The Chicago Manual Style Quick Guide : Print, Media, and Online Sources ~Wells College Long Library~

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1 The Chicago Manual Style Quick Guide : Print, Media, and Online Sources ~Wells College Long Library~ The Chicago Manual Style (CMS) is the most commonly used method of source documentation in history courses, although some humanities courses may also require this method. Research in history emphasizes the origins of sources, therefore footnotes and/or endnotes are used to show on page where a particular reference was derived. This Quick Guide offers examples and guidelines for the general format of CMS research papers, notes, and bibliographies. If you are asked to use CMS style, be sure to consult The Chicago Manual of Style 16 th ed. Overview: Notes and bibliography The CMS style uses bibliographic citations provided in notes and preferably supplemented by a bibliography. Notes, whether footnotes or endnotes, should be numbered consecutively and correspond to the superscripted note reference numbers in the text. If the bibliography includes all works cited in the notes, the notes need not duplicate the source information in full. In works with no bibliography, full details must be given in a note at first mention of any work cited. Guidelines for Notes Example Note references in text are set as superior (superscript) numbers. In the notes themselves, they are full size, not raised and followed by a period. The first line of a footnote is indented.5 from the left margin. Subsequent lines within a footnote should be formatted flush left. Leave an extra line space between footnotes. Nonrestrictive clauses are pathetic; as are similar clauses introduced by conjunctions indicating time and place William Strunk Jr. and E.B. White, The Elements of Style, 4 th ed. (New York: Allyn and Bacon, 2000), A note should generally be placed at the end of the sentence or clause. The number usually follows a quotation. Relative to other punctuation, the number follows any punctuation mark except the dash, which it precedes. This, wrote George Strong is what our tailors can do. 1 ~OR~ The bias was apparent in the Shotwell series 2 and it must be remembered that Shotwell was a student of Robinson s The abbreviation ibid. usually refers to a single work cited in the note immediately preceding. It takes the place of the name of the author or editor, the title of the work, and as much of the succeeding material as is identical. 5. Farmwinkle, Humor of the Midwest, Ibid., Ibid. 8. Ibid.,

2 14.37 See and cf. Notes are often used to invite readers to consult further resources. Keep in mind the distinction between see (as in see also ) and cf. (meant to draw attention to a comparison). 22. For further discussion of this problem, see Jones, Conflict, Others disagree with my position; cf. Fisher and Ury, Getting to Yes, THE BIBLIOGRAPHY A full bibliography that includes all of the sources cited in the text provides an overview of the sources and therefore an indication of the scope of the author s research. There are different kinds of bibliographies available in CMS: 1) Full bibliography (ALL works cited) 2) Selected bibliography (does not include ALL works cited/authors discretion) 3) Annotated bibliography (detailed evaluation, either critical or descriptive, of each source) and 4) Bibliographic essay (may come before a full bibliography, not alphabetized). Basic guidelines for formatting the Full Bibliography Start the bibliography on a new page, continuing the page numbers from the body of the paper. Center the title of the page (Bibliography) an inch from the top of the paper. Double space between the title and first entry. Entries are alphabetized by author s last name. A single author entry precedes multi author entry with same name. Begin each entry at the left margin, and indent any additional lines one half inch. Single space each entry and double space between entries (unless your instructor prefers double spacing throughout). For successive entries with the same author or editor, use the 3 em dash ( ) followed by a period. Use a comma in place of period if an abbreviation such as, ed., is present. Alphabetize the titles for the same author, disregard the, a, an. Notes and bibliographies should be singled spaced internally; however, leave an extra line space between note and bibliographic entries. For two to three authors, write out all names. For four to ten authors, write out all names in the bibliography but only the first author s name plus et al. in notes and parenthetical citations. When a source has no identifiable author, cite it by its title, both on the references page and in shortened form (up to four keywords from that title) in parenthetical citations throughout the text. Write out publishers names in full. Do not use access dates unless publication dates are unavailable. If you cannot ascertain the publication date of a printed work, use the abbreviation n.d. Provide DOIs instead of URLs whenever possible. If you cannot name a specific page number when called for, you have other options: section (sec.), equation (eq.), volume (vol.), or note (n.). For an example of CMS title page, notes, and bibliography, visit Bish CMS.pdf

3 Publication Type Citation Book with single author or editor Author(s). Title: Subtitle. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, #. Author(s), Title: Subtitle (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication), Page(s). 1. Michael Pollan, The Omnivore s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), *A book with an editor in place of an author includes the abbreviation ed. (or eds. for more than one editor.) Book with more than one author Kauper, Richard W. and Elspeth Kennedy. A Knight s Own Book of Chivalry. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, Richard W. Kauper and Elspeth Kennedy, A Knight s Own Book of Chivalry. (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2005), *Cite Electronic Books, consulted online, the same as print and include the URL or DOI. Article in a Print Journal Jarvis, Michael. Maritime Masters and Seafaring Slaves in Bermuda, William and Mary Quarterly 60, no.7 (2002): Michael Jarvis, Maritime Masters and Seafaring Slaves in Bermuda, , William and Mary Quarterly 60, no.7 (2002):586.

4 Article in an Online Journal Belau, Linda. Trauma and the Material Signifier, Postmodern Culture 11, no.2 (2001) Linda Belau, Trauma and the Material Signifier, Postmodern Culture 11, no.2 (2001): par.6, Heffron, Margery M. "A Fine Romance: The Courtship Correspondence between Louisa Catherine Johnson and John Quincy Adams." New England Quarterly 83, no. 2 (2010). Academic Search Elite. Article in a Database 5. Margery Heffron. A Fine Romance: The Courtship Correspondence between Louisa Catherine Johnson and John Quincy Adams. New England Quarterly 83, no. 2 (2010). Academic Search Complete. * A URL may also be included, but only if the database offers a stable or persistent form with the document. (ex. **Access dates are not required in CMS. Access dates are only necessary if a publication or revision date is not available. If your instructor asks for access dates to be included, they should precede the DOI or URL. Magazine Articles Macel, Emily. Beijing s Modern Movement. Dance Magazine, February Emily Macel, Beijing s Modern Movement, Dance Magazine, February 2009, 35.

5 Newspapers Deo, Nisha. Visiting Professor Lectures on Photographer. Exponent (West Lafayette, IN), Feb. 13, Nisha Deo, Visiting Professor Lectures on Photographer, Exponent (West Lafayette, IN), Feb. 13, *Newspapers are more often cited in text or in notes than in bibliographies. If newspaper sources are carefully documented in the text, they need not be cited in the bibliography. **Notes and bibliographic entries for newspapers should include the following: name of the author (if listed), headline or column heading, newspaper name, month (often abbreviated), day, and year. Since issues may include several editions, page numbers are usually omitted. If an online edition of a newspaper is consulted, the URL should be added at the end of the citation. Last name, First name. Title of Web Page. Publishing Organization or Name of Website. Publication date and/or access date if available. URL. Websites 2. First name Last name, Title of Web Page, Publishing Organization or Name of Website in Italics, publication date and/or access date if available, URL. Jalopy, Mister. Effulgence of the North: Storefront Arctic Panorama in Los Angeles. Dinosaurs and Robots. Last modified January 30, Mister Jalopy, Effulgence of the North: Storefront Arctic Panorama in Los Angeles, Dinosaurs and Robots, last modified January 30, 2009, *If article has no author, start with the title.

6 Media In general, documentation of audiovisual materials should include: the name of the composer, writer, or performer; the title in quotations or italics; the name of the recording company or publisher; any identifying number of the recording; indication of the medium (Compact Disc, DVD, or Audiovisual File); and the copyright date or date of production/performance. Example for DVD and Videocassette: Cleese, John, Terry Gilliam, Eric Idle, Terry Jones, and Michael Palin. Commentaries. Disc 2. Monty Python and the Holy Grail, special edition. DVD. Directed by Terry Gilliam and Terry Jones. Culver City, CA: Columbia Tri-Star Home Entertainment, Crop Duster Attack, North by Northwest, directed by Alfred Hitchcock (1959; Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2000), Videocassette.

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