1 Taylor & Francis Reference Style V Harvard B Harvard references are commonly used in the social sciences. Cited publications are referred to in the text by giving the author s surname and the year of publication, and are listed in a bibliography at the end of the text. 1. How to cite references in your text 2. How to organize the reference list 3. Book 4. British Standards 5. CD-ROM or DVD 6. Conference proceedings 7. Dissertation or thesis 8. Encyclopedia 9. Film, video, TV 10. Government document 12. Internet 13. Journal article 14. Legal reference 15. Map 16. Music 17. Newspaper 18. Official publication 19. Patent 20. Personal communication 11. Illustration
2 1. How to cite references in your text. If the author s name occurs naturally in the sentence, the year is given in parentheses: In a popular study Harvey (1992) argued As Harvey (1992, p. 21) said, If the name does not occur naturally in the sentence, both name and year are given in parentheses: A more recent study (Stevens 1988) has shown Matthews and Jones (1997) have proposed that Theory rises out of practice, and once validated, returns to direct or explain the practice (Stevens 1998). If two or more references by the same author published in the same year are cited, distinguish these by adding a,b,c, etc. after the year: Johnson (1994a) discussed If you want to include two or more references within the same parentheses, use chronological order and separate with commas: as discussed by several authors (Smith 1993, 2003, Brown 1995, Smith and Jones 1997, Green 2004,). Three or more authors If more than two authors, give the surname of the first author followed by et al. Office costs amount to 20% of total costs in most businesses (Wilson et al. 1997). A source quoted in another source If you refer to a source quoted in another source, cite both in the text, but only list the work you read in the bibliography: A study by Smith (1960 cited Jones 1994) showed that Anonymous work Use Anon in the text (Anon 1988) 2. How to organize the reference list. List references to all documents cited in the text, under the heading References. They are listed in alphabetical order of authors names. If you have cited more than one item by a specific author, they should be listed chronologically (earliest first), and by letter (1993a, 1993b) if more than one item has been published during a specific year.
3 3. Book. Cutler, T., Williams, K., and Williams, J., Keynes, Beveridge and beyond. London: Routledge. Dow, D., A history of the world. 3rd ed. London: Greenfield. Mercer, P.A. and Smith, G., Private viewdata in the UK. 2nd ed. London: Longman. Anon., A history of radio. London: Beacon Press. Please list all authors in the reference list; do not use et al. Edited book Chester, D.N., ed., Lessons of the British war economy. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Corporate author Name of issuing body, Year. Title of publication. Place: Publisher, Report Number (where relevant). Unesco, General information programme. Paris: Unesco, PGI-93/WS/22. Commission for Racial Equality, Multi-racial Britain. London: Commission for Racial Equality. Chapter Author, A., Chapter title. In: B.B. Editor and C.C. Editor, eds. Title of book. Place: Publisher, page numbers. Bantz, C.R., Social dimensions of software development. In: J.A. Anderson, ed. Annual review of software management and development. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, Place of publication Give the city. If more than one city is listed, give the first one or the location of the publisher s head office. If the city is not well known, add a country, region or state. States should be denoted by a two-letter code, e.g. Hillsdale, NJ. Publisher s name Omit superfluous terms such as Publishers, Co, Inc., but retain the words Books or Press. Where the publisher is a university and the place or location is included in the name of the university, do not repeat the place of publication. 4. British standards. British Standards Institution, BS 1629: Recommendations for references to published material.
4 5. CD-ROM or DVD. Hawking, S.W., A brief history of time: an interactive adventure. [CD-ROM]. Crunch media. Bibliographic database Database [CD-ROM]. (dates). Place: Publisher ECONLIT [CD-ROM]. ( ). London: Silverplatter. 6. Conference proceedings. Author, A.A., Year. Title of contribution. In: B.B. Editor, ed. (if applicable) Title of conference proceedings including date and place of conference. Place: Publisher, page numbers. Silver, K., Electronic mail: the new way to communicate. In: D.I. Raitt, ed. 9th international online information meeting, 3 5 December 1990 London. Oxford: Learned Information, Dissertation or thesis. Agutter, A.J., The linguistic significance of current British slang. Thesis (PhD). Edinburgh University. Agutter, A.J., The linguistic significance of current British slang. Unpublished thesis. Edinburgh University. 8. Encyclopedia. Reference by the title. The Europa world yearbook, London: Europa. 9. Film, video, TV. Film Macbeth, Film. Directed by Orson Welles. USA: Republic Pictures. Birds in the garden, Video. London: Harper Videos. TV broadcast Yes, Prime Minister, Episode 1, The Ministerial Broadcast. TV, BBC2. Jan 16. News at ten, Jan hrs. Blair, Tony, Interview. In: Six o clock news. TV, BBC1. Feb hrs. 10. Government document. School Curriculum and Assessment Authority, Guide to national tests. London: The Stationery Office.
5 11. Illustration. Sandby, P, A bandit with a halbert. Pen and ink. At: London: British Museum Department of Prints and Drawings. Register number Internet. Web page, website, e-book Holland, M., Guide to citing Internet sources [online]. Poole, Bournemouth University. Available from: [Accessed 4 November 2004]. If no author, reference by title. Mailbase, listserv, list It should be noted that items may only be kept on discussion group servers for a short time and hence may not be suitable for referencing. A local copy could be kept by the author, with a note to this effect. Brack, E.V., 2 May Re: Computing short courses. Lis-link [online]. Available from: [Accessed 17 Jun 2004]. Jensen, E.R., 12 Dec Recommendation of student radio/tv in English. IASTAR [online]. Available from: [Accessed 29 Apr 2004]. Author, B. ( address), 4 Jan RE: Harvard references. to C. Author ( address). 13. Journal article. Evans, W.A., Approaches to intelligent information retrieval. Information Processing and Management, 7 (2), Greenfield, J., The Sevso Treasure: the legal case. Apollo, 132 (3), Please list all authors in the reference list; do not use et al. Online journal Korb, K.B., Persons and things: book review of Bringsjord on Robot-Consciousness. Psycoloquy [online], 6 (15). Available from: [Accessed 20 May 2004]. Volume and issue details can be omitted if you can t find them, and pages are often not given for electronic journals. Give the paragraph number if available. 14. Legal reference.
6 Act of Parliament Include the chapter number if possible. Further and Higher Education Act 1992 (c. 13). Parliamentary Bill For House of Commons Bills use square brackets for the serial number, and for House of Lords Bills use no brackets. Education (Student Loans) Bill HC Bill ( ) . Further and Higher Education Bill HL Bill ( ) 27. Statutory Instrument Include short title, SI, year of publication, number. National Assistance (Assessment of Resources) Regulations 1992 SI 1992/2977. Law report Include abbreviation of law report series, the year that the case was reported, the volume number if appropriate, and the starting page number.  I WLR Map. Author s surname, first name or initials (may be cartographer, surveyor, compiler, engraver, etc.) year of publication. Title, Scale. Place: Publisher. Mason, James, Map of the countries lying between Spain and India, 1:8,000,000. London: Ordnance Survey. 16. Music. Stravinsky, I., Three pieces for clarinet solo. London: Chester. Ely, J., Drivin to the poorhouse in a limousine. In: Live at Liberty Lunch. Stereo sound disk. New York: MCA, MCG 6113, side B, track Newspaper. Author, P. (or paper title), Year. Title of article. Newspaper, day month, page and column. Independent, Picking up the bills. Independent, 4 June, p. 28a. Gott, R., Crumbs and the capitalists. The Guardian, 20 Jan, p Official publication. Command paper Royal Commission on Local Government, (Cmnd. 4040, 1969).
7 European Union publication Proposal for a Council directive establishing a European Fund to promote cinema production, COM (95)546, final. Council Regulation (EC) No. 2078/92 of 30 June 1992 on agricultural production methods. Council Directive 92/83/EEC of 19 October 1992 on the harmonization of excise duties. Hansard HC Deb ( ) 195 col Official journal OJ No. C311, , p. 6. Parliamentary paper 1st Report of the Select Committee of The House of Lords on Televising the Proceedings of the House HL (213) ( ). Standing Committee Stg Co Deb ( ) Co E Finance Bill col Patent. Originator, (name of applicant) Year of publication. Title of patent. Series designation. Philip Morris Inc., Optical perforating apparatus and system. European patent application A Aziz, A., Method and apparatus for a key management scheme. United States Patent Application , 27 June. 20. Personal communication. As these do not provide recoverable data, they should not be included in the reference list. Cite personal communications in the text only. Give initials as well as the surname of the communicator and provide as exact a date as possible. According to J. Green (personal communication, 19 Jan 2007).
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The Harvard system of referencing Contents 1. Introduction............................................................... 3 Plagiarism.......................................................................
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