff of full-time or prt-time ttorneys tht reners inigent riminl efense servies through puli or privte nonprofit orgniztion, or s iret government pi employees. Assigne ounsel ppointment from list of privte r memers who ept ses on juge-y-juge, ourt-y-ourt, or se-y-se sis. This my inlue n ministrtive omponent n set of rules n guielines governing the ppointment n proessing of ses hnle y the privte r memers. Contrt privte ttorneys, r ssoitions, lw firms, onsortiums or groups of ttorneys, or nonprofit orportions tht ontrt with funing soure to provie ourt-ppointe representtion in jurisition. -Fune Inigent Defense Servies, 999 3

4 In 5 Puli efener progrms Lotion of puli efener progrms Nineteen s reporte funing puli efener progrms. Puli efener progrms in 6 of the 9 s were sttewie progrms with lol or regionl offies lote throughout the (tle 3). In 999, of these sttewie puli efener progrms h n oversight ommission. rth Crolin, Virgini, n West Virgini i not hve sttewie puli efener progrms. rth Crolin, 3 ounties omprise efener istrits, eh with puli efener offie. In the remining 87 ounties, ppointment of privte ttorneys y the ourt ws the primry metho of proviing inigent efense servies. 7 Virgini's 2 puli efener offies serve 46 of the 95 ounties or inepenent ities. 8 In the ounties or inepenent ities without puli efener progrm, ourt-ppointe ounsel ws the primry metho use. of West Virgini's 3 juiil iruits h puli efener orportions. The remining 6 iruits h ssigne ounsel progrms. 9 New Hmpshire n West Virgini fune their puli efener progrm through n wre ontrt. Nine s reporte their puli efener progrm ws prt of the exeutive rnh. The lotion n nture 7 rth Crolin Generl Sttutes, Chpter 7A. 8 Coe of Virgini, Title 9.2, Offie of Legisltive Auitor, Deprtment of Aministrtion, of West Virgini, Preliminry Performne Review of Puli Defeners Servie: Mximum Use of Puli Defener Corportions Neee to Control Costs, Jnury 999. Tle 3. Chrteristis of -fune puli efener progrms, 999 Alsk Coloro Connetiut Delwre Hwii Mryln Msshusetts Minnesot New Hmpshire New Jersey New Mexio rth Crolin Rhoe Isln Virgini e West Virgini Governmentl lotion of puli efener progrms exeutive rnh Juiil rnh Juiil rnh Inepenent geny of government exeutive rnh exeutive rnh exeutive rnh Inepenent geny of government Juiil rnh Inepenent eprtment in juiil rnh Inepenent nonprofit orgniztion exeutive rnh exeutive rnh Juiil rnh exeutive rnh exeutive rnh Juiil rnh Inepenent nonprofit orgniztion exeutive rnh Informtion from Coloro Revise Sttutes, Title 2--; Generl Sttutes of Connetiut, Chpter 887, Title 5-289; Hwii Revise Sttutes, Vol. 4, 82; Coe n Supplement, Chpter 3B; Annotte Coe of Mryln, Artile 27, 9; Generl Lws of Msshusetts, Prt III, Title I, Chpter 2D; Minnesot Sttutes, Chpter 6.25; Revise Sttutes, Chpter 6.5; New Hmpshire Revise Sttutes, Title LIX, Chpter 64-B; Coe of Virgini, Title 9.2, Chpter 63.; n Sttutes, Chpter Informtion from Improving Criminl Justie Systems Through Expne Strtegies n Innovtive Collortions: Report of the Ntionl Symposium on Inigent Defense, Offie of Justie Progrms, Mrh 2, NCJ 8344, Appenies 6 n 7 t <http://www.ojp.usoj.gov/inigentefense/ijs.pf>. Governmentl lotion for uget purposes only. Informtion on governmentl lotion me from Annotte Coe of Mryln, Artile 27, 3. e Informtion on governmentl lotion me from the Virgini 2-22 Biennil Buget, the setion on the Juiil Deprtment. of the puli efener progrms in the other s reporting this informtion vrie. For exmple, in Delwre n Msshusetts the puli efener progrm ws n inepenent geny of the government, while in New Hmpshire n West Virgini the progrm ws estlishe s n inepenent nonprofit orgniztion. Numer of hief puli efeners n term of offie The term hief puli efener ws efine ifferently ross efener progrms. Fifteen of the 6 sttewie puli efener progrms h hief Oversight ommission wie progrm puli efener who h progrm oversight (tle 4). By ontrst, Minnesot reporte hief puli efeners: the Bor of Puli Defense ppointe hief istrit puli efener for eh of juiil istrits. The istrit puli efener offies hnle felony n misemenor ses. The Bor of Puli Defense lso ppointe puli efener whose offie represente inigent efennts in ppels n post-onvition proeeings. In the three s tht i not hve sttewie puli efener, hief puli efener ministere eh seprte progrm or efener istrit. Minnesot Sttutes, Chpter 6.25 n Chpter Fune Inigent Defense Servies, 999

5 Tle 4. Chrteristis of hief puli efeners in -fune systems, 999 Numer of hief puli efeners Chief puli efener hs term of offie Yers in term of offie Chief puli efener elete or ppointe Who ppoints hief puli efener Alsk: Primry progrm 4 Appointe Governor $8, Alternte n onflit progrm Appointe Governor 9, Coloro 5 Appointe Inepenent or or ommission 9,59 Connetiut 4 Appointe Inepenent or or ommission,524 Delwre 6 Appointe Governor 88, Hwii 4 Appointe Governor 77,964 4 Appointe Governor 75, Mryln Appointe Bor of Trustees Msshusetts Appointe Inepenent or or ommission 95,76 Minnesot 4 Appointe Inepenent or or ommission 89,627 4 Appointe Inepenent or or ommission,932 New Hmpshire Appointe Corporte or of iretors 8, New Jersey 5 Appointe Governor 98,225 New Mexio Appointe Governor 83,7 rth Crolin 4 Appointe Juges 9,224 Rhoe Isln 3 Appointe Governor 8, 4 Appointe Governor 62, Virgini 2 Appointe Inepenent or or ommission West Virgini 5 Appointe Inepenent or or ommission 66,5 Appointe Progrm visory or,859 Informtion not provie or not known. Informtion on term of offie from Delwre Coe, Title 29, Setion 463. All informtion for Mryln from Annotte Coe of Mryln, Artile 27, Setion 3. All informtion for Virgini from the Virgini 2-22 Biennil Buget, the setion on the Juiil Deprtment n Coe of Virgini, Title 9.2, Chpter, The numer of hief puli efeners for from the Sttutes, Chpter Chief puli efener rries selo Slry of hief puli efener For exmple, rth Crolin reporte hief puli efeners, Virgini 2, n West Virgini 5. The hief puli efener h n estlishe term of offie in s n in the primry progrm in Alsk. In seven s n the lternte progrm in Alsk, the hief puli efener serve t the plesure of the ppointing uthority. In five s (Msshusetts, Minnesot, rth Crolin, Rhoe Isln, n West Virgini) the hief puli efener rrie selo. In 999 nnul slries for hief puli efeners rnge from $62, to $,. Tle 5. Annul slry of ssistnt puli efeners n supervisory ttorneys in -fune systems, 999 Slries of ssistnt puli efeners The minimum slries for entry-level ssistnt puli efeners rnge from $29, to $45, mong the s reporting this informtion (tle 5). Seletion n slry of hief puli efeners Unlike their hief proseutor ounterprts who re primrily elete, the hief puli efeners were ppointe in ll 9 s. In eight s the governor ppointe the hief puli efener; in seven s, n inepenent or or ommission me the ppointment; n in the remining four s, juges, the progrm visoryor, the or of trustees, or the orporte or of iretors. Assistnt puli efener t entry-level Minimum Mximum Alsk * $45, $6, Coloro 35,24 45,86 Connetiut 4,62 46,88 Delwre 36, 43, 35,52 44,33 Msshusetts 28,6 28,6 3,5 New Hmpshire 3,8 42,77 New Jersey 4,965 47,873 New Mexio 28,94 43,4 Rhoe Isln 38, 42, 29,5 32,5 West Virgini 32, 37,87 93,8 Assistnt puli efener with 5 yers experiene Minimum Mximum $55, 54,48 54,759 45,4 44,33 42, 5,232 48,24 47,873 44,834 42, 39, 35, 38,2 $75, 73,8 66,622 6,565 68,286 42, 52,754 83,955 67,253 46, 42, 4, 93,8 Supervisory ttorney Minimum Mximum $63, $86, 6,528 86,376 57,27,46 88, 58,78 85,466 76,5 76,5 4,2 59,254 63,98 9, 47,669 7,52 5, 58, 57, 55, 78, 42,829 98,85 Proseutors in Courts, 99, BJS Bulletin, Mrh 992, NCJ 792. te: Hwii, Mryln, Minnesot, rth Crolin, n Virgini i not provie slry informtion. Informtion not provie or not known. *Slry informtion for the Alsk Puli Defener Ageny. -Fune Inigent Defense Servies, 999 5

6 Tle 6. -fune puli efener progrms, y type of stff, 999 stffing Chief puli efeners Assistnt puli efeners Supervisory ttorneys Numer of full-time n prt-time stff Mngers Investigtors Soil workers Alsk f Coloro Connetiut Delwre Hwii Mryln g 784 Msshusetts Minnesot New Hmpshire New Jersey New Mexio rth Crolin Rhoe Isln Virgini West Virgini te: Informtion inlues full- n prt-time stff. i not provie stffing informtion. Informtion not provie. Any employee of the puli efener progrm liense to prtie lw or who hs pplie for mission to the r, n who primrily litigtes ses. Exlues ttorneys in nonlitigting positions. Attorneys in mngeril positions who litigte ses. Attorneys or nonttorneys in primrily mngeril positions who o not litigte ses. Inlues investigtors on ontrt. e Aministrtive stff, leril stff, omputer personnel, fisl offiers, n trining iretors. f Informtion is for oth the Alsk Puli Defener Ageny n the Offie of Puli Avoy. g Informtion tken from the Annotte Coe of Mryln, Artile 27 n the Mryln Arhives On-line t <http://www.mrhives.stte.m.us/ms/mmnul/25in/html/6pu.html>. Inigeny Support Prlegls sreeners stff e Other The minimum slry for n ssistnt puli efener with 5-yers experiene rnge from $35, to $55,. The minimum slry for supervisory ttorney rnge from $4, to $77,. Puli efener progrm stffing The sttewie puli efener progrm in New Jersey employe the most stff (87) (tle 6). Four s (Coloro, Minnesot,, n New Jersey) reporte 2 or more ssistnt puli efeners. New Jersey reporte the lrgest numer of investigtors t 22. Eight s (Connetiut, Delwre, Msshusetts, Minnesot,, New Mexio, Rhoe Isln, n West Virgini) inite employing soil workers. Only New Mexio n Rhoe Isln reporte hving inigeny sreeners. 6 -Fune Inigent Defense Servies, 999

7 Tle 7. Cses reeive y -fune puli efener progrms, 999 Alsk e 29,983 5, , Coloro 64,79 54,352 5,672 4,55 Connetiut 56,327 5,265 5,947 5 Delwre f 36,29 3,46 5,83 Hwii g 39,87 35,778 3, ,232 48,36 2,872 Msshusetts 7,43 6, Minnesot h 78,75 4,475 37,7 73,738 68,2 4, New Hmpshire 5,552 8,82,38 5,42 New Jersey f 96,752 58,65 5, 6,2 7,575 New Mexio i 53,9 rth Crolin 48,375 36,839,858 2,237 7,44 Rhoe Isln 2,75,5 2,23 2 2,73,344, Virgini 5,375 4,9,356 West Virgini 33,556 28, 3,855, ,7 82,649 3,8 4,235 6, ,82 726,37 te: Mryln i not provie selo informtion. Due to missing t the rekown y se types oes not sum to the totl. Informtion not provie or not known. Inlues felony pitl, felony nonpitl, misemenors tht rry jil sentene, orinne infrtion, ppel, protion n revotion ses. Inlues juvenile elinqueny, elinqueny ppels, juveniles proeee ginst in riminl ourt, juvenile sttus offense, n juvenile trnsfer herings. Inlues mentl ommitment, post-onvition or hes orpus, n Feerl hes orpus. Inlues speil proeeings, misellneous herings, Megn's lw, hil use, hil protetion, post onvition protion n prole, n withrwls. e inlues informtion for oth the Alsk Puli Defener Ageny n the Offie of Puli Avoy. Speifi types inlue informtion only for the Alsk Puli Defener Ageny. f inlues onflit ses. g exlues onflit ses. h post-onvition or hes orpus ses were inlue with ppels uner riminl ses. i Informtion oul not e roken own y se type. Puli efener progrm selo Besies hnling riminl ses, ll the puli efener progrms in the 8 s reporting se informtion h Numer of ses reeive Criminl Juvenile Civil 44,828 26,628 Other 33,344 responsiility for hnling other types of ses s well. In 999 puli efener progrms reeive over 726, riminl ses, 44, juvenile ses, 26, ivil ses, Tle 8. Soure of ppointment for privte ttorneys to provie inigent riminl efense servies in -fune systems, 999 n 33, other types of ses (speil proeeings, hil use, hil protetion, post-onvition prole n protion, n withrwls) (tle 7). In the 6 s reporting puli efener expenitures n riminl selo, the estimte ost per riminl se ws $49. 2 Assigne ounsel progrms Appointment of privte ttorneys Fourteen of the 9 s with ssigne ounsel progrms in 999 provie some etile informtion on ttorney ppointments. Five s inite tht either juges (Connetiut,, n West Virgini) or the ssigne ounsel progrm (Coloro n Msshusetts) ppointe the privte ttorneys to represent inigent riminl efennts (tle 8). Eight s reporte multiple offies oul mke privte ttorney ppointments. For exmple, in Mine, New Hmpshire, rth Crolin,, Rhoe Isln, n, the ourt (juges) or the ourt lerk's offie oul ssign privte ttorneys to represent inigent riminl efennts. 2 This estimte ost per se ws lulte y using the 999 puli efener expeniture t from tle 2, ivie y the riminl selo from tle 7 (exluing Mryln, Minnesot, n New Mexio from oth tles). The ost-per-se estimte for iniviul types of ses n vry gretly, epening on resoures neee. A eth penlty se, for exmple, woul require muh more thn lreny se. Court (juges) Court lerk's offie Soure of ppointment Puli efener progrm Assigne ounsel progrm Coloro Connetiut Mine Msshusetts New Hmpshire rth Crolin Rhoe Isln West Virgini te: Alsk, Delwre, Hwii, Mryln, New Jersey, n Virgini i not provie informtion on soure of privte ttorney ppointments. -Fune Inigent Defense Servies, 999 7

8 Privte ttorney roster The ssigne ounsel progrms in,, n West Virgini i not mintin roster of ttorneys (tle 9). In the s where the ssigne ounsel progrm mintine roster of ttorneys, 5 (Connetiut, Msshusetts, rth Crolin, Rhoe Isln, n ) h forml Tle 9. Privte ttorney roster in -fune ssigne ounsel progrms, 999 Coloro Connetiut Mine Msshusetts New Hmpshire rth Crolin* Rhoe Isln West Virgini Privte ttorney roster Mintine Forml y ssigne proeures ounsel to remove progrm ttorneys te: Alsk, Delwre, Hwii, Mryln, New Jersey, n Virgini i not provie roster informtion. *rth Crolin hs ppointment lists evelope n mintine y r ommittee in eh istrit. proeures for removing ttorneys from the roster (tle 9). Privte ttorneys were inlue on the ssigne ounsel progrms roster in vrious wys. In the puli efener system mintine the roster of privte r ttorneys. In Mine ll ttorneys in the lol r were inlue on the roster unless they requeste to e remove; Mine ttorneys lso oul volunteer for speifie types of ses. In seven s privte ttorneys were ple on the roster fter volunteering n meeting qulifitions (not shown in tle). Attorneys qulifie through pprovl y progrm ministrtors, through ttening legl seminrs or trining eh yer, or through prtiipting in trining prior to representing lients. Assigne ounsel privte ttorney ppointments n selo The numer of privte ttorney ppointments rnge from 2 in to 4,8 in Msshusetts (tle ). Tken together, the ssigne ounsel progrms in the 3 s reporting selo informtion reeive lmost 7, ses. Aout 32, riminl ses n 87, juvenile ses were reeive y ssigne ounsel progrms. An itionl, ses involve ivil mtters. A qurter of the ses reeive y ssigne ounsel progrms in rth Crolin n Virgini involve termintion of prentl rights, use n neglet, gurin litem, n ontempt. Tle. Privte ttorney ppointments n ses reeive y ssigne ounsel progrms in -fune systems, 999 Numer of privte ttorney ppointments Numer of ses reeive Criminl Juvenile Civil Other Coloro 4 8,74 6,76 2,26 52 Connetiut Mine e 58 9,275, ,98 Msshusetts 4,8 2,34 7, New Hmpshire rth Crolin 2,5 6,427 67,873 3,8 4,935 29,88 2 2,96, ,229 Rhoe Isln,43,589, Virgini 2, ,945 54,68 39,888 7,439 West Virgini 75 25,9 5,22 3,338 4,2 2,729,4 46,88 33,6,34,3 2,674 5, ,55 32,48 87,488,324 te: Alsk, Delwre, Hwii, Mryln, n New Jersey i not provie ppointment n selo informtion. Due to missing t, rekown y se type oes not sum to the totl. Informtion not provie or not known. Inlues felony pitl, felony non-pitl, misemenors tht rry jil sentene, orinne infrtion, ppel, protion n revotion ses. Inlues juvenile elinqueny, elinqueny ppels, juveniles proeee ginst in riminl ourt, juvenile sttus offense, n juvenile trnsfer herings. Inlues mentl ommitment, post-onvition or hes orpus, n Feerl hes orpus. Inlues speil proeeings, ontempt, gurin litem, termintion of prentl rights, n hil use n neglet. e Mine provie informtion on the numer of vouhers pi to ourt-ppointe ttorneys. In riminl ses one vouher per se ws usul; in hil protetive ses there oul e mny vouhers per se. 4, Fune Inigent Defense Servies, 999

9 Contrt ttorney progrms Contrts ministere Eleven s reporte ontrt ttorney progrms (tle ). The numer of ontrts for inigent riminl efense servies ministere in these s rnge from in Mine to 6 in. Three s (New Hmpshire,, n ) inite ministering ontrts wre to puli efeners. Ten s ministere ontrts to iniviul solo prtitioners; 9 s, lw firms whih hnle oth inigent n privte ses; 6 s, nonprofit orgniztions; n 3 s, lw firm or group of privte ttorneys or lw firms joine solely to provie inigent representtion uner the ontrt. ne of the s responing ministere ontrt to r ssoition. Contrt wring n monitoring Alsk, Mine, New Hmpshire,, n reporte ompetitively iing for inigent riminl efense servies (tle 2). wre ontrts to hnle the mjority of its inigent riminl ses. In severl ounties in New Mexio n, ontrts were wre to hnle the mjority of inigent riminl ses. Eight s reporte tht the puli efener progrm hnle the mjority of inigent riminl ses n ontrts were only wre to hnle puli efener onflits. Alsk n ontrte out ses not hnle y the puli efener progrm. Tle. Contrt ttorney progrms in -fune systems, 999 Alsk Connetiut Mine Minnesot New Hmpshire New Mexio rth Crolin Numer of ontrts minstere for riminl inigent efense servies Contrts wre to puli efeners Informtion not provie or not known. Alsk Connetiut Mine Minnesot New Hmpshire New Mexio rth Crolin Iniviul solo prtitioners Contrts ministere A lw firm hnling oth inigent n privte ses Tle 2. Contrts wre in -fune systems, 999 Jurisition ompetitively is for inigent riminl efense servies A lw firm or group of ttorneys or firms joine solely to provie ontrte inigent nprofit efense orgniztion Inigent riminl efense ontrts re wre to hnle All or mjority of inigent riminl ses Puli efener onflits, inluing se overlo In one ounty ontrt ws wre to hnle ll riminl n juvenile ses. In severl ounties, ontrts were wre to hnle the mjority of riminl ses. Contrts were wre for speifi se types in speil irumstnes. In 6 of the 4 ounties, ontrts were wre to hnle the mjority of riminl ses. Types of ses not hnle y the puli efener or ssigne ounsel -Fune Inigent Defense Servies, 999 9

10 Tle 3. Cses reeive y ontrt ttorneys in -fune systems, 999 Numer of ses reeive y ontrt ttorneys Criminl Juvenile Civil Other Connetiut 7,28 5,364, Mine e 5 Minnesot New Hmpshire 5,828 3,269 79,85 New Mexio e 2,64 rth Crolin 3,2 2,5 4,382 98,857 6,835 2,25 32,485 4,227 2,67 559,6,989,989 9,868 2,568 2,876 4,868 35,936 te: i not provie selo informtion. Alsk inlue the ontrt ttorney selo with the puli efener selo. Due to missing t, rekown y se type oes not sum to totl. Informtion not provie or not known. Inlues felony pitl, felony nonpitl, misemenors tht rry jil sentene, orinne infrtion, ppel, protion n revotion ses. Inlues juvenile elinqueny, elinqueny ppels, juveniles proeee ginst in riminl ourt, juvenile sttus offense, n juvenile trnsfer herings. Inlues mentl ommitment, post-onvition or hes orpus, n Feerl hes orpus. Inlues ontempt, termintion of prentl rights, epeneny n reviews, n psyhitri seurity review or herings. e Mine n New Mexio oul not rekown the selo y se type. Contrt ttorney progrm selo In the 9 s reporting ontrt ttorney selo informtion, the numer of ses reeive y ontrt ttorneys rnge from over 4, in to 22 in Minnesot (tle 3). In these 9 s, ontrt ttorneys hnle out 92, ses. Contrt ttorneys hnle out 22, riminl ses, 3, juvenile ses, n 5, ivil ses. Methoology Responent seletion In 999 governments provie virtully ll of the funing for inigent riminl efense servies in 2 s. All 2 s were selete to reeive progrm questionnires s prt of the the Ntionl Survey of Inigent Defense Systems (NSIDS). The t olletion for NSIDS ws onute y the Ntionl Opinion Reserh Center. The progrm questionnire is ville t the BJS wesite pf/nsis99_p.pf> Survey response Of the 26 progrm surveys mile to the vrious stte genies within the 2 s, 25 were omplete. informtion ws reeive from Mryln's Puli Defener Progrm or the ssigne ounsel progrm. In Alsk two progrm surveys were mile, one to the primry puli efener progrm n one to the lternte puli efener progrm (Offie of Puli Avoy). In Coloro, New Hmpshire, Rhoe Isln, n Virgini one progrm survey ws mile to the puli efener progrm n one to the ssigne ounsel progrm. In the remining 6 s, one progrm survey ws mile to the pproprite geny or progrm. All the informtion presente in the text n tles of this report me from the t gthere from the progrm surveys unless otherwise note. The Bureu of Justie Sttistis is the sttistil geny of the U.S. Deprtment of Justie. Lwrene A. Greenfel is the ting iretor. BJS Speil Reports ress speifi topi in epth from one or more t sets tht over mny topis. Crol J. DeFrnes wrote this report. At BJS Keonn Fester provie sttistil review; Mrik F.X. Litrs n Lynon Diz ssiste with the onstrution of the mps; n Steven K. Smith provie overll guine for the projet. Dt olletion ws performe y the Ntionl Opinion Reserh Center (NORC); Ntlie Suter ws the projet iretor. At NORC, projet stff inlue Rhel Hrter, Angel Herrmnn, Irv Horwitz, Kymm Kohnek, Jyn Moolyil, Glori Ruens, Jonn Smll, Hee Choon Shin, Chrles Trgon, n Crystl Willims. Septemer 2, NCJ This report in portle oument formt n in ASCII, its tles, n relte sttistil t re ville t the BJS wesite: -Fune Inigent Defense Servies, 999

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