Cold War Spreads to Asia

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1 Cold War Spreads to Asia

2 China

3 China becomes Communist 1920s Mao Zedong leads communist forces against Chiang Kai Shek leader of China s Nationalist government During WWII set aside civil war to resist Japanese occupation End WWII Civil war continues Mao makes great gains still doesn t succeed Mid-1940s US sends $2 billion in aid to Nationalist Money was wasted b/c of poor military planning and corruption Communists, led by Mao Zedong, work to get peasant support Peasants flock to Red Army; by 1945, communists control north China By 1949 US discontinued aid to Chinese Nationalists October 1949 Communists win = establishes People s Republic of China Nationalist leaders flee to Taiwan (AKA Formosa)

4 Taiwan China Becomes a Communist Country in 1949 Nationalists flee to island of Taiwan Communists establish People s Republic of China in mainland U.S. does not recognize Communist Chinese government

5 American Reaction to China U.S. public stunned by Communist takeover Conservatives blame Truman for not sending enough aid People s Republic of China & Soviet Union sign treaty Friendship and Alliance Western leaders fear that China and Soviet Union support communist revolutions in other nations US kept formal relations with Nationalists in Taiwan US used veto powers to keep New Communist China out of UN Chinese revolution brought significant change in American policy toward Japan at end of WWII Douglas MacArthur took charge of Japan introduced democracy After loss of China, U.S. pushed for rapid recovery of Japan s industrial economy Japan = key to defending Asia just like West Germany = Key to defending Europe

6 Korea

7 North Korea vs. South Korea End of WWII US and USSR forces enter Korea to disarm Japanese troops Allies divide Korea at the 38th parallel of latitude North of 38th parallel surrenders to U.S.S.R. Republic of Korea South surrendered to U.S. Democratic People s Republic of Korea North Korea Controlled by Soviets Communist Korean government South Korea American troops stationed American-backed government

8 Problems Korean War begins Both governments claimed authority Border clashes were common Soviets gave North Koreans military aid quickly built large, well equipped army June 20, 1950 = North Korean troops invade south = onset of war South Korea calls on UN to stop invasion; Security Council approves MacArthur put in command of South Korean, U.S., other forces

9 U.S. Involvement in Korea Truman saw North Korean invasion as test of containment policy Ordered US naval and air power into action Truman called UN to act Call was successful because Soviet delegates were boycotting the security council over policy on China not present to veto American proposal General Douglas MacArthur was ordered to send troops from Japan to Korea I m coming!

10 Major Events of Korean War North Korea drives south, captures Seoul UN, South Korean troops forced into small defensive zone September 15, 1950: MacArthur ordered an invasion behind enemy lines of Inchon = took North Koreans by surprise Within weeks North Koreans full retreat across 38th Truman ordered to pursue beyond 38th MacArthur pushes North Koreans to Yalu River Communist Chinese feared advancing UN troops Warned forces to halt = was ignored November 1950 China launch massive attack across Yalu River 100,000 Chinese troops flooded drove UN forces back

11 Korean War Continued MacArthur was angry, wanted approval to expand war against China asked to blockade Chinese ports, use Nationalist forces, and use the atomic bomb Truman refuses MacArthur s demands MacArthur persisted publicly criticized president Truman wanted to show that president was in charge so in April 1951 Fires MacArthur for insubordination MacArthur remained popular returned a hero Mid-1951: UN forces push Chinese and North Korean forces back across 38th parallel War settled down still small battles November 1951 peace negotiations began, but war did not end Before Korean War 1. US preferred political pressure 2. US focused on Europe in containing communism After Korean War 1. Cold War expanded in Asia 2. US became militarily involved in Asia

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13 Stalemate Ends the Korean War Eisenhower was convinced that ongoing battle was costing too many lives and bring little victories He hinted to Chinese of a nuclear attack threat worked July 1953: Negotiators signed an armistice Armistice an agreement made by opposing sides in a war to stop fighting for a certain time; a truce Battle line became border between North Korea and South Korea A demilitarized zone (DMZ) separated them Spreading of communism stopped in Korea = goal of containment

14 Vietnam

15 Late 1800s - France rules most of Indochina Early 1890s History of Vietnam French Occupation result of early 17th century French colonization French Indochina = Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos Nationalism became a powerful force in Vietnam Several political parties formed to push for independence or reform the French colonial government Ho Chi Minh returned to SE Asia and founded Indochinese communist party = worked to overthrow French Vietnam occupied by Japan Ho Chi Minh organized nationalist group called Vietminh August 1945 US began sending military aid to Vietminh Japanese surrendered control of Indochina Ho Chi Minh announced that Vietnam was an independent nation Created a Declaration of Independence = similar to American Declaration of Independence French refused to see Vietnam become independent wanted to regain colonial empire in SE Asia

16 Ho Chi Minh At 21 he sailed for Europe Visited Soviet Union adopted communism Became leader of Vietnamese independence movement 1930 Ho Chi Minh returned to SE Asia and founded Indochinese communist party = worked to overthrow French Became a wanted man fled and spent years exiled in Soviet Union and China 1941 Returned to Vietnam (occupied by Japan) Ho Chi Minh organized nationalist group called Vietminh

17 Vietminh Vietminh organization that aimed to rid Vietnam of foreign rule Group united communists and non-communists to fight Japanese Sept. 1945, Ho Chi Minh declares Vietnam an independent nation France refuses to lose control of Vietnam 1946 French troops move into Vietnam target cities force Vietminh into hiding in rural areas 1949 French officials set up new government in Vietnam Vietminh fought back Fighting escalated = France asked US for aid

18 Domino Theory Belief that if Vietnam fell to communists, the other countries in Southeast Asia would fall next

19 U.S. Involvement in Vietnam United States was in difficult position Was opposed of colonialism Also opposed of Vietnam s independence movement due to ties with communist movement 2 events convinced Truman to help France Fall of China to communism Outbreak of Korean War 1950 U.S. begins economic aid to France to stop communism 1953 Eisenhower continues to support French military campaign against Vietminh 1954 US was paying roughly ¾ of France s war costs Eisenhower defended US policy in Vietnam by stressing the domino theory

20 Dien Bien Phu 1954 French forces occupy mountain town of Dien Bien Phu Seizing town would interfere with Vietminh s supply lines and force them into open battle Vietminh forces surrounded Dien Bien Phu and bombarded town May 1954 French forces at Dien Bien Phu surrender to Vietminh Defeat convinced French to make peace and withdraw from Indochina

21 Geneva Accords 1954 Geneva, Switzerland Temporarily divided Vietnam along 17th parallel Ho Chi Minh and Vietminh control North Vietnam Post-Western regime control of South with pro-western leader Ngo Dinh Diem Organize election of 1956 would be held to reunite country under single government French would officially leave Vietnam Country North Vietnam South Vietnam Political Ideology Communist Democratic Leader Ho Chi Minh Ngo Dinh Diem Supporting Nation *China * United States

22 Vietnam Election of 1956 Ho Chi Minh (North) has brutal, repressive regime but is popular for land distribution Knew popular support was in his favor and had support of Southern Vietnamese people Encouraged popular uprising against Diem and U.S Ngo Dinh Diem knew Communists in north would not allow free elections Ngo refused to run in election Eisenhower supported Diem and increased American military and economic aid to South Vietnam to promote stability Diem unpopular, corrupt, stifles opposition Discriminated against Buddhism Killed protesters Monks burned themselves

23 Vietcong Vietcong: Communist opposition group of mostly Southern Vietnamese turns against Diem and kill government officials War Continues North Vietnamese begin guerilla attacks against south. By 1964, 50 % South Vietnam controlled by Vietcong. Guerilla Warfare Used booby traps Blended in with civilians Used children and elderly Used geography: mountains and jungle

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25

26 Vietnamese Vietcong mostly insurgents from southern Vietnam; guerilla warfare North Vietnamese Army (NVA) Supported by China Ho Chi Minh Trail Series of trails through Laos & Cambodia NVA sent arms and supplies to Vietcong United States Did not full out bomb only strategic targets Feared China or Soviet involvement Limits on war made it difficult to win War of attrition: wearing the enemy down

27 Vietnam 1960s-1970s Eisenhower sends the first military advisors to Vietnam (1956) Vietcong formed (1960) Gulf of Tonkin Incident leads to Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (1964) U.S. begins bombing North Vietnam (1966) Vietnamization begins (1969) Last American Troops leave Vietnam (1973) Eisenhower discusses domino theory regarding Southeast Asia (1954) U.S. begins using Agent Orange (1962) Tet Offensive (1968) My Lai Massacre (1968) Last Americans leave Vietnam, Saigon falls to the North (1975)

28 Causes and Effects of the Cold War CAUSES Soviet Union controls Eastern Europe after WWII Chinese Communists win control of China US and Soviet Union explode atomic bomb EFFECTS Marshall Plan provides aid to Western Europe Western nations form NATO; Communist nations form Warsaw Pact Korean War erupts American and Soviet arms race begins Red Scare leads to hunt for Communists in US

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