Vanier College Music Department. Guidelines for Research Papers in Music History and Literature Courses

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1 Vanier College Music Department Guidelines for Research Papers in Music History and Literature Courses The citation formats described below are based on The Chicago Manual of Style. If the information below does not answer your question, try the quick guide at The following summary, while not exhaustive, presents the situations students are most likely to encounter when citing sources in a research paper. A research paper must include both endnotes (or footnotes) and a bibliography. Writing Endnotes or Footnotes Endnotes come after the essay, on a new page, at the end. Footnotes appear at the bottom of each page, but are identical to endnotes in all other respects. Use endnotes or footnotes according to your teacher s instructions. Should your teacher permit or recommend Parenthetical Documentation, information and examples can be found in the Vanier Student Writing Guide. The purpose of footnotes/endnotes is to identify the sources from which the information presented in the text has been obtained. Endnotes/footnotes are numbered consecutively within the text. The numbers in the text are written as superscript Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3 etc.) immediately following the punctuation that ends the sentence. If the sentence is a quotation, the superscript number should be placed outside the closing quotation mark. In either case, do not use roman numerals nor add a space before the number. For example: Monteverdi employed a large and varied orchestra in Orfeo. 8 OT Monteverdi employed a large and varied orchestra in Orfeo. viii The title of a book, or the name of a periodical etc., is placed in italics and not underlined. Nothing will be underlined in the endnotes/footnotes or bibliography when using a wordprocessor. Note the use of italics in the following examples. Book - One Author: For the first citing of a source, use the following style. (Note the difference between an endnote and bibliographic citing.) 1. Eugene Davidson, The Trial of the Germans (New York: Collier Books, 1972), 63. If the very next endnote is from the same source, cite it as follows: 1. Eugene Davidson, The Trial of the Germans (New York: Collier Books, 1972), Ibid., 87. ("Ibid." is short for "Ibidem," a Latin term meaning "in the same place.") 1

2 If the very next endnote is from the same page as the previous endnote, you can simply cite it as follows: 3. Ibid. If after several different sources are cited, a previous source is cited again, an abbreviated version appears as follows: 7. Davidson, The Trial of the Germans, 92. Book - More Than One Author: 1. Frank Chalk and Kurt Jonassohn, The History and Sociology of Genocide: Analyses and Case Studies (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1990), 23. (Note that the second and subsequent lines of a single footnote/endnote entry are not indented.) Additional citations of this same source would appear as follows: 6. Chalk and Jonassohn, The History and Sociology of Genocide, 77. Article Within a Book that is edited by someone else: 1. Philip Friedman, "The Karaites under Nazi Rule" in On the Track of Tyranny, edited by Max Beloff (Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1971), Journal: 1. Aryeh L. Unger, "The Public Opinion Reports of the Nazi Party," The Public Opinion Quarterly 29 (1965): 565. (The actual title of the article is in quotation marks, but is not in italics. It is the name of the journal that is in italics. ote also, when citing a journal, it is not necessary to include the place of publication.) Encyclopedia - Known Author: 1. Pamela Susskind, "Schumann, Clara" in The ew Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2 rd ed., edited by Stanley Sadie (London: Macmillan, 1984),16: (It is not usually necessary to include volume and page number. However it is useful to do so when citing articles comprising many pages.) Encyclopedia - Unknown Author: 1. Encyclopedia Americana, 1997 ed., s.v. "Catawba Indians." ("s.v.", an abbreviation for sub verbo in Latin, means "under the word." ) 2

3 Writing a Bibliography A bibliography is placed after the text and endnotes. A bibliography has a different purpose and form from that of an endnote. A bibliography is a complete list of all the sources consulted in preparing an essay. A bibliography does not have numbers in front of the works cited. Essentially, a bibliography has three parts, each of which gives specific information about the book, and each of which is followed by a period. Author's ame. Title. Publishing Information. 1. Author's ame: The author's name is in alphabetical order - last name first, then a comma, then the first name followed by a period. 2. Title: The title of the work is in italics, followed by a period. 3. Publishing Information: Information concerning the publication of the work - place of publication, is followed by a colon (:), the name of the publisher, followed by a comma, and the year of publication, followed by a period. For example: Davidson, Eugene. The Trial of the Germans. New York: Collier Books, Erickson, John. The Road to Stalingrad: Stalin's War with Germany. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, (Note that the second and all subsequent lines of a single bibliographic entry are indented. If only the initials of an author are known, then the following form is used: Appleman, J.A. Military Tribunals and International Crimes. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, ( otice in the above example not only is the city of publication presented, but Westport is further clarified as being in Connecticut, since it is probably not clear to many people where Westport is. otice also in the above example that since Connecticut is abbreviated, it is followed by a period, which is followed by a colon.) Book - More Than One Author: Chalk, Frank, and Kurt Jonassohn. The History and Sociology of Genocide: Analyses and Case Studies. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, (Note the order of names above. Lastname, Firstname for first author followed by Firstname Lastname for all additional authors.) If the author is the editor of the book, that information is included in the first part: Schneider, Gertrude, ed. Muted Voices: Jewish Survivors of Latvia Remember. New York: Philosophical Library,

4 If the book is edited by someone other than the author, list the entry by author and put Edited by after the title: Wagner, Richard. The Letters of Richard Wagner: The Burrell Collection. Edited by John N. Burk. New York: Macmillan, An edition later than the first should be properly designated: Forsyth, Cecil. Orchestration. 2 nd edition. New York: MacMillan, If the source is from a periodical or journal, the following format may be used: Marsh, Norman S. "Some Aspects of the German Legal System under National Socialism." Law Quarterly Review 62 (1946): (Notice again, the actual title of the article is in quotation marks, but is not in italics. It is the name of the journal that is in italics. Note again, when citing a journal, it is not necessary to include the place of publication.) If the source is from an article within a book or an encyclopedia that is edited by someone else, the following format is used: Friedman, Philip. "The Karaites under Nazi Rule." In On the Track of Tyranny, edited by Max Beloff, Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, ote that well-known standard dictionaries are not usually cited in bibliographies. The ew Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is an exception because it is an extensive, and specialized, encyclopedia; therefore, multi-volumed sources like The New Grove should be included. 4

5 World Wide Web When citing an article from Grove Online, use their Chicago citation, which you can obtain by clicking on the author s name on the left sidebar. The citation provided would be adequate for a footnote, but would need adjusting for the bibliography. The following are examples from the Chicago Quick Guide: Footnotes or Endnotes: 1. Google Privacy Policy, last modified March 11, 2009, 2. McDonald s Happy Meal Toy Safety Facts, McDonald s Corporation, accessed July 19, 2008, 3. Google Privacy Policy. 4. Toy Safety Facts. Bibliography: Google. Google Privacy Policy. Last modified March 11, McDonald s Corporation. McDonald s Happy Meal Toy Safety Facts. Accessed July 19,

6 The following is an excerpt from Writing About Music, 2nd ed. (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1968) by Demar Irvine. You can read more on this subject at: When To Cite A Source Footnotes/endnotes are used mainly for two purposes: (a) to refer the reader to sources of information and (b) to provide explanatory comments, or additional evidence, which would interrupt the main flow of ideas if incorporated into the text. In writing for the general public, footnotes/endnotes may be kept to a minimum, or avoided entirely. But for the scholarly report, term paper, or thesis assume that your readers will be both knowledgeable and critical, and will constantly ask: Where did you get this particular information? Who says that the facts are thus? Whose opinion are you stating? The purpose of footnote documentation is to anticipate such queries. One must learn to judge where citations are expected, and where they may be safely omitted. Documentation of Facts Facts may be loosely grouped into three realms: (a) Common knowledge - things that are readily accessible in most standard reference works, and hence generally known to anyone at all conversant with the subject. (b) Special knowledge - things mentioned by only one or a few persons, such as specialists or experts, and hence not generally known. (c) Personal knowledge - things which the writer-investigator has observed for himself, which may agree with, or supplement, or even repudiate the findings of common knowledge and special knowledge. Statements of fact from the realm of common knowledge are usually not documented. (Exception: beginners who want practice in footnoting may be rather liberal with documentation.) Statements of fact from someone else's fund of special knowledge must always be duly credited and documented. Statements of fact from the writer's own personal knowledge are usually incorporated into the body of the paper. Where such statements seem to supplement (or repudiate) what is already known, it is wise to explain where and how the observation was made. Remember that if you do not give a citation it is assumed that your statement of fact is either (a) common knowledge, or else (b) your own personal observation, for which you assume full responsibility. When to give credit A commonly held misconception is that only direct quotations require documentation. Actually, statements of fact and opinion are far more often brought into a discussion in the form of abstract or paraphrase, where the logic of documentation is still fully applicable. The Vanier College Policy on Cheating and Plagiarism, as outlined in the Student Handbook, applies and will be enforced by all teachers in this department. 6

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