# FOIL FACTORING. Factoring is merely undoing the FOIL method. Let s look at an example: Take the polynomial x²+4x+4.

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1 FOIL FACTORING Factoring is merely undoing the FOIL method. Let s look at an example: Take the polynomial x²+4x+4. First we take the 3 rd term (in this case 4) and find the factors of it. 4=1x4 4=2x2 Now we see what factors of two add up to equal our 2 nd term (in this case 4). 1+4=5 2+2=4 Now we take the factors of our 3 rd term that add up to our 2 nd term (In our example 2 and 2) and use them in our factored form: x²+4x+4=(x+2)(x+2) A more generalized form would be: x²+ax+bx+ab=(x+a)(x+b)

2 FOIL FACTORING WITH A COEFFICIENT BY THE FIRST TERM To do this we use the same method as we did for normal FOIL factoring. Let s look at an example: 3x²-x-4 We need to start by looking at our first term (in our example 3x²) We need to see what two terms multiply together to equal 3x²: 3x²=1*3x² 3x²=3*x² 3x²=3x*x Typically you will want the terms that have x to equal powers (3x*x). We want to set that in our parentheses: (3x )(x ) Now we want to look at our last term (in our example -4) We want to see what two terms multiply together to equal -4 and combine with 3 and 1 to make - 1. Our factors of -4 are: -4= -1*4-4= 1*-4-4= -2*2

3 If we multiply 2 and 2 with 3 and 1 we get 6 and 2 (respectively). Since we cannot combine 6 and 2 in any way to get -1, we need to look at 1 and 4. If we multiply 3 and 1 with 4 and 1 we get 12 and 1 (respectively). Since we cannot combine 12 and 1 in any way to get -1, we must try it another way. If we multiply 3 and 1 with 1 and 4 we get 3 and 4 (respectively). If we make 4 negative (that is, start with a -4) and we combine it with 3 we get -1. So now we place our numbers into our parentheses: 3x²-x-4=(3x-4)(x+1) For a video on this, please reference

4 FACTORING BY GROUPING This method is typically used to factor equations larger than trinomials. Let s look at a new example: 9x³+3x²+6x+2 First we group the terms together in groups of 2: (9x³+3x²)+(6x+2) Now we need to look at each set of parentheses individually and pull out any and all common factors: (9x³+3x²)=3x²(3x+1) *remember: any number divided by itself is equal to 1, not 0. (6x+2)=2(3x+1) *note: It s imperative that the two terms have the same values in the parentheses after factoring out any common factors (in this example: 3x+1) Now we need to set up our factored form. We take the factors that we pulled out of each set (in our example 3x² and 2) and add them together in a set of parentheses. We then multiply that set of parentheses by our other set of parentheses (in our example (3x²+1)). This leaves us 9x³+3x²+6x+2=(3x²+2)(3x+1). For a video on this, please reference

5 FACTORING BY SYNTHETIC DIVISION Factoring by synthetic division is a bit cumbersome, but works really well for larger polynomials. Let s look at an example: -2x 5 +6x 4 +10x³-6x²-9x+4 First we must find the factors of the leading coefficient (-2) and our constant (4). 4=±1±,2,±4 2=±1,±2 Now we need to divide the factors of the constant (4) by the factors of the leading coefficient (- 2). For our purposes here, we re only going to look at the results that render whole numbers. 4 1=4 4-1=-4 4 2=2 4-2=-2-4 1= =4-4 2= =2 2 1=2 2-1=-2 2 2=1 2-2=-1-2 1= =2-2 2= =1 1 1=1 1-1=-1

6 -1 1= =1 So, in all we have ±1, ±2, and ±4. These values will be our divisors. Now we need to set up our equation. Let s start with the divisor -4. *Note: The divisor a correlates with (x-a) These values are the coefficients of the original equation.. Now we drop down the first term (-2) Lower term We now multiply the divisor (4) by the lower term (-2) and place it below the second term (6) We now add those two terms together and repeat the process Last term As you can see our last term is We need this term to be zero. Let s try the divisor Bottom row Since we got 0 as our last term, that means (x-4) divides evenly into (-2x^5+6x^4+10x³-6x²- 9x+4). We use the bottom row as our new coefficients and we take the original highest power (5 in this case) and reduce it by one, and list the rest in descending order. Therefore: -2x 5 +6x 4 +10x³-6x²-9x+4=(x-4)(-2x 4-2x³+2x²+2x-1) For a video on this, please reference

7 USING THE QUADRATIC EQUATION TO FIND ZEROS The quadratic formula is a fast method of finding the roots (or where the equation equals zero) of an equation. Let s look at an example: Find the zeros of the following equation: x²+4x+4 We need to start by identifying our a, b, and c. Our a is the first (or leading) coefficient (1). Our b is our second coefficient (4). Our c is our constant (4). Now we need to identify what the quadratic equation. *Note: This can only be used when the equation is in the form ax²+bx+c=0; a 0 x = b ± b! 4ac 2a We now need to replace our a, b, and c. Now all we need to do is evaluate the equation x = 4 ± 4! 4(1)(4) 2(1) x = 4 ± x = 4 ± 0 2 x = 4 2 x = 2 This means that the root of the equation x²+4x+4 is -2. We only got one answer, which means -2 is a repeated root. For a video on this, please reference

8 DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES Difference of two squares can sometimes be tricky to recognize. This technique is usable when there are two values squared, with one subtracted from the other. Let s look at an example: Factor (x²-4) Both x² and 4 are perfect squares. *Note: A perfect square is a number that is equal to a number times itself (example: 4=2x2; 36=6x6). So, first we must take the square root of both x² and 4 x²= ±x 4= ±2 For now, we re only going to pay attention to the absolute value of these terms (x and 2, respectively). We put our terms in the following set up: (x²-a²)=(x-a)(x+a) So, that leaves us with: (x²-4)=(x-2)(x+2) *Note: (x-a)(x+a) is the same as (x+a)(x-a). *Note: (x²+a²) = (x-ai)(x+ai). For a video on this, please reference

9 DIFFERENCE/SUM OF TWO CUBES This technique is usable when there are two terms that are cubed (or to the third power) regardless if the two terms are being added or subtracted. Let s look at an example: Factor (x³-8) First we start by taking the cube root of both x³ and 8 ³ x³=x ³ 8=2 We now put our terms in the following set up: (x³-a³)=(x-a)(x²+ax+a²) So, for our example we would have: (x³-8)=(x²+2x+4) If we were to have been given (x³+8), our answer would have been in the following set up: (x³+a³)=(x+a)(x²-ax+a²) Giving us the answer (x³+8)=(x+2)(x²-2x+4) General Forms: (x³-a³)=(x-a)(x²+ax+a²) (x³+a³)=(x+a)(x²-ax+a²) For a video on this, please reference

10 COMPLETING THE SQUARE This method can be used in most instances; however it is a bit more laborious. Let s look at an example: Factor by completing the square: x²-6x+3 This equation cannot be factored using the FOIL factoring method, difference of two squares methods, or the difference/sum of two cubes method. We first need to set up our equation. We start by writing: (x²-6x+ )+3-. For these blanks, we need to take our second term (6 in this case) and divide it by two, square it, and then place that value in the blanks. (6/2)²=3²=9 *Note: Since we re adding the value on the inside, we must subtract the value on the outside to keep the equation equal. Now we are ready to factor by completing the square: (x²-6x+9)+3-9=(x²-6x+9)-6 Now, the part in the parentheses (in this case x²-6x+9) is factorable and will always be a perfect square. (x²-6x+9)=(x-3)(x-3)=(x-3)² We can replace (x²-6x+9) by (x-3)² in our equation. Therefore: x²-6x+3=(x-3)²-6 A general form of this is: x²+bx+c=(x-!! )²+c-(!! )² For a video on this, please reference

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