# FREESTUDY HEAT TRANSFER TUTORIAL 3 ADVANCED STUDIES

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1 FREESTUDY HEAT TRANSFER TUTORIAL ADVANCED STUDIES This is the third tutorial in the series on heat transfer and covers some of the advanced theory of convection. The tutorials are designed to bring the student to a level where he or she can solve problems involving practical heat exchangers. On completion of this tutorial the student should be able to do the following. Explain the logarithmic mean temperature difference. Describe the basic designs of heat exchangers. Parallel, Counter and Cross Flow Heat Exchangers. Explain the use of the overall heat transfer coefficient. Explain the factors involved in heat transfer. Apply dimensional analysis to heat transfer. Solve heat transfer problems for heat exchangers. INTRODUCTION Most heat exchanges mae use of forced convection. Heat exchangers use a variety of surfaces a typical one being a tube with fins. The effectiveness of the heat exchanger depends on many things such as the following. The shape of the surface. The texture of the surface. The orientation to the direction of flow. The properties of the fluids. Advanced studies involving thermodynamics and fluid mechanics have led to formulae for calculating the surface heat transfer coefficients for a variety of circumstances. This tutorial does not give the derivation in full of these and attempts to give the student an insight into the methods used. Students will find wored examples showing how to apply some of these formulae. Many heat exchangers tae the form of tubes with a fluid on both sides. The formulae used in tutorials and needs modifying to tae account of the temperature change as the fluids travel through the heat exchangers. (c) D.J.Dunn

2 HEAT TRANSFER THROUGH A LONG TUBE Consider a hot fluid (A) flowing through a long tube exchanging heat with a cooler fluid (B) flowing in a parallel direction on the outside of the tube. As the fluids flow from inlet to outlet, fluid (A) cools and fluid (B) is heated. The net heat exchange is Φ. The temperature of the two fluids varies with the surface area or path length as shown. Consider a short length with surface area da. The temperature difference at any point is:- T = T B T A. The heat exchange is dφ over this small area. The heat lost or gained by a fluid over the small length is given by dφ = mc p dt m is the mass flow rate and c p the specific heat capacity and this is assumed to be constant in this wor. dt is the change in temperature over the path length. dφ Heat lost by fluid A dφ = m A c pa dt A dt A = m c dφ Heat gained by fluid B dφ = m B c pb dt B dt B = mbcpb dφ dφ d ( ) ( T) dt B + dta = d T = + dφ =...(i) mbcpb macpa + mbcpb macpa To Ti Integrate between the outlet and inlet and Φ =...(ii) + m c m c Now consider the change in the temperature difference over the short path length. In terms of the overall heat transfer coefficient dφ = U da T...(iii) Equate (i) and (iii) d( T) d( T) d Φ = U da T = U + da = m c m c T + B pb A pa mbcpb macpa B A pb pa A pa (c) D.J.Dunn

3 Integrating over the whole path U mbc pb + m c A pa To A = ln Ti To ln T i + =...(iv) mbcpb mac pa U A U A( To Ti ) Substitute (iv) into (ii) Φ = To ln Ti For the whole system we may use Φ = U A T m where T m is a mean temperature difference. ( To Ti ) Comparing it is apparent that T m = To ln Ti This is called the logarithmic mean temperature difference. If we did the same analysis for the fluids flowing in opposite directions, we would get the same result. Next let s discuss the basic types of heat exchangers. PARALLEL FLOW HEAT EXCHANGERS The fluid being heated and the fluid being cooled flow in the same parallel direction as shown. The heat is convected to the wall of the tube, then conducted to the other side and then convected to the other fluid. If the tube wall is thin, the heat transfer rate is To Ti Φ = UA T o ln Ti A is the surface are of the tubes. The diagram shows typically how the temperature of the two fluids varies with the path length. Fluid B gets hotter and fluid A gets cooler so the temperature difference is greatest at inlet. COUNTER FLOW The fluids flow in opposite but parallel directions as shown. The temperature of the fluid being heated can be raised to near the inlet temperature of the fluid being cooled. This is important for exchangers that heat up air for combustion such as the exhaust gas heat exchangers on gas turbines. For a given heat transfer the surface area is less. The heat transfer formula is the same. (c) D.J.Dunn

4 CROSS FLOW The fluids flow at right angles to each other as shown. This design is often the result of the plant layout and is common in industrial boilers where the hot gasses flow in a path normal to the water and steam. (superheaters, recuperators and economisers). The tubes are often finned to improve the efficiency. Sooty deposits on the outside are more liely to be dislodged in this configuration. Large steam condensers also use this style. WORKED EXAMPLE No. An exhaust pipe is 75 mm diameter and it is cooled by surrounding it with a water jacet. The exhaust gas enters at 50 o C and the water enters at 0 o C. The surface heat transfer coefficients for the gas and water are 00 and 500 W/m K respectively. The wall is thin so the temperature drop due to conduction is negligible. The gasses have a mean specific heat capacity c p of 0 J/g K and they must be cooled to 00 o C. The specific heat capacity of the water is 490 J/g K. The flow rate of the gas and water is 00 and 400 g/h respectively. Calculate the required length of pipe for (a) parallel flow and (b) contra flow. SOLUTION Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient is U where If the wall is very thin so x 0 = + = + = 4 U = 0.5 U h h 0..5 PARALLEL FLOW Heat lost by the gas is Φ = mc p T = 00 x. (50 00) Φ = J/h Heat Gained by water Φ = = mc p T = 400 x 4.9 x (θ 0) θ = 9.6 o C T i = 40 K T o = 80.4 K To Ti Φ = UA = W T 600 o ln T i A = 0.5A = = 45A A = 0.49 m ln 40 A = πdl L = 0.49/(π x 0.075) =.48 m g w U = h g + h w + x (c) D.J.Dunn 4

5 CONTRA FLOW T i = 0.4 K T o = 90 K To Ti Φ = = UA To ln Ti = 0.5A 90 ln 0.4 A = 0.4 m 60.A = = 46.A. A = πdl L = 0.4/(π x 0.075) =.44 m (c) D.J.Dunn 5

6 DERIVATION AND CALCULATION OF HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS In the introduction it was stated that the surface heat transfer coefficients depend on many things such as shape and orientation of the surface, the velocity of the fluid and the properties of the fluid. The fluid properties also depend on the temperature. The velocity of the fluid is a major consideration and this varies with distance from the surface in the boundary layer and distance from the leading edge. All these factors are involved when deriving formula from basic principles. Perhaps the best place to start is with boundary layers. BOUNDARY LAYER - LAMINAR AND TURBULENT When a fluid flows over a surface, the velocity grows from zero at the surface to a maximum at distance δ. In theory, the value of δ is infinity but in practice it is taen as the height needed to obtain 99% of the mainstream velocity and this is very small. The boundary layer is important for the following reason. When a fluid is convecting heat to or from a solid surface, the heat transfer close to the surface is by conduction through the boundary layer. Outside the boundary layer the temperature is the bul temperature of the fluid but inside it decreases to the surface temperature. The diagram shows how the temperature varies from the hot fluid on one side to cold fluid on the other. There is a boundary layer on both sides. Consider the hot side only. The heat transfer using the conduction law from the bul fluid at θ h to the surface at θ is Φ = (/δ)a( θ h - θ ) The heat transfer using the convection law is Φ = ha( θ h - θ ) Equating to find h we have h = /δ So the surface heat transfer depends on the thicness of the boundary layer and the thermal conductivity of the fluid. The boundary layer thicness depends on several factors such as the velocity and distance from the leading edge maing the calculation of h a lot less simple than implied above. The boundary layer shape is discussed next. There are many theories and formulae that describe the shape of the boundary and this is covered in the tutorials on fluid mechanics. The following is a summary. δ dp u o When the flow is laminar the boundary layer is a curve following precise law u = y + µ dl δ When the flow is turbulent, the shape of the boundary layers waivers and the mean shape is usually shown. Comparing a laminar and turbulent boundary layer reveals that the turbulent layer is thinner than the laminar layer. (c) D.J.Dunn 6

7 When laminar flow occurs in a round pipe the boundary layer grows in three dimensions from the wall and meets at the middle. The velocity u in a pipe of radius R at any radius r is given by p u = ( R r ) p is the pressure drop. 4 µ L There are many formulae and theories for the shape of the boundary layer such as that given by Prandtl. u = u(y/δ) /7 This law fits the turbulent case well for Reynolds numbers below 07: FORMATION OF BOUNDARY LAYER When a fluid first encounters a solid surface, the boundary layer grows with distance until it becomes fully formed. Eventually it changes from laminar to turbulent. This also affects the heat transfer. DIMENSIONLESS GROUPS One of the best ways to analyse how all the factors come together is the use of dimensional analysis and the dimensionless groups that they form. Those required to study this topic should refer to the section on fluid dynamics. A dimensionless group is a combination of variables that have no overall dimensions when grouped in a certain pattern and when evaluated yields a number with no units. LIST OF VARIABLES THAT AFFECT HEAT TRANSFER Dynamic viscosity µ Kinematic viscosity ν = µ /ρ Density ρ Thermal conductivity Specific heat capacity c p Temperature θ Mean velocity u o Characteristic length l or diameter D or distance from leading edge x. Coefficient of cubical expansion β There are many dimensionless groups for heat transfer and a summary is given next. (c) D.J.Dunn 7

8 Here is a summary of the groups that occur. ρu o D u od ρu o x u ox REYNOLDS NUMBER Red = = or Rex = = µ ν µ ν This group occurs in studies of fluid friction and is widely used in determining whether the flow is laminar or turbulent. It may be based on pipe diameter D or distance from the edge of a surface x. hx NUSSELT NUMBER Nux = This group is very important for convection. The solution of h often depends on evaluating Nux first. cpµ PRANDTL NUMBER Pr = This is a group that relates some of the thermal properties. βgρ x θ GRASHOF NUMBER Grx = µ This is a group is important in convection because it determines how the buoyancy of the fluid is affected by temperature. STANTON NUMBER St = h ρ u c p = Nu Re Pr The following demonstrates that Nu = φpr Re DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS Tutorials on dimensional analysis may be found in the section on fluid mechanics. The following is the application of this method to heat transfer. There are many dimensionless groups for heat transfer. A dimensionless group is a combination of variables that have no overall dimension when grouped in a certain pattern and when evaluated yields a number with no units. The surface heat transfer coefficient h is a function of the following variables. Dynamic viscosity µ, density ρ, thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity c, temperature θ, mean velocity u and Characteristic length l The solution to this problem is much easier if we use energy E as a base unit. The dimensions used here are: Length L Mass M Time T Temperature θ Energy E First convert the units into dimensions. h Watts/m K Energy/s m K E/(T L θ) µ g/m s M/(LT) ρ g/m M/L Watts/m K Energy/s m K E/(T L θ) c J/g K E/(M θ) θ K θ u m/s L/T l m L (c) D.J.Dunn 8

9 The general relationship is This may be represented as a power series h = φ(µ,ρ,,c,θ,u,l) h = constant µ a ρ b c c d θ e u f l g There are 8 quantities and 5 dimensions so there will be 8 5 = dimensionless groups. The solution is easier if told in advance that we solve a, b, c,e and g in terms of d and f Put in the dimensions. Any not present are implied index 0 ET - L - θ - M 0 = constant (ML - T - ) a (ML - ) b (ET - L - θ - ) c (EM - θ - ) d θ e (LT - ) f L g Equate dimensions on left and right of equality. Energy = c + d c = d Mass 0 = a + b d Hence b = d - a or a = d - b Length - = -a - b - c + f + g substitute to get rid of b and c - = -a (d - a) ( - d) + f + g - = -a d + a + d + f + g - = a d + f + g Temperature - = -c d + e substitute for c - = -(- d) - d + e Hence e = 0 Time - = -a - c - f substitute for c and a - = -( d - b) ( - d) f hence b = f Now finish with a = d - b = d - f From - = a d + f + g substitute for unnowns - = (d - f) d + f + g - = d - f d + f + g - = - f + g g = f - Next form the groups by substituting the indices into h = constant µ a ρ b c c d θ e u f l g h = constant µ d-f ρ f -d c d θ 0 u f l f- d f µ c ρ u l h l µ c ρ u l h = const = const l µ µ Nu = h l/ Pr =cµ/ Re = ρ u l/µ = u l/ν The Prandtl number is a function of fluid properties only and so may be looed up in tables at the appropriate temperature. d f (c) D.J.Dunn 9

10 SOME STANDARD CASES Studies of fluids and boundary layers have led to formulae for the surface heat transfer coefficient under specified conditions. In the following you need to be conversant with tables of fluid properties in order to loo them up. Here are some of the better nown formulae. NATURAL CONVECTION WITH A VERTICAL SURFACE ( Pr) ( Pr ) ) 4 ( Grx)4 Nux = This has an approximate solution of h =.4 ( T/D) /4 when Gr is in the range 0 4 to 0 9 and h = 0.9 ( T/D) /4 when Gr is in the range 0 9 to 0 FORCED CONVECTION OVER A HORIZONTAL SURFACE Nu = 0. Pr / Re / (Ta/Ts) 0.7 TURBULENT FLOW THROUGH A PIPE (Dittus-Boelter Equation) Nud = 0.0 Re 0.8 Pr 0.4 NATURAL CONVECTION FROM A HORIZONTAL CYLINDER Nu = 0.57Pr + This has an approximate solution of h =.( T/D) /4 4 - ( Pr 0.95) Gr 4 WORKED EXAMPLE No. Air at 88 K and bul velocity 6 m/s flows over a flat horizontal plate with a temperature of 8 K at all points on its surface. Given that Nu = 0. Pr / Re / (Ta/Ts) 0.7 Calculate the heat transfer rate from both sides over the first 50 mm. Ta is the bul air temperature and Ts is the surface temperature. The fluid properties should be obtained at the mean temperature. SOLUTION Nu = 0. Pr / Re / (Tw/Ts) 0.7 Mean temperature is (88 + 8)/ = K From fluids tables Pr = 0.68 υ = 4.55 x 0-5 m /s Re = v l/υ = 6 x 0.5/ 4.55 x 0-5 = 9.9 x 0 Nu = 0. Nu = Nu = h = ( 0.68) ( 0.9 x 0 ) l h l = 4.9 x0 = =.64 W/m K = 4.9 x 0 - W/m K Heat Transfer from one side = Φ = h A (Tw-Ts) =.64 x ( x 0.5) x (8-88) = W For the two sides double up. (c) D.J.Dunn 0

11 WORKED EXAMPLE No. Calculate the heat transfer to air at 5 o C by natural convection with a vertical surface 0.6 m tall and m wide maintained at 79 o C at all points. The Nusselt Number is given by Nux = ( Pr) ( Pr ) ) 4 ( Grx)4 β = coefficient of cubical expansion given by β = /T SOLUTION β = /T = /(7 + 5) = /88 Use the fluid tables for dry air at (5 o C) 88 K and atmospheric pressure Taing atmospheric pressure as.0 bar Gas constant R = 87 J/g K ρ = p/rt =.0 x 0 5 /(87 x 88) =.6 g/m This can be also be found in the tables. µ is the dynamic viscosity µ =.788 x 0-5 g/m s Pr = 0.69 Thermal conductivity =.5 x 0 - W/ m K Taing x as the height of the wall 9.8 x.6 (0.6) x 88 βgρx θ 88 9 Grashof Number Grx = = = x 0 5 µ.788 x 0 Nux = ( Pr) ( Pr ) ) 4 ( Grx)4 ( ) 9 ( 0.69) (.64) ) 4 ( x 0 ) = 5. 5 Nux = h x Nu = 5.5= -.5 x0 h = 5.5 = 5.5 = 5.9 W/m K x 0.6 This the value at height 0.6 m. We need the mean over the height and this is 4/ of the value h = (4/)5.9 = W/m K Heat Transfer from one side = Φ = h A (79-5) = x (0.6 x ) x (79-5) = 8 W WORKED EXAMPLE No.4 Dry saturated steam at 77 o C flows in a pipe with a bore of 50 mm with a mean velocity of 6 m/s. The pipe has a wall 7 mm thic and is covered with a layer of insulation 50 mm thic. The surrounding atmospheric air is at 7 o C. Calculate the heat transfer rate for m length. The Nusselt number is given by Nu = 0. Re 0.8 Pr 0.4 for pipe = 50 W/m K for insulation = 0.06 W/m K The surface heat transfer coefficient for a long horizontal cylinder is h =.( T/D) /4 (c) D.J.Dunn

12 SOLUTION From the fluids table for d.s.s. at 77 o C we find Pr =.4 and v g = 0. m /g µ = 4.88 x 0-6 g m/s = W/m K D = 0.5 m u = 6 m/s Re = u D/µ v g = 04 for pipe = 50 W/m K for insulation = 0.06 W/m K Nu = 0.0 Re 0.8 Pr 0.4 = 9.9 Nu = h D/ = h = 9.9 x /0.5 = 0.89 W/m K Heat transfer = Φ per metre length From steam to pipe Φ = h A T = h πd T = 0.89 π x 0.5 T = T Through the pipe wall Φ = π T/ln(D /D ) = π x 50 T/ln(64/50) = 5 T Through the insulation Φ = π T/ln(D /D ) = π x 0.06 T/ln(64/64) = 0.79 T From the outer surface h =. ( T/D) /4 =. ( T/0.64) /4 =.84( T) /4 Φ = h A T =.84( T) /4 π x 0.64 T =.58( T) 5/4 Because the surface temperature is unnown we need the heat transfer between the steam and the surface and the surface and the air. Steam to Surface Φ = U (77 T s ) = U (77 T s ) U is found from = + + =. 64 U = 0.7 U U Φ = 0.78(77 T s ) Surface to Air Φ =.57(T s 7) 5/4 Equate Φ = 0.7(77 T s ) =.57(T s 7) 5/4 Possibly the best way to solve this is by plotting 0.7(77 T s ) and.57(t s 7) 5/4 against temperature to find the temperature that maes them the same. This appears to be 45 o C Φ = 0.7(77 T s ) = 0.7(77 45) = 0.4 W Φ =.57(T s 7) 5/4 =.57(45 7) 5/4 = 0.8 W Say 0.6 W (c) D.J.Dunn

13 SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE No.. Air at 00 K and bul velocity 8 m/s flows over a flat horizontal plate with a temperature of 900 K at all points on its surface. Given that Nu = 0. Pr / Re / (Ta/Ts) 0.7 Calculate the heat transfer rate from one side over the first 00 mm and the first 00 mm.. Ta is the bul air temperature and Ts is the surface temperature. The fluid properties should be obtained at the mean temperature. (.6 W and.64 W). Calculate the heat transfer to air at o C by natural convection with a vertical surface m tall and m wide maintained at 0 o C at all points. The Nusselt Number is given by Nux = 0.509( Pr) ( Pr ) ) 4 ( Grx)4 β = coefficient of cubical expansion given by β = /T (676 W). Dry saturated steam at 5 bar flows in a pipe with a bore of 00 mm with a mean velocity of 4 m/s. The pipe has a wall 4 mm thic and is covered with a layer of insulation 60 mm thic. The surrounding atmosphere is at 0 o C. Calculate surface temperature of the lagging and the heat transfer rate for m length. The Nusselt number is given by Nu = 0.0 Re 0.8 Pr 0.4 for pipe = 55 W/m K for insulation = 0.08W/m K The surface heat transfer coefficient for a long horizontal cylinder is h =.( T/D) /4 (9. o C and 9 W ) (c) D.J.Dunn

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