# PERFECT SQUARES AND FACTORING EXAMPLES

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1 PERFECT SQUARES AND FACTORING EXAMPLES 1. Ask the students what is meant by identical. Get their responses and then explain that when we have two factors that are identical, we call them perfect squares. The term perfect and identical are synonyms for each other in this case. 2. Ask students to find the product for each of the following. (Encourage students to look for patterns.) (x + 3) 2 (x + 3)(x + 3) a) (x + 3) 2 (x)(x) + (3)(x) + (3)(x) + (3)(3) (x) 2 + 2(3)(x) + (3) 2 x 2 + 6x + 9 b) (x 3) 2 (x - 3) 2 (x - 3)(x - 3) (x)(x) + (-3)(x) + (-3)(x) + (-3)(-3) (x) 2 + 2(-3)(x) + (-3) 2 x 2-6x + 9 c) (2x + 4) 2 (2x + 4) 2 (2x + 4)(2x + 4) (2x)(2x) + (2x)(4) + (2x)(4) + (4)(4) (2x) 2 + 2(2x)(4) + (4) 2 4x x Help students recognize the following Perfect Square patterns from the examples above! (a + b) 2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2 (a b) 2 = a 2 2ab + b 2 Perfect Square Trinomials

2 4. These patterns can help you factor trinomials, such as y y + 64 and 4x 2 20xy + 25y 2. (Help students see similarities.) Finding a Product (y + 8) 2 = y 2 + 2(y)(8) + (8) 2 y y + 64 Factoring y y + 64 = (y) 2 + 2(y)(8) + (8) 2 (y + 8) 2 Finding a Product (2x 5y) 2 = (2x) 2-2(2x)(5y) + (5y) 2 4x 2 20xy + 25y 2 Factoring 4x 2 20xy + 25y 2 = (2x) 2-2(2x)(5y) + (5y) 2 (2x 5y) 2 5. Caution students against confusing the difference of squares with the square of a difference. (a + b)(a b) = a 2 b 2 (a b) 2 a 2 b 2 6. To determine whether a trinomial can be factored in this way, first decide if it is a perfect square. In other words, decide if it can be written in either of these forms: (a + b) 2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2 (a b) 2 = a 2 2ab + b 2 Perfect Square Trinomials

3 7. Example: Determine whether x x is a perfect square. If it is, factor it. To determine whether x x is a perfect square, answer a. Is x 2 a perfect square x 2 = (x) 2 (YES) b. Is 121 a perfect square 121 = (11) 2 (YES) c. Is the middle term twice the product of (x) and (11) 22x = 2(x)(11) (YES) Since all three answers are YES, the trinomial x x is a x x (x) 2 + 2(x)(11) + (11) 2 (x + 11) 2 8. Steps a, b, and c give students a system for determining perfect square trinomials. 9. Point out that before factoring a polynomial, its terms should be arranged so that the powers of x are in descending or ascending order. For example, 8x + x should be written as x 2 + 8x + 16 or x + x Example: Determine whether 16a a + 81 is a perfect square. If it is, factor it. To determine whether 16a a + 81 is a perfect square, answer d. Is 16a 2 a perfect square 16a 2 = (4a) 2 (YES) e. Is 121 a perfect square 81 = (9) 2 (YES) f. Is the middle term twice the product of (4a) and (9) 72a = 2(4a)(9) (YES) Since all three answers are YES, the trinomial 16a a + 81 is a 16a a + 81 (4a) 2 + 2(4a)(9) + (9) 2 (4a + 9) 2

4 11. Example: Determine whether a 2 20a is a perfect square. If it is, factor it. To determine whether a 2 20a is a perfect square, first arrange the terms so that the powers of a are in descending order a 2 20a 4a 2 20a + 15 g. Is 4a 2 a perfect square 4a 2 = (2a) 2 (YES) h. Is 15 a perfect square 15 = (?) 2 (NO) Since step (b) is (NO), then we stop and rule out the perfect square model. 12. Example: Determine whether 16x 2 26x + 49 is a perfect square. If it is, factor it. To determine whether 16x 2 26x + 49 is a perfect square, answer i. Is 16x 2 a perfect square 16x 2 = (4x) 2 (YES) j. Is 49 a perfect square 49 = (7) 2 (YES) k. Is the middle term twice the product of (4x) and (7) 26x = 2(4x)(7) (NO) Since c is (NO) then 16x 2 26x + 49 is not a perfect square. 13. Example: Determine whether 9x 2 12xy + 4y 2 is a perfect square. If it is, factor it. To determine whether 9x 2 12xy + 4y 2 is a perfect square. Answer l. Is 9x 2 a perfect square 9x 2 = (3x) 2 (YES) m. Is 4y 2 a perfect square 4y 2 = (2y) 2 (YES) n. Is the middle term twice the product of (3x) and (2y) 12xy = 2(3x)(2y) (YES) Since all three answers are YES, the trinomial 9x 2 12xy + 4y 2 is a 9x 2 12xy + 4y 2 (3x) 2 2(3x)(2y) + (2y) 2 (3x 2y) 2

5 Name: Date: Class: PERFECT SQUARES AND FACTORING WORKSHEET Determine whether each trinomial is a perfect square trinomial. If it is, factor it. (Demonstrate using the 3-step model.) 1. a 2 + 4a x 2 10x n 2 13n y 2 8y x 2 4x b 2 6b a a n 2 8n x 2 + 6x y y + 1

6 PERFECT SQUARES AND FACTORING WORKSHEET KEY Determine whether each trinomial is a perfect square trinomial. If it is, factor it. (Demonstrate using 3-step model.) 1. a 2 + 4a + 4 To determine whether a 2 + 4a + 4 is a perfect square, answer each a. Is a 2 a perfect square a 2 = (a) 2 (YES) b. Is 4 a perfect square 4 = (2) 2 (YES) c. Is the middle term twice the product of (a) and (2) 4a = 2(a)(2) (YES) Since all three answers are YES, the trinomial a 2 + 4a + 4 is a a 2 + 4a + 4 (a) 2 + 2(a)(2) + (2) 2 (a + 2) 2 2. x 2 10x 100 To determine whether x 2 10x 100 is a perfect square, answer d. Is x 2 a perfect square x 2 = (x) 2 (YES) e. Is 100 a perfect square 100 = (?) 2 (NO) Since (b) is (NO) the trinomial x 2 10x 100 is not a perfect square. 3. n 2 13n + 36 To determine whether n 2 13n + 36 is a perfect square, answer f. Is n 2 a perfect square n 2 = (n) 2 (YES) g. Is 36 a perfect square 36 = (6) 2 (YES) h. Is the middle term twice the product of (n) and (6) 13a = 2(n)(6) (NO) Since (c) is (N0) the trinomial n 2 13n + 36 is not a perfect square.

7 4. y 2 8y + 10 To determine whether y 2 8y + 10 is a perfect square, answer each i. Is y 2 a perfect square y 2 = (y) 2 (YES) j. Is 10 a perfect square 10 = (?) 2 (NO) Since (b) is (NO), the trinomial y 2 8y + 10 is not a perfect square. It can be factored as follows: 5. 4x 2 4x + 1 To determine whether 4x 2 4x + 1 is a perfect square, answer each k. Is 4x 2 a perfect square 4x 2 = (2x) 2 (YES) l. Is 1 a perfect square 1 = (1) 2 (YES) m. Is the middle term twice the product of (2x) and (1) 4x = 2(2x)(1) (YES) Since all three answers are YES, the trinomial 4x 2 4x + 1 is a 4x 2 4x + 1 (2x) 2 2(2x)(1) + (1) 2 (2x 1) b 2 6b + 1 To determine whether 9b 2 6b + 1 is a perfect square, answer each n. Is 9b 2 a perfect square 9b 2 = (3b) 2 (YES) o. Is 1 a perfect square 1 = (1) 2 (YES) p. Is the middle term twice the product of (2x) and (1) 6b = 2(3b)(1) (YES) Since all three answers are YES, the trinomial 9b 2 6b + 1 is a 9b 2 6b + 1 (3b) 2 2(3b)(1) + (1) 2 (3b 1) 2

8 7. a a + 36 To determine whether a a + 36 is a perfect square, answer q. Is a 2 a perfect square a 2 = (a) 2 (YES) r. Is 36 a perfect square 36 = (6) 2 (YES) s. Is the middle term twice the product of (a) and (6) 12a = 2(a)(6) (YES) Since all three answers are YES, the trinomial a a + 36 is a a a + 36 (a) 2 + 2(a)(6) + (6) 2 (a + 6) 2 8. n 2 8n + 16 To determine whether n 2 8n + 16 is a perfect square, answer each t. Is n 2 a perfect square n 2 = (n) 2 (YES) u. Is 16 a perfect square 16 = (4) 2 (YES) v. Is the middle term twice the product of (n) and (4) 8n = 2(n)(4) (YES) Since all three answers are YES, the trinomial n 2 8n + 16 is a n 2 8n + 16 (n) 2 2(n)(4) + (4) 2 (a 4) 2 9. x 2 + 6x 9 To determine whether x 2 + 6x 9 is a perfect square, answer each w. Is x 2 a perfect square x 2 = (x) 2 (YES) x. Is 9 a perfect square -9 = (?) 2 (NO) Since (c) is (NO), the trinomial x 2 + 6x 9 is not a perfect square.

9 y y + 1 To determine whether 121y y + 1 is a perfect square, answer y. Is 121y 2 a perfect square 121y 2 = (11y) 2 (YES) z. Is 1 a perfect square 1 = (1) 2 (YES) aa. Is the middle term twice the product of (11y) and (1) 22y = 2(11y)(1) (YES) Since all three answers are YES, the trinomial 121y y + 1 is a 121y y + 1 (11y) 2 + 2(11y)(1) + (1) 2 (11y + 1) 2

10 Student Name: Date: PERFECT SQUARES AND FACTORING CHECKLIST 1. On questions 1 thru 10, did the student determine if the trinomial is a perfect square trinomial? a. All ten (40 points) b. Nine of the ten (35 points) c. Eight of the ten (30 points) d. Seven of the ten (25 points) e. Six of the ten (20 points) f. Five of the ten (15 points) g. Four of the ten (10 points) h. Three of the ten (5 points) 2. On question 1, did the student factor the trinomial completely using the 3-step 3. On question 2, did the student factor the trinomial completely using the 3-step 4. On question 3, did the student factor the trinomial completely using the 3-step 5. On question 4, did the student factor the trinomial completely using the 3-step 6. On question 5, did the student factor the trinomial completely using the 3-step

11 7. On question 6, did the student factor the trinomial completely using the 3-step 8. On question 7, did the student factor the trinomial completely using the 3-step 9. On question 8, did the student factor the trinomial completely using the 3-step 10. On question 9, did the student factor the trinomial completely using the 3-step 11. On question 10, did the student factor the trinomial completely using the 3-step Total Number of Points A B C D F 126 points and above 112 points and above 98 points and above 84 points and above 84 points and below Any score below C needs remediation!

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