Fluid Mechanics: Static s Kinematics Dynamics Fluid


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1 Fluid Mechanics: Fluid mechanics may be defined as that branch of engineering science that deals with the behavior of fluid under the condition of rest and motion Fluid mechanics may be divided into three parts: Static s, Kinematics, and Dynamics Static s Deals with fluid at rest in equilibrium state, no force no acceleration Kinematics Deals With flow behaviors of fluid like velocity, acceleration and flow patterns. Dynamics Deals with the effects of flow behaviors on fluid surroundings like forces and momentum exchange Fluid may be defined as a substance which deforms continuously (flows) when subjected to shearing forces, or A fluid is a substance which capable of flowing A fluid has no definite shape unless it is supported (conforms to the shape of the containing vessel)
2 Unit1: Fluid properties The matter or substance is classified on the bases of the spacing between the molecules of the matter as follows: In solids, the molecules are very closely spacing and then intermolecules cohesive forces is quite large, and then groups compact and rigid form. Whereas in liquids these spacing are relatively large, and then less intermolecules cohesive forces between them, and then can move freely, but it still has a definite volume (no definite shape, has free interface). While these forces is extremely small in gasses, and then have greater freedom of movement so that the gas fill the container completely in which they are placed( no definite volume, no definite shape, no free interface). General fluid (liquid) properties: 1. Density: the density (also known as mass density or specific mass) of a liquid defined as the mass per unit volume at a standard temperature and pressure. It is usually denoted by Latin character ρ (rho). Its unit are Kg/m 3
3 2. Weight Density: (also known as specific weight) is defined as the weight per unit volume at the standard temperature and pressure, it is usually denoted as γ. its unit are N/m 3. W m. g γ = = = ρ. g V V Where g gravitational acceleration=9.81 m/s 2 γ of water = 9810 N/m 3 at 4 o C and 1 Bar 3. Specific Volume: It is defined as a volume per unit mass of fluid, It is denoted by ν Its unit are m 3 /Kg. V 1 = = m ν ρ 4. Specific Gravity: It is defined as the ratio of the specific weight of the fluid to the specific weight of a standard fluid For liquids the standard fluid is pure water at 4 o C, and denoted by Sg γ liquid Sg = γ water For Gasses the standard fluid is air Example: Calculate the Specific weight, specific mass, specific volume and specific gravity of a liquid having a volume of 6m 3 and weight of 44 kn. Solution: W=44 kn V= 6 m3 Specific weight, γ: Specific mass or density, ρ: Specific volume, v: Specific gravity, Sg:
4 5. Viscosity: it is a property of a real fluid (an ideal fluid has no viscosity) which determine its resistance to shearing stresses. It is primarily due to cohesion, adhesion and molecular momentum exchange between fluid layers. 1  For solids, shear stress depends on magnitude of angular deformation (τ ~ angular deformation) of angular deformation (τ ~ du/dy) 2 For many fluids shear stress is proportional to the time rate When tow layer of fluid at the distance of δy apart, move one over the other at different velocities, say u and u+δu, the viscosity together with relative velocity causes shear stress acting between layers. With respect to the distance between these two layers δy, the shear stress, τ, this becomes a relation between shear strain rate and velocity gradient:
5 du τ α dy Newton s law of viscosity: the shear stresses on a fluid element layers is directly proportional to the velocity gradient (rate of shear strain). The constant of proportionality is called the coefficient of viscosity( absolute viscosity, dynamic viscosity, or simply viscosity) and denoted as µ (mu). du τ α dy i.e. Coefficient of Dynamic Viscosity: Units: (N s/m 2 )or (Pa s) or (kg/m s) The unit Poise (p) is also used where 10 P = 1 Pa s Water µ = Pa s Mercury µ = Pa s Olive oil µ =.081 Pa s Pitch µ = Pa s Honey µ = Pa s Ketchup µ = Pa s (nonnewtonian) Kinematic Viscosity, υ is the ratio of dynamic viscosity to mass density Units m 2 /s and Called kinematic viscosity because it involves no force (dynamic) dimensions. The unit Stoke (St) is also used where 1 St = 104 m 2 /s (1 St=cm 2 /s) For Water υ = m 2 /s. For Air υ = m 2 /s.
6 The fluid is nonnewtonian if the relation between shear stress and shear strain rate is nonlinear. Typically, as temperature increases, the viscosity will decrease for a liquid, but will increase for a gas.
7 6. Surface Tension: Surface tension is a property of liquids which is making what is like a thin tensioned membrane at the interface between the liquid and another fluid (typically a gas). Surface tension has dimensions of force per unit length and denoted as, σ (Sigma), and its unit is N/m. Surface tension is a properties of certain fluidfluid interface WaterAir.. σ =0.075 N/m at 20 o C WaterAir. σ = N/m at 100 o C MercuryAir σ = 0.1 N/m 2(2πRσ) =(π R 2 ) P bubble P bubble=8σ/d
8 Pressure inside water droplet: let P= The pressure inside the drop d= Diameter of droplet σ= Surface tension of the liquid (waterair interface) From sectional free body diagram of water droplet we have 1. P between inside and outside = P0 =P 2. Pressure force = 3. Surface tension force acting around the circumference=, under equilibrium condition these two forces will be equal and opposite, i.e. Example: From this equation we show that (with an increase in size of droplet the pressure intensity is decreases) If the surface tension of waterair interface is N/m, what is the pressure inside the water droplet of diameter mm? Given d= mm; σ= N/m The water droplet has only one surface, hence,
9 Surface Tension Capillary Property of exerting forces on fluids by fin tubes and porous media, due to both cohesion and adhesion If Cohesion < adhesion, liquid wets solid, rises at point of contact(then φ is less than 90 0 ) as in water. If Cohesion > adhesion, liquid surface depresses at point of contact, nonwetting fluid(then φ is more than 90 0 ) as in mercury. The contact angle is defined as the angle between the liquid and solid surface Meniscus: curved liquid surface that develops in a tube, Weight of fluid column = Surface tension pulling force Expression above calculates the approximate capillary rise in a small tube. The meniscus lifts a small amount of liquid near the tube walls, as r increases this amount may become insignificant. Thus, the equation developed overestimates the amount of capillary rise or depression, particularly for large r. For a clean tube, = 0 o for water, = 140 o for mercury. For r > ¼ in (6 mm), capillarity is negligible. Its effects are negligible in most engineering situations. Important in problems involving capillary rise, e.g., soil water zone, water supply to plants. When small tubes are used for measuring properties, e.g., pressure account must be made for capillarity.
10 Example: A clean tube of diameter 2.5 mm is immersed in a liquid with a coefficient of surface tension = 0.4 N/m. The angle of contact of the liquid with the clean glass can be assumed to be 135 o. the density of the liquid= kg/m 3. What would be the level of the liquid in tube relative to free surface of the liquid inside the tube? Solution: Given d= 2.5 mm, σ= 4 N/m, = 135 o ; ρ = kg/m 3 Level of the liquid in the tube, h: Negative sign indicates that there is a capillary depression (fall) of 3.39 mm. Example: Derive an expression for the capillary height change h, for a fluid of surface tension σ and contact angle between two parallel plates W apart. Evaluate h for water at 20 C (σ= N/m) if W = 0.5 mm. Solution: With (b)the width of the plates into the paper, the capillary forces on each wall together balance the weight of water held above the reservoir free surface:
11 for water at 20 C (σ= N/m, ) and W = 0.5 mm.
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