# A drop forms when liquid is forced out of a small tube. The shape of the drop is determined by a balance of pressure, gravity, and surface tension

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1 A drop forms when liquid is forced out of a small tube. The shape of the drop is determined by a balance of pressure, gravity, and surface tension forces. 2

2 Objectives Have a working knowledge of the basic properties of fluids and understand the continuum approximation. Have a working knowledge of viscosity and the consequences of the frictional effects it causes in fluid flow. Calculate the capillary rise (or drop) in tubes due to the surface tension effect. 3

3 2 1 INTRODUCTION Property: Any characteristic of a system. Some familiar properties are pressure P, temperature T, volume V, and mass m. Properties are considered to be either intensive or extensive. Intensive properties: Those that are independent of the mass of a system, such as temperature, pressure, and density. Extensive properties: Those whose values depend on the size or extent of the system. Specific properties: Extensive properties per unit mass. Criterion to differentiate intensive and extensive properties. 4

4 Continuum Matter is made up of atoms that are widely spaced in the gas phase. Yet it is very convenient to disregard the atomic nature of a substance and view it as a continuous, homogeneous matter with no holes, that is, a continuum. The continuum idealization allows us to treat properties as point functions and to assume the properties vary continually in space with no jump discontinuities. This idealization is valid as long as the size of the system we deal with is large relative to the space between the molecules. This is the case in practically all problems. In this text we will limit our consideration to substances that can be modeled as a continuum. Despite the relatively large gaps between molecules, a substance can be treated as a continuum because of the very large number of molecules even in an extremely small volume. 5

5 2 2 DENSITY AND SPECIFIC GRAVITY Density Specific volume Specific gravity: The ratio of the density of a substance to the density of some standard substance at a specified temperature (usually water at 4 C). Specific weight: The weight of a unit volume of a substance. Density is mass per unit volume; specific volume is volume per unit mass. 7

6 Density of Ideal Gases Equation of state: Any equation that relates the pressure, temperature, and density (or specific volume) of a substance. Ideal-gas equation of state: The simplest and best-known equation of state for substances in the gas phase. R u : The universal gas constant The thermodynamic temperature scale in the SI is the Kelvin scale. In the English system, it is the Rankine scale. 8

7 Air behaves as an ideal gas, even at very high speeds. In this schlieren image, a bullet traveling at about the speed of sound bursts through both sides of a balloon, forming two expanding shock waves. The turbulent wake of the bullet is also visible. An ideal gas is a hypothetical substance that obeys the relation Pv = RT. The ideal-gas relation closely approximates the P-v-T behavior of real gases at low densities. At low pressures and high temperatures, the density of a gas decreases and the gas behaves like an ideal gas. In the range of practical interest, many familiar gases such as air, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, helium, argon, neon, and krypton and even heavier gases such as carbon dioxide can be treated as ideal gases with negligible error. Dense gases such as water vapor in steam power plants and refrigerant vapor in refrigerators, however, should not be treated as ideal gases since they usually exist at a state near saturation. 9

8 2 3 VAPOR PRESSURE AND CAVITATION Saturation temperature T sat : The temperature at which a pure substance changes phase at a given pressure. Saturation pressure P sat : The pressure at which a pure substance changes phase at a given temperature. Vapor pressure (P v ): The pressure exerted by its vapor in phase equilibrium with its liquid at a given temperature. It is identical to the saturation pressure P sat of the liquid (P v =P sat ). Partial pressure: The pressure of a gas or vapor in a mixture with other gases. For example, atmospheric air is a mixture of dry air and water vapor, and atmospheric pressure is the sum of the partial pressure of dry air and the partial pressure of water vapor. 11

9 The vapor pressure (saturation pressure) of a pure substance (e.g., water) is the pressure exerted by its vapor molecules when the system is in phase equilibrium with its liquid molecules at a given temperature. 12

10 There is a possibility of the liquid pressure in liquid-flow systems dropping below the vapor pressure at some locations, and the resulting unplanned vaporization. The vapor bubbles (called cavitation bubbles since they form cavities in the liquid) collapse as they are swept away from the low-pressure regions, generating highly destructive, extremely high-pressure waves. This phenomenon, which is a common cause for drop in performance and even the erosion of impeller blades, is called cavitation, and it is an important consideration in the design of hydraulic turbines and pumps. Cavitation damage on a 16-mm by 23-mm aluminum sample tested at 60 m/s for 2.5 h. The sample was located at the cavity collapse region downstream of a cavity generator specifically designed to produce high damage potential. 13

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12 2 4 ENERGY AND SPECIFIC HEATS Energy can exist in numerous forms such as thermal, mechanical, kinetic, potential, electric, magnetic, chemical, and nuclear, and their sum constitutes the total energy, E of a system. Thermodynamics deals only with the change of the total energy. Macroscopic forms of energy: Those a system possesses as a whole with respect to some outside reference frame, such as kinetic and potential energies. Microscopic forms of energy: Those related to the molecular structure of a system and the degree of the molecular activity. Internal energy, U: The sum of all the microscopic forms of energy. Kinetic energy, KE: The energy that a system possesses as a result of its motion relative to some reference frame. Potential energy, PE: The energy that a system possesses as a result of its elevation in a gravitational field. The macroscopic energy of an object changes with velocity and elevation. 15

13 Enthalpy Energy of a flowing fluid P/ is the flow energy, also called the flow work, which is the energy per unit mass needed to move the fluid and maintain flow. for a P = const. process For a T = const. process The internal energy u represents the microscopic energy of a nonflowing fluid per unit mass, whereas enthalpy h represents the microscopic energy of a flowing fluid per unit mass. 16

14 Specific Heats Specific heat at constant volume, c v : The energy required to raise the temperature of the unit mass of a substance by one degree as the volume is maintained constant. Specific heat at constant pressure, c p : The energy required to raise the temperature of the unit mass of a substance by one degree as the pressure is maintained constant. Specific heat is the energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of a substance by one degree in a specified way. Constantvolume and constantpressure specific heats c v and c p (values are for helium gas). 17

15 2 5 COMPRESSIBILITY AND SPEED OF SOUND Coefficient of Compressibility We know from experience that the volume (or density) of a fluid changes with a change in its temperature or pressure. Fluids usually expand as they are heated or depressurized and contract as they are cooled or pressurized. But the amount of volume change is different for different fluids, and we need to define properties that relate volume changes to the changes in pressure and temperature. Two such properties are: the bulk modulus of elasticity the coefficient of volume expansion. Fluids, like solids, compress when the applied pressure is 18 increased from P 1 to P 2.

16 Coefficient of compressibility (also called the bulk modulus of compressibility or bulk modulus of elasticity) for fluids The coefficient of compressibility represents the change in pressure corresponding to a fractional change in volume or density of the fluid while the temperature remains constant. What is the coefficient of compressibility of a truly incompressible substance (v = constant)? A large value of indicates that a large change in pressure is needed to cause a small fractional change in volume, and thus a fluid with a large is essentially incompressible. This is typical for liquids, and explains why liquids are usually considered to be incompressible. 19

17 Water hammer: Characterized by a sound that resembles the sound produced when a pipe is hammered. This occurs when a liquid in a piping network encounters an abrupt flow restriction (such as a closing valve) and is locally compressed. The acoustic waves that are produced strike the pipe surfaces, bends, and valves as they propagate and reflect along the pipe, causing the pipe to vibrate and produce the familiar sound. Water hammering can be quite destructive, leading to leaks or even structural damage. The effect can be suppressed with a water hammer arrestor. Water hammer arrestors: (a) A large surge tower built to protect the pipeline against water hammer damage. (b) Much smaller arrestors used for supplying water to a household 20 washing machine.

18 The coefficient of compressibility of an ideal gas is equal to its absolute pressure, and the coefficient of compressibility of the gas increases with increasing pressure. The percent increase of density of an ideal gas during isothermal compression is equal to the percent increase in pressure. Isothermal compressibility: The inverse of the coefficient of compressibility. The isothermal compressibility of a fluid represents the fractional change in volume or density corresponding to a unit change in pressure. 21

19 Coefficient of Volume Expansion The density of a fluid depends more strongly on temperature than it does on pressure. The variation of density with temperature is responsible for numerous natural phenomena such as winds, currents in oceans, rise of plumes in chimneys, the operation of hot-air balloons, heat transfer by natural convection, and even the rise of hot air and thus the phrase heat rises. To quantify these effects, we need a property that represents the variation of the density of a fluid with temperature at constant pressure. Natural convection over a woman s hand. 22

20 The coefficient of volume expansion (or volume expansivity): The variation of the density of a fluid with temperature at constant pressure. A large value of for a fluid means a large change in density with temperature, and the product T represents the fraction of volume change of a fluid that corresponds to a temperature change of T at constant pressure. The volume expansion coefficient of an ideal gas (P = RT ) at a temperature T is equivalent to the inverse of the temperature: The coefficient of volume expansion is a measure of the change in volume of a substance with temperature at constant pressure. 23

21 In the study of natural convection currents, the condition of the main fluid body that surrounds the finite hot or cold regions is indicated by the subscript infinity to serve as a reminder that this is the value at a distance where the presence of the hot or cold region is not felt. In such cases, the volume expansion coefficient can be expressed approximately as The combined effects of pressure and temperature changes on the volume change of a fluid can be determined by taking the specific volume to be a function of T and P. The fractional change in volume (or density) due to changes in pressure and temperature can be expressed approximately as 24

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24 The variation of the coefficient of volume expansion of water with temperature in the range of 20 C to 50 C. 27

25 Speed of Sound and Mach Number Speed of sound (sonic speed): The speed at which an infinitesimally small pressure wave travels through a medium. Control volume moving with the small pressure wave along a duct. For any fluid For an ideal gas Propagation of a small pressure wave along a duct. 28

26 Mach number Ma: The ratio of the actual speed of the fluid (or an object in still fluid) to the speed of sound in the same fluid at the same state. The Mach number depends on the speed of sound, which depends on the state of the fluid. The speed of sound changes with temperature and varies with the fluid. The Mach number can be different at different temperatures even if the flight speed is the same. 29

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28 2 6 VISCOSITY Viscosity: A property that represents the internal resistance of a fluid to motion or the fluidity. Drag force: The force a flowing fluid exerts on a body in the flow direction. The magnitude of this force depends, in part, on viscosity The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its resistance to deformation. Viscosity is due to the internal frictional force that develops between different layers of fluids as they are forced to move relative to each other. A fluid moving relative to a body exerts a drag force on the body, partly because of friction caused by viscosity. 31

29 Newtonian fluids: Fluids for which the rate of deformation is proportional to the shear stress. Shear stress The behavior of a fluid in laminar flow between two parallel plates when the upper plate moves with a constant velocity. Shear force coefficient of viscosity Dynamic (absolute) viscosity kg/m s or N s/m 2 or Pa s 1 poise = 0.1 Pa s 32

30 The rate of deformation (velocity gradient) of a Newtonian fluid is proportional to shear stress, and the constant of proportionality is the viscosity. Variation of shear stress with the rate of deformation for Newtonian and non-newtonian fluids (the slope of a curve at a point is the apparent viscosity of the fluid at that point). 33

31 Kinematic viscosity m 2 /s or stoke 1 stoke = 1 cm 2 /s For liquids, both the dynamic and kinematic viscosities are practically independent of pressure, and any small variation with pressure is usually disregarded, except at extremely high pressures. For gases, this is also the case for dynamic viscosity (at low to moderate pressures), but not for kinematic viscosity since the density of a gas is proportional to its pressure. For gases: Dynamic viscosity, in general, does not depend on pressure, but kinematic viscosity does. For liquids 34

32 The viscosity of liquids decreases and the viscosity of gases increases with temperature. The viscosity of a fluid is directly related to the pumping power needed to transport a fluid in a pipe or to move a body through a fluid. Viscosity is caused by the cohesive forces between the molecules in liquids and by the molecular collisions in gases, and it varies greatly with temperature. In a liquid, the molecules possess more energy at higher temperatures, and they can oppose the large cohesive intermolecular forces more strongly. As a result, the energized liquid molecules can move more freely. In a gas, the intermolecular forces are negligible, and the gas molecules at high temperatures move randomly at higher velocities. This results in more molecular collisions per unit volume per unit time and therefore in greater resistance to flow. 35

33 The variation of dynamic (absolute) viscosity of common fluids with temperature at 1 atm (1 N s/m 2 = 1kg/m s = lbf s/ft 2 ) 36

34 The variation of dynamic (absolute) viscosity of common fluids with temperature at 1 atm (1 N s/m 2 = 1 kg/m s = lbf s/ft 2 ). 37

35 L length of the cylinder number of revolutions per unit time This equation can be used to calculate the viscosity of a fluid by measuring torque at a specified angular velocity. Therefore, two concentric cylinders can be used as a viscometer, a device that measures viscosity. 38

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37 2 7 SURFACE TENSION AND CAPILLARY EFFECT Liquid droplets behave like small balloons filled with the liquid on a solid surface, and the surface of the liquid acts like a stretched elastic membrane under tension. The pulling force that causes this tension acts parallel to the surface and is due to the attractive forces between the molecules of the liquid. The magnitude of this force per unit length is called surface tension (or coefficient of surface tension) and is usually expressed in the unit N/m. This effect is also called surface energy [per unit area] and is expressed in the equivalent unit of N m/m 2. Some consequences of surface tension. 40

38 Attractive forces acting on a liquid molecule at the surface and deep inside the liquid. Stretching a liquid film with a U- shaped wire, and the forces acting on the movable wire of length b. Surface tension: The work done per unit increase in the surface area of the liquid. 41

39 The free-body diagram of half a droplet or air bubble and half a soap bubble. 42

40 Capillary effect: The rise or fall of a liquid in a small-diameter tube inserted into the liquid. Capillaries: Such narrow tubes or confined flow channels. The capillary effect is partially responsible for the rise of water to the top of tall trees. Meniscus: The curved free surface of a liquid in a capillary tube. The strength of the capillary effect is quantified by the contact (or wetting) angle, defined as the angle that the tangent to the liquid surface makes with the solid surface at the point of contact. Capillary Effect The contact angle for wetting and nonwetting fluids. The meniscus of colored water in a 4-mm-inner-diameter glass tube. Note that the edge of the meniscus meets the wall of the capillary tube at a very small contact angle. 43

41 The capillary rise of water and the capillary fall of mercury in a smalldiameter glass tube. The forces acting on a liquid column that has risen in a tube due to the capillary effect. Capillary rise is inversely proportional to the radius of the tube and density of the liquid. 44

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45 Summary Introduction Continuum Density and Specific Gravity Density of Ideal Gases Vapor Pressure and Cavitation Energy and Specific Heats Compressibility and Speed of Sound Coefficient of Compressibility Coefficient of Volume Expansion Speed of Sound and Mach Number Viscosity Surface Tension and Capillary Effect 48

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